Ch. 16The Conquest of the WestAfter the Civil war, a dynamic period in American history opened-the settlement of the West. The lives of Western miners, farmers and ranchers were often filled with great hardships, but the wave of American settlers continued. Railroadshastened this migration. During this period, manyNative Americans lost their homelands and their way of life
What is the West?• A mix of myth with reality• The “Great American Desert” Stephen Long• Diverse land and inhabitants
Who lived there?One historian wrote: “compared to the West, the East looks like a family reunion”.
Inhabitants of the West
Native Americans• The Great Plains were • As ranchers, miners and home to many Native farmers moved out to Americans the Plains—Native• Some were farmers Americans were• But the majority were deprived of their nomads—roamed the hunting grounds vast distances following • The Buffalo was killed their source of food— for sport—by the the buffalo millions
Plain Indian Tribes• Pueblo-contact with the Spanish-caste system developed-Apache, Navajos, etc.• Very diverse• Sioux-nomads and the buffalo• All were susceptible to diseases—outmanned and outgunned
Hispanics• New Mexico, Texas and California—as the Anglo American presence increased and new ranching and farming operations followed, Hispanics were no longer in control of the region and were relegated to unskilled farm work and industrial labor
Chinese—RR, Chinese Exclusion Act, Anti-Coolie clubs
Homestead Act• “Rain follows the Plow”• Homestead Act- the government would give up to 160 acres of land and receive the title to that land after 5 years.• Life was hard
Migration from the East• After the Civil War, over 2 million came from the East— Scandinavians, Germans, Irish, Russia ns, Czechs and others
Despite all –settlement occurred. Why?
Railroads—the US government gavethem land to build the RR—the RR inturn sold land to prospective settlers
The Changing Western Economy• In the 19th century the region produced 3 major industries: mining, ranching and commercial farming• Gold, silver and copper• Boom to Bust
Cattle Kingdom• Ranchers—at first ranching was not practical—no water, cattle could not survive—tough prairie grasses—but in Texas—The Longhorn—lean and rangy—the longhorn could survive.
Open Range-a vast area of grassland owned by the government. • After the Civil War meat• Hispanic cowhands prices soared developed the tolls • Millions of longhorns roamed in Texas and techniques for • How to move the cattle to the RR rounding up and • Long cattle drives-The driving cattle. Chisholm Trail • Barbed wire• Lariat, lasso, stampe • http://player.discoveryeducati on.com/index.cfm?guidAssetI de d=5EB648BC-FBA8-42BD- A0C0- F9B5E28CE42D&blnFromSearc h=1&productcode=US
Cowboy Culture• Buffalo Bill and his Wild West Show• http://youtu.be/SARb8vJJmuA
Romance of the West• Artist flocked to the West to capture the incredible magnificence of the scenery.• Albert Bierstadt• Thomas Moran
Last of the Indian Wars With broken treaties, the NativeAmericans were forced to relocate.• Reservations-land set aside for Native • The Sioux Americans • The Lakota • The Cheyenne
Lakota Chief Sitting Bull
Crazy Horse—Leader of the Oglala Lakota
Chief Joseph- “I will fight no more forever”
The Last Native American Wars• Battle of the Little Big Horn• The Battle of the Little Bighorn, also called Custers Last Stand, was an engagement between the combined forces of the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne tribes against the 7th Cavalry of the United States Army. The most famous of all of the Indian Wars, the remarkable victory for the Lakota and Northern Cheyenne occurred over two days on June 25-26, 1876 near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory. The U.S. cavalry detachment, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer, lost every soldier in his unit.
The Battle of the Little Big Horn• http://www.history.com /videos/sitting-bull
Wounded Knee• The Ghost Dance-a ritual of dance and prayer that hoped for the day of reckoning.• U.S. forbade the Native Americans to perform.• They continued despite the law
Wounded Knee• On the bone-chilling morning of December 29, devotees of the newly created Ghost Dance religion made a lengthy trek to the Pine Ridge Reservation in southwestern South Dakota to seek protection from military apprehension. Members of the(Lakota) tribe led by Chief Big Foot and the Sioux (Lakota) followers of the recently slain charismatic leader, Sitting Bull, attempted to escape arrest by fleeing south through the rugged terrain of the Badlands. There, on the snowy banks of Wounded Knee Creek (Cankpe Opi Wakpala), nearly 300 Lakota men, women, and children -- old and young -- were massacred in a highly charged, violent encounter with U.S. soldiers
The dead at Wounded Knee
• The U.S. government • The Dawes Act-similar just wanted the Native to the Homestead Act— Americans to just the Dawes Act allowed assimilate the Indians land –it• Assimilation-to be failed to help the absorbed into a culture Indians.• “A Century of Dishonor” a book by Helen Hunt Jackson that was critical of the US policies