Using the media to promote issues and change social norms related to disability Presentation Transcript
Disability, media and social welfare:Using the media to promote issues andchange social norms related to disability Arletty Pinel, MD Social Work and Public Health Interventions Entertainment Education course Inter University Centre Dubrovnik, Croatia 29 June 2010 email@example.com Twitter: @ArlettyVox
¡ "Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difﬁculty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. "¡ Thus disability is a complex phenomenon, reﬂecting an interaction between features of a personʼs body and features of the society in which he or she lives.""
An individual may also beconsidered disabled if:"¡ He/she has had an impairment in the past or is seen as disabled based on a personal or group standard or norm. "¡ Such impairments may include physical, sensory, and cognitive or developmental disabilities."¡ Mental disorders (also known as psychiatric or psychosocial disability) and various types of chronic diseases may also be considered disabilities."
"¡ Produced by the World Health Organization (WHO), distinguishes between body functions (physiological or psychological, e.g. vision) and body structures (anatomical parts, e.g. the eye and related structures). "¡ The introduction of ICF in demographic studies and censuses of persons with disabilities generated adjustments in available information resulting in less variation in estimates. However, data still has large discrepancies resulting from a a lack of methodology consistent with that proposed by ICF. "
¡ Learning and applying knowledge"¡ General tasks and demands"¡ Communication"¡ Mobility"¡ Self-care"¡ Domestic life"¡ Interpersonal interactions and relationships"¡ Major life areas"¡ Community, social and civic life"
Disability is the result of the interaction betweenpersons with different levels of functioning and anenvironment that does not take intoconsideration these differencesDisability = Functional limitation x Environment
Impact of the environment in the relationshipbetween disability and functionality FL 1 x E 0 = 0 Disability FL 5 x E 0 = 0 Disability FL 1 x E 1= 1 Disability FL 5 x E 5= 25 Disability FL: Functional Limitation E: Environment
Disability is part of everyone’s life’s cycle Beyond the typical areas of disability: physical, sensory and mental, people in general face disabling conditions in a society that is totally unprepared for dealing with diversity.
Disability in the life cycle...We have all faced or could face these situations!!
Disability in the life cycle¡ Increase in life expectancy doesn t prolong youth, rather old age and its natural consequences "¡ There are numerous forms of disability throughout the life cycle since we live in environments that are not ready to recognize and respond to the needs of human diversity "¡ There is an increase of functional limitations as we age (e.g., loss of sight & hearing, functional limitations) "¡ There is a large economic burden on individuals and their families due to costs of care and rehabilitation "
The same person may need a ramp for different reasons throughout life
10 = 650
10% of world’s population = 650 million people
80% of the more than 600 million personswith disabilities live in countries of the South
Poverty and disability¡ There is a vicious circle between poverty and disability "¡ Poor people has a higher risk of having a disability due to lack of access to good nutrition, health services, etc. Disability creates barriers to education, employment and public services that could help them come out of poverty"¡ The number of PwD will increase 120% in the next 30 years in countries of the South and approximately 40% in countries of the North "¡ In a context of low economic, human and social development, disability tends to be strongly associated to poverty"
15 to 20% of poorpeople in developing countries live in asituation of disability
Incidence is highest in countries in conflict or areas of natural disasters
The toll of war¡ Nearly eight million men in Europe returned from the World War I permanently disabled by injury or disease."¡ The number of disabled U.S. veterans has jumped by 25% since 2001 to 2.9 million."¡ After years of war in Afghanistan, there are more than one million disabled people (2004). This is one of the highest percentages anywhere in the world. "
UNIVERSAL/INCLUSIVE DESIGNMore characteristics that are more effective for more people in more situations”
7 new principles of UniversalDesign¡ Adaptation of body"¡ Comfort "¡ Knowledge "¡ Understanding"¡ Identity "¡ Social integration "¡ Cultural convenience"
Equal Opportunity To ensure a fair selection, everyone is going to do the same test – climb that tree.Functional Diversity Environment
Inclusive Development¡ Recognizes diversity as a fundamental aspect in the process of socioeconomic and human development "¡ Poses the contribution of every human being to development"¡ Instead of implementing isolated policies and actions, it promotes an integrated strategy that beneﬁts people and society as a whole"¡ it s an efective tool to overcome social exclusion and ﬁght against poverty" Sustainable Development means Inclusive Development!"
Disabled? A blind photographerin charge of a campaign¡ http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=6RmSfKWj63k&feature=related
Conceptual models¡ Inconcert with disability scholars, the introduction to the ICF states that a variety of conceptual models has been proposed to understand and explain disability and functioning, which it seeks to integrate. "
The medical model¡ Views disability as a problem of the person, directly caused by disease, trauma, or other health condition "¡ Management of the disability is aimed at "cure," or the individualʼs adjustment and behavioral change that would lead to an "almost-cure" or effective cure. "¡ Medical care is viewed as the main issue, and at the political level, the principal response is that of modifying or reforming healthcare policy."
The social model¡ Disability" as a socially created problem and a matter of the full integration of individuals into society (Inclusion)"¡ Not an attribute of an individual, but complex collection of conditions created by the social environment "¡ Hence, the management of the problem requires social action and is the collective responsibility of society at large to make the environmental modiﬁcations necessary for the full participation"¡ Both cultural and ideological, requiring individual, community, and large-scale social change. "¡ Equal access for someone with a disability is a human rights issue of major concern."
Disability Paradigms VOTE HERE Poor guy… He can’t vote because he’s disabled. He can’t vote because there are stairs to the voting venue!!!
Other models¡ Spectrum model - refers to the range of visibility, audibility and sensibility under which mankind functions. Disability does not necessarily mean reduced spectrum of operations."¡ Moral model - refers to the attitude that people are morally responsible for their own disability (e.g., result of bad actions of parents, or as a result of practicing witchcraft, karma)."¡ Expert/professional model - professionals identify the impairment and its limitations (using the medical model), and take the necessary action to improve the position of the disabled person. "¡ Tragedy/charity model - depicts disabled people as victims of circumstance who are deserving of pity. This, along with the medical model, are the models most used by non-disabled people to deﬁne and explain disability."
Other models (cont d)¡ Legitimacy model - views disability as a value-based determination about which explanations for the atypical are legitimate for membership in the disability category "¡ Social adapted model - the surrounding society and environment are more limiting than the disability itself"¡ Economic model deﬁnes disability by a personʼs inability to participate in work and the degree to which impairment affects an individual s productivity and the economic consequences for the individual, employer and the state "¡ Empowering model - allows for the person with a disability and his/her family to decide the course of their treatment and what services they wish to beneﬁt from "¡ Market model - disability is minority rights and consumerist model of disability recognizes people with disabilities and their Stakeholders as representing a large group of consumers, employees and voters "
¡ Indeveloped countries, the debate has moved beyond a concern about the perceived cost of maintaining dependent people with disabilities to an effort of ﬁnding effective ways to ensure that people with disabilities can participate in and contribute to society in all spheres of life "
Assistive Technology (AT)" ¡ A generic term for devices and modiﬁcations (for a person or within a society) that help overcome or remove a disability " l First recorded example of the use of a prosthesis dates to at least 1800 BC" l Wheelchair, 17th century. " l Modern examples are text telephones, accessible keyboards, large print, Braille, speech recognition computer software " l People with disabilities often develop personal or community adaptations (e.g., sign language) "
Accessible computing¡ Various organizations have formed to develop software and hardware to make computers more accessible for people with disabilities. "¡ Some software and hardware, such as SmartboxATs The Grid, Freedom Scientiﬁcs JAWS, the Free and Open Source alternative Orca etc. has been speciﬁcally designed for people with disabilities; other pieces of software and hardware, such as Nuances Dragon NaturallySpeaking, were not developed speciﬁcally for people with disabilities, but can be used to increase accessibility "¡ The Internet is also used by disability activists and charities to network and further their goals"
Government and internationalpolicies and support"
Ugly laws¡ From 1860s until 970s, several American cities had ugly laws making it illegal for persons with "unsightly or disgusting" disabilities to appear in public. The goal of these laws was seemingly to preserve the quality of life for the community "¡ The most commonly cited Ugly Law is that of the "City of Chicago Ordinance, 1911" " l “No person who is diseased, maimed, mutilated or in any way deformed so as to be an unsightly or disgusting object or improper person to be allowed in or on the public ways or other public places in this city, or shall therein or thereon expose himself to public view, under a penalty of not less than one dollar nor more than ﬁfty dollars for each offense.” "¡ Chicago was the last to repeal its Ugly Law as late as 1974"
Disability rights movement"¡ Led by individuals with disabilities, began in the 1970s. This self-advocacy is often seen as largely responsible for the shift toward independent living and accessibility "¡ The term "Independent Living" was taken from 1959 California legislation which enabled people who had acquired a disability due to polio to leave hospital wards and move back into the community with the help of cash beneﬁts for the purchase of personal assistance with the activities of daily living"¡ With its origins in the U.S. civil rights and consumer movements of the late 1960s, the movement and its philosophy have since spread to other continents inﬂuencing self-perception, organization and social policy "
United States¡ Rehabilitation Act of 1973 - all organizations that receive government funding to provide accessibility programs and services "¡ Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) - prohibits private employers, state and local governments, employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualiﬁed individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, ﬁring, etc. "¡ Businesses must make "reasonable accommodation" to people with different needs. "
African Americans and disability¡ According to the 2000 U.S. Census, the African American community has the highest rate of disability at 20.8 percent"¡ African Americans with a disability are subject to not only this stigma but also to the additional forces of race discrimination"¡ African American women who have a disability face "triple jeopardy" syndrome: discrimination due to their condition, race, and gender (Dr Eddie Glenn of Howard University)"
Beginnings¡ In 1976, the UN launched its International Year for Disabled Persons (1981), later re-named the International Year of Disabled Persons. The UN Decade of Disabled Persons (1983 1993) featured a World Programme of Action Concerning Disabled Persons. In 1979, Frank Bowe was the only person with a disability representing any country in the planning of IYDP-1981. Today, many countries have named representatives who are themselves individuals with disabilities. T"¡ In 1984, UNESCO accepted sign language for use in education of deaf children and youth. "
Convention on the Rights ofPersons with Disabilities (2006)"¡ The ﬁrst human rights treaty of the 21st century, to protect and enhance the rights and opportunities of the worlds persons with disabilities"¡ The ﬁrst human rights convention to include sexual and reproductive health "¡ Countries that sign up to the convention will be required to adopt national laws, and remove old ones, so that persons with disabilities would, for example, have equal rights to education, employment, cultural life; the right to own & inherit property; not be discriminated against in marriage, children; not be unwilling subjects in research"
The Convention of the Rights of Personswith Disabilities is an opportunity" " ¡ Provides visibility to persons with disabilities" ¡ Places persons with disabilities in the terrain of citizenship" ¡ Makes evident the need of development indicators to monitor the implementation process"
Sexuality and disability
Sexuality and disability¡ Consequence of social attitudes and personal constructs"¡ Strong stigma"¡ Cultural patterns"¡ Professional approaches "¡ Some myths about sexuality and persons with disability"
Origins of sexual and emotionalproblems¡ Self-esteem"¡ Self image"¡ Appropriate attitude to face prejudice"¡ Lack or inappropriate information"
International Recommendations: WHO, UNFPAIn 2009 WHO and UNFPA published“Promoting sexual andreproductive health for personswith disabilities” which providesbasic elements to promote sexual andreproductive health and HIVprevention among persons withdisabilities.Includes recommendations on how tomonitor and evaluate that persons withdisabilities receive appropriateservices and be satisfied with themhttp://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/general/9789241598682/en/index.html
HIV, AIDS AND DISABILITY WHERE ARE WE?
HIV, AIDS and disability With the advancement of medicine, people living with HIV live longer and may have complications from the disease and/or treatment that may cause disabilities. People with disabilities have a higher risk for STIs and HIV due Are National AIDS to their greater vulnerability toPrograms prepared to sexual abuse and lack of access address this reality? to communication and services.
General situation¡ Persons with disabilities are more vulnerable to HIV and sexual violence"¡ A chain of barriers, taboos and social exclusion interferes their access to prevention care and support services"¡ We continue to believe that persons with disabilities are not sexually active and therefore not at risk for STIs"¡ Because of these myths, prevention and educational campaigns and programs ignore persons with disabilities"¡ Organizations and institutions that work with persons with disabilities still do not take into consideration the sex education and access to information needs of their clients"¡ Persons with disabilities that are living with HIV and AIDS face double stigma that increases stigma and isolation"
PUBLICEDUCATION ANDCOMMUNICATIONSince 2008, the CentralAmerican Fora on HIV-AIDSand Disability resulted in IECstrategies for prevention fordifferent disabilitiestargeting healthprofessionals and generalpublic.
EDUCACIÓN PÚBLICA Y COMUNICACIÓN
¡ DVD: Panama awareness raising campaign
Which way do you want to go?Inclusion Exclusion
Special thanks for content supplied by: ¡ Rosângela Berman-Bieler ¡ Hilda Maria Aloisi ¡ SENADIS