Settling the West 1865-1900 After the Civil War, a dynamic period in American History opened—the settlement of the West. The lives of the Western miners, farmers, and ranchers were often filled with greathardships, but the wave of American settlers continued. Railroads hastened this migration. During this period, many Native Americans lost their homelands and their way of life.
Copper• Uses of Copper• Copper is used to pipe water supplies. The metal is also used in refrigerators and air conditioning systems.• Computer heat sinks are made out of copper as copper is able to absorb a high amount of heat.• Magnetrons, found in microwave ovens, contain copper.• Vacuum tubes and cathode ray tubes both use copper.• Some copper is added to fungicides and nutritional supplements.• As a good conductor of electricity, copper is used in Copper wire, electromagnets and electrical relays and switches.• Copper is a great water-proof roofing material. It has been used for this purpose since ancient times.• Some structures, such as the Statue of Liberty, are made with copper.• Copper is sometimes combined with nickel to make a corrosion resistant material that is used in shipbuilding.• Copper is used in lightning rods. These attract lightning and cause the electrical current to be dispersed rather than striking, and possibly destroying, a more important structure.• Copper(II) sulfate is used to kill mildew.• Copper is often used to color glass. It is also one component of ceramic glaze.• Many musical instruments, particularly brass instruments, are made out of copper
Boom to Bust Ghost towns were repeatedthroughout the mountainous west
Who else would settle the West?• Ranchers—at first ranching was not practical—no water, cattle could not survive—tough prairie grasses—but in Texas— The Longhorn—lean and rangy—the longhorn could survive.
Open Range-a vast area of grassland owned by the government.• Hispanic cowhands • After the Civil War meat developed the tolls and prices soared techniques for rounding up • Millions of longhorns and driving cattle. roamed in Texas• Lariat, lasso, stampede • How to move the cattle to the RR • Long cattle drives-The Chisholm Trail • Barbed wire • http://player.discoveryeduc ation.com/index.cfm?guidA ssetId=5EB648BC-FBA8- 42BD-A0C0- F9B5E28CE42D&blnFromSe arch=1&productcode=US
The Settlement of the Great Plains
Major Stephen Long-The GreatAmerican Desert- “wholly unfit for cultivation” • 20 inches of rain a year • Few trees • Millions of buffalo • Native Americans
Despite all –settlement occurred. Why?
Railroads—the government gave them land to build the RR—the RR in turn sold land to prospective settlers
• “Rain follows the Plow”• Homestead Act- the government would give up to 160 acres of land and receive the title to that land after 5 years.• Life was hard
Native Americans• The Great Plains were • As ranchers, miners and home to many Native farmers moved out to Americans the Plains—Native• Some were farmers Americans were• But the majority were deprived of their nomads—roamed the hunting grounds vast distances following • The Buffalo was killed their source of food— for sport—by the the buffalo millions
With broken treaties, the Native Americans were forced to relocate.• Reservations-land set • The Sioux aside for Native • The Lakota Americans • The Cheyenne
Lakota Chief Sitting Bull
Crazy Horse—Leader of the Oglala Lakota
Chief Joseph- “I will fight no more forever”
The Last Native American Wars• Battle of the Little Big Horn• The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between the combined forces of the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne tribes against the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army. The most famous of all of the Indian Wars, the remarkable victory for the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne occurred over two days on June 25-26, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory. The U.S. cavalry detachment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, lost every soldier in his unit.
The Battle of the Little Big Horn• http://www.history.com /videos/sitting-bull
Wounded Knee• The Ghost Dance-a ritual of dance and prayer that hoped for the day of reckoning.• U.S. forbade the Native Americans to perform.• They continued despite the law
Wounded Knee• On the bone-chilling morning of December 29, devotees of the newly created Ghost Dance religion made a lengthy trek to the Pine Ridge Reservation in southwestern South Dakota to seek protection from military apprehension. Members of the(Lakota) tribe led by Chief Big Foot and the Sioux (Lakota) followers of the recently slain charismatic leader, Sitting Bull, attempted to escape arrest by fleeing south through the rugged terrain of the Badlands. There, on the snowy banks of Wounded Knee Creek (Cankpe Opi Wakpala), nearly 300 Lakota men, women, and children -- old and young -- were massacred in a highly charged, violent encounter with U.S. soldiers
The dead at Wounded Knee
• The U.S. government • The Dawes Act-similar just wanted the Native to the Homestead Act— Americans to just the Dawes Act allowed assimilate the Indians land –it• Assimilation-to be failed to help the absorbed into a culture Indians.• “A Century of Dishonor” a book by Helen Hunt Jackson that was critical of the US policies