Teaching writing


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Teaching writing as a product or as a process? That is the question. Here you''l find easy tasks and techniques to teach writing to your students.

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Teaching writing

  1. 1. DEVELOPING WRITING SKILLS Arlenne M. Fernández
  2. 2. INDEX Approaches toteaching writing... Process writing... Writing genres... Stages of writing... Teachingframework Practice! Arlenne M. Fernández
  3. 3. "Writing is like prostitution...Firstyou do it for love, and then for afew close friends, and then formoney.”(Molière, playwright) Arlenne M. Fernández
  5. 5. Why is writing such a difficult skill to achieve? Skilled writing requires mastery if the fine motors skill to form the written shapes and orthographic knowledge of how written symbols are combined to represent words through spelling conventions. Curriculum material is broad and too grammatical. Writing process is time-consuming. Teacher´s correction can be overwhelming if the class is too large. Students do not know how to do it by themselves. Arlenne M. Fernández
  6. 6. The Controlled - To - Free Approach Audiolingual method (50s & 60s), It is sequential Students are first given sentence exercises; then paragraphs to copy or manipulate grammatically (e.g by changing questions to statements, present to past, or plural to singular) They might also change words to clauses or combine sentences. With these controlled compositions, it is relatively easy for students write and yet avoid errors, which makes error correction easy. Students are allowed to try some free composition after they have reached an intermediate level of proficiency. As such, this approach stress on grammar, syntax, and mechanics. It emphasizes accuracy rather than fluency or originality. Arlenne M. Fernández
  7. 7. The Free - Writing Approach This approach stresses writing quantity rather than quality. Teachers who use this approach assign vast amounts of free writing on given topics with only minimal correction. The emphasis in this approach is on content and fluency rather than on accuracy and form. Once ideas are down on the page, grammatical accuracy and organization follow. Students write freely on any topic without worrying about grammar and spelling. Teachers do not correct these pieces of free writing. They simply read them and may comment on the ideas the writer expressed. Arlenne M. Fernández
  8. 8. The Paragraph - Pattern Approach Instead of accuracy of grammar or fluency of content, the Paragraph-Pattern-Approach stresses on organization. Students copy paragraphs and imitate model passages. They put scrambled sentences into paragraph order. They identify general and specific statements and choose to invent an appropriate topic sentence or insert or delete sentences. This approach is based on the principle that in different cultures people construct and organize communication with each other in different ways. Arlenne M. Fernández
  9. 9. The Grammar - Syntax - Organisation Approach This approach stresses on simultaneous work on more than one composition feature. Teachers who follow this approach maintain that writing can not be seen as composed of separate skills which are learned sequentially. Therefore, student should be trained to pay attention to organization while they also work on the necessary grammar and syntax. This approach links the purpose of writing to the forms that are needed to convey message. Arlenne M. Fernández
  10. 10. The Communicative Approach This approach stresses the purpose of writing and the audience for it. Student writers are encouraged to behave like writers in real life and ask themselves the crucial questions about purpose and audience (e.g Why am I writing this?, Who will read it?) Traditionally, the teacher alone has been the audience for student writing; howewer it´s assumed that writers do their best when writing is truly a communicative act, with a writer writing for a real reader. So the readership may be extended to classmate and pen pals. Arlenne M. Fernández
  11. 11. LET`S CHECK... Content Process Audience Word Organization Mechanics Grammar/ choice SyntaxControlled- toFreeFree-WritingParagraph-PatternGrammar-Syntax-OrganizationCommunicativeProcess . Arlenne M. Fernández
  12. 12. THE PROCESS APPROACH "Process writing is learning how to write by writing” (Stone, 1995) In this approach current emphasis focuses on the process of creating writing rather than the end product (Tompkins, 1990). The initial focus is on creating quality content and learning the genres of writing. When writing, students work through the stages of the writing process (prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing). Arlenne M. Fernández
  13. 13.  Teachers who use this approach provide students time to brainstorm ideas and give them feedback on the content of what they write in their drafts. Therefore, learning to write is seen as a developmental process that helps students to write as professional authors do, choosing their own topics and genres. Arlenne M. Fernández
  14. 14. A Comparison.. Process Writing Product WritingText as a resource for comparison Imitate model textIdeas as starting point Organisation of ideas more importantMore than one draft than ideas themselvesMore global, focus on purpose, One drafttheme, text type (reader is emphasised) Features highlighted includingCollaborative controlled practice of those featuresEmphasis on creative process Individual Emphasis on end product Arlenne M. Fernández
  15. 15. WRITING GENRES Arlenne M. Fernández
  16. 16. Expository Writing It seeks to inform, 1) Select a topic. explain, clarify, 2) Write a thesis statement define or instruct with controlling idea (writing that explains (s). or shares 3) Organize it into information) paragraphs. It includes thesis 4) Write topic sentences for statement and the body paragraphs. controlling ideas. 5) Furnish a paragraph of Six basic steps to introduction (state the write an expository thesis, introduce essay. divisions of paragraphs and gain reader´s interest) 6) Write a pragraph of Arlenne M. Fernández conclusion.
  17. 17. Narrative Writing It tells a story.  These are the elements Its purpose is to of a narrative style: entertain. - Setting. Common sequence - Character. includes: - Plot. -Beginning (characters - Conflict. set) - Climax. -Problem - Resolution. - Minor resolution. - New problem. - Resolution. - Moral. Use of past tenses. Arlenne M. Fernández
  18. 18. Descriptive Writing It´s like painting a picture with words. It describes places, people, feelings, events. Uses vivid language (adjectives) and figurative language. Arlenne M. Fernández
  19. 19. Argumentative Writing Writer tries to convince others to agree with our facts, share our values; adopt our way of thinking. General characteristics of an argumentative essay: - state position or belief, - factual supports, - persuasive technique, - logical argument, - call to action. Arlenne M. Fernández
  20. 20. Academic Writing Academic writing is formal in style and there are a number of conventions to follow such as avoid abbreviations or contracted words, use passive tenses or third person, use model verbs, avoid long sentences and avoid multi-part verbs, instead use formal language. Its basic layout is introduction, (and abstract) body, conclusion, and bibliography. Arlenne M. Fernández
  21. 21. Let`s compare...Which one is academicwriting? Today being fat istotally bad for your The number of deathshealth. About 30,000 fat per year attributable topeople die every year in obesity is roughly 30,000the UK and loads more fat in the UK and ten timespeople die in the USA. By that in the USA, where2005 more people will die obesity is set to overtakeof being fat than smoking smoking in 2005 as theand it doesn’t have to be main preventable cause ofthis way, this could easily illness and prematurebe prevented, couldnt it? death. Arlenne M. Fernández
  22. 22. Types of Academic Writing Technical / Lab / Book report. Literature review. Term paper. Research paper (short, argumentative) Opinion paper. Essay (expository, descriptive, argumentative). Senior thesis. Formal letters (application, complaint, etc) Email. Powerpoint presentation. Case study. Arlenne M. Fernández
  23. 23. STAGES OF WRITINGArlenne M. Fernández
  24. 24. TEACHING FRAMEWORK If tasks are far beyond the immediate capacity of learners, they will either lead to frustration and/or resorting to L1-based experience and knowledge (Qi, 1998). Therefore, tasks should be progressive (Myles, 2002). Teacher should introduce one concept at a time, model it extensively and give numerous examples before requiring independence. Costas Gabrielatos suggests two types of activities before the pre-writing: Focused global procedures and Global practice procedures Arlenne M. Fernández
  25. 25. Focused Practice Global Practice Procedures procedure Ordering jumbled  Creating a text from sentences to create a prompts (title, task, paragraph/text. text, first/last sentence, key Dividing a text into words/expressions, sections/paragraphs. visuals, outline, tables Ordering jumbled etc.) paragraphs to create a  Re-writing a text text. following specific Inserting additional or guidelines missing information into a (corrections, code, text (linking & signposting comments etc.) expressions, sentences, paragraphs). Arlenne M. Fernández
  26. 26. Strategies to encourage writing Create a literate environment  Make collages with Stick posters or positive visual representations messages and labels on of specific vocabulary. the walls to familiarize  Sequence an students with written experiment. codes.  Copy songs, rhymes or Have a bulletin board poems. with weird news, news  Paste labels with from famous people, idioms. horoscope, beauty tips, fashion styles, etc. Have a mailbox. Make “word snakes” for new vocabulary (HFW). Arlenne M. Fernández
  27. 27. Strategies to encourage writing Encourage creative pieces of  Make them keep a work: journal with new vocabulary. Have a graffitti wall  Make them re-write as a sort of a fairy story. “complaint wall”.  Make them write Make Sts fill in weather reports soundless filmstrips. with pictures. Complete cartoon  Make them design strips. new covers for Make them write books. postcards for a  Copy shopping lists special person. or restaurant menus.... Arlenne M. Fernández
  28. 28. References Liv Jonassen & Elizabeth Tomchak. Academic Writing. www.rgu.ac.uk/files/academic%20writing.ppt Gabrielatos, Costas (2002). ESL Writing Product and Process. ERIC, ED476839. Cheu Ching Kiing, Jenny Kong & Wong Siew Jing. ELP Writing skills. Bruton, Anthony. Process Writing and Communicative-Task-Based Instruction: Many Common Features, but More Common Limitations? TESL-EJ Dec, 2005. Vol. 9 Number 3. Stone, S. (1995). The primary multiage classroom: Changing schools for children. Tompkins, G. (1990). Teaching and writing: Balancing process and product. Columbus, OH: Merrill Publishing Co. By Dr. Ghazi Ghaith. Writing. American University of Beirut in http://www.nadasisland.com/ghaith-writing.html#approaches Vanessa Steele (2004). Product and process writing: A comparison. British Council. Arlenne M. Fernández
  29. 29. Let`s Exercise!!! Arlenne M. Fernández