Chapter 19 Sec. 3
The Holocaust refers to the Nazi
campaign to exterminate the Jews
during World War II.
During the Holocaust, the Nazis killed
nearly 6 million Jews, as well as
others they considered inferior.
• Once the Nazis took power in Germany, they
acted swiftly to implement the political racial
policies Hitler had outlined in Mein Kampf.
• Not only Jews, but also the
disabled, Gypsies, homosexuals, Slavic
people, and anyone who opposed Hitler were
• Jews were put into Ghettos—an area for
50,000 now would be home to over ½ million
The Nuremberg laws
• After the Nazi’s took power, they quickly
implemented laws that deprived Jews of many of
• Banned marriage between Jews and other
• Defined what a Jew was
• Prohibited Jews from holding public office or
• Banned Jews from practicing law and medicine
• With no means of income or money, life for
them became very difficult. However because
they had been so integrated in German
society, many chose to stay, believing things
would improve. But they did not improve.
Kristallnacht - “Night of broken glass”
• series of co-ordinated attacks against Jews on 9–10
November 1938, carried out by SA stormtroopers and
civilians. German authorities looked on without
intervening. The attacks left the streets covered with
broken glass from the windows of Jewish-owned
stores, buildings, and synagogues.
• At least 91 Jews were killed in the attacks, and a
further 30,000 arrested and incarcerated.Jewish
homes, hospitals, and schools were ransacked, as the
attackers demolished buildings with sledgehammers.
Over 1,000 synagogues were burned (95 in Vienna
alone), and over 7,000 Jewish businesses destroyed or
Jewish Refugees Try to Flee
• After Kristallnacht, many Jews decided to
leave Germany and flee. Many decided to go
to the United States.
• Between 1933-1939, more than 350,000 Jews
• Albert Einstein left during this time as well as
Otto Frank and his daughter Anne.
• A backlog of visas for the US occurred, many
were trapped in Nazi-dominated Europe.
US limits immigration to Jews
• Jews were limited to $4 –US laws restricted
granting a visa to anyone who may become a
• High unemployment rates made immigration
• Few Americans wanted to raise immigration
quotas set at 150,000 annually per country.
The Final Solution
• Methods to rid Europe of Jews had proven to
be too slow and inefficient.
• Decision was made for Concentration camps—
there healthy individuals would work as slave
laborers until they dropped dead. All other
would be sent to extermination camps to be
executed in massive gas chambers.
• Death in 15 minutes—as many as 6000 a day.
• Life is Beautiful
• The Boy in the Striped Pajamas
• Schindler’s List
• Escape from Sobibor