Chapter 21 The Cold War Begins A Clash of Interests: The US and the Soviet Union (Russia) becameincreasingly hostile toward each other after the war. This lead to an era of confrontation and competition between the US and the Soviet Union that lasted from about 1946 to 1990 called the Cold War.
Why?• Because after the war both countries had different goals:• Soviet Union: security• United States: Democracy
Europe before the War
Europe after WWII
Poland• The Yalta Conference: Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin met to discuss Post WWII Europe. Stalin was adamant that Polish government had to be friendly to the Soviet Union—a matter of life and death—a matter of security.• Roosevelt and Churchill were not happy but conceited-they gave in to Stalin.
Declaration of Liberated Europe• “The right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live”
Truman Takes ControlPotsdam Conference
Europe after WWII
• Stalin basically states wherever his soldiers are –those will be countries friendly to the Soviet Union. He did not commit to any of the resolutions of the Declaration of Liberated Europe.
The Iron Curtain Descends—animagery line that separates Western Europe from Eastern Europe
The Truman Doctrine• The Soviet Union started to make moves in the Middle East –in countries like Turkey, Iran and Greece.• The United States was alarmed and outlined a policy which became know as the Truman Doctrine—its goal was to aid “free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”--also known as the Containment Policy• Basically the US would stop the spread of Communism.
Meanwhile Europe is a Mess• The war had left Western Europe politically, socially and economically in ruins.• The US Secretary of State George Marshall came up with a recovery program to help rebuild Europe—a healthy Europe is good for America.• Called the Marshall Plan-the US would pump billions into the recovery of Europe. The offer was extended to Eastern European countries but Soviets refused.
Germany• The United States also wanted Germany to be economically sound. They decided to merge the zones of the 3 countries together and create on Germany—West Germany –but Berlin would still be divided.
The Berlin Airlift• When the Soviets realized what the Allies had done they became threatened and put troops to cutoff all roads and rail traffic to West Berlin. This blockade created a crisis.• What to do???• The decision was made to start an airlift to supply Berliners with food, medicine, and coal.• For 11 months, cargo planes dropped supplies.• Finally Stalin lifted the blockade• The Berlin airlift became a symbol of American determination to stand by the divided city and against communism.
N.A.T.O.• The Berlin blockade convinced many Americans that the Soviets were bent on conquest.• So the US created a mutual defense alliance— the North Atlantic Treaty Organization-NATO. 12 countries from Europe joined the organization as well.• First time in history the US decided to commit itself to maintaining peace in Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States Luxemburg Belgium Netherlands Britain Norway Canada Portugal Denmark 1952: Greece & Turkey France 1955: West Germany Iceland 1983: Spain Italy
China turns to Communism• After WWII China resumed its Civil War between communist forces led by Mao Zedong and Nationalists led by Chiang Kai- shek. The US sent money to Chiang kai-shek to prevent the spread of Communism. But in the end the Communist prevailed and China became a communist country.
• The Chinese signed a treaty with the Soviet Union of friendship and alliance. Many thought the Chinese and Soviets would support the spread of Communism everywhere. That greatly made the US very nervous.
• After WWII both the US and China went into Korean to disarm the Japanese troops that were there. They divided Korean in half on the 38th parallel. The Soviets controlled the North and the Allies controlled the South.
• Talks to unify Korean broke down and a communist government was organized in the North. An American backed government was formed in the South. Both claimed authority over all of Korean. Both built up arms. On June 25, 1950 North Korean invades South Korean.• President Truman asked the United Nations to send in troops and he asked General MacArthur to go from Japan to Korean with some American troops.
The Korean War, 1950-1953
The Forgotten War• In the end, a armistice was signed and it permanently divided the country on the 38th parallel. Move than 33,600 American soldiers died in the Korean War—a war that came to be called the Forgotten War.• The US would now use force to stop the spread of communism anywhere in the world.
Premier Nikita KhrushchevAbout the capitaliststates, it doesntdepend on youwhether we(Soviet Union) exist.If you dont like us,dont accept ourinvitations, and dont De-Stalinizationinvite us to come Programto see you. Whetheryou like it our not, history is on ourside. We will bury you. -- 1956
The Cold War and the American Society• Americans became very paranoid about Communists. The US governments believed Russia was sending spies to American do learn about our Nuclear program and to subvert the American governments.• It intensified when a Soviet named Igor Gouzenko walked into the Soviet Embassy in Canada and defected. He had been carrying spy equipment. The case stunned Americans.
The Red Scare• Americans began to think that Communists were secretly working to subvert the American government. The US government believed Russia was sending spies to learn about our Nuclear program.• It soon became everyones job to seek out communists. Many peoples lives were ruined by just being accused meant you didn’t work.
• The Loyalty Review Program: A government program that would screen all federal employees. Rather than calm fears it seemed to confirm fears that Communists had infiltrated the government.• Between 1947-1951 over 6 million federal employees were screened for their loyalty.
The Rosenbergs• A sensational spy case centering around accusations that American Communists had sold the secrets of the atomic bomb to Russia.
The Red Scare Spreads• In 1949 The Red Scare intensified even more— the Soviets successfully tested an atomic bomb and China fell to Communism.• Joseph McCarthy-senator from Wisconsin helps the paranoia by claiming to have a list of 205 Communists that were working in the State Department.
McCarthyism = Witch Hunt• McCarthy used his new found notoriety and his influence to conduct “Witch Hunts” for any so called Communists working in the US government. He damaged many reputations on vague and unfounded charges. He would bully and badger those he accused of being a communist. Many feared to challenge him for fear of becoming targets themselves.
McCarthy’s Downfall• McCarthy did not stop at accusing government workers of being spies; he moved to accusing the US Army of housing communists as well. The Army denied all charges. Furious at the denials, McCarthy moved his investigation onto television. Millions of Americans watched as McCarthy harassed officers day after day—his support started to fade.
• Joseph Welch--Army’s Lawyer: “Until this moment, I think I never really gauged your cruelty or your recklessness…You have done enough. Have you no sense of decency sir, at long last? Have you left no sense of decency?”• Another Senator stated: “The American people have had a look at you…You are not fooling anyone”
Life During the Early Cold War• By the early 1950’s both the US and the Soviet Union had tested the much more powerful Hydrogen Bomb.• Americans became convinced that the Soviets would strike America.• Duck and Cover drills• Bomb Shelters