Chapter 19 A World In FlamesAfter WWI ended President Wilson said, “Everything for which America fought has been accomplished.” Instead, the treaty that ended the war, along with economic depression thatfollowed, contributed to the rise of anti- democratic governments in both Europe and Asia
Italy• Leader: Benito Mussolini• Founded the Italian Fascist Party• Fascism: aggressive nationalism• Fascist believe that the nation was more important than the individual. Individualism made countries weak and they believed a nation became great by expanding its territory and building up its military. They were strongly anti- communist
Russia• Leader: Joseph Stalin• Government: Communism-In 1926 Stalin became the new Soviet dictator. He soon began a massive effort to industrialize his country. He tolerated no opposition— killed over 10 million peasants who resisted the Communist policies.• Communism-a form a government that is both economic and political. The government takes over all property and distributes it to all the people and everyone works for the common good.
Germany Leader: Adolf Hitler Nazi Party• The harsh demands put on Germany in the Treaty of Versailles led to resentment, economic difficulties, and WWII.• The Treaty also left him with a moldering hatred for the victorious Allies and for the German government that had accepted the peace terms.
Nazi Party: The National Socialist German WorkersParty—the party did not represent theworking class, as its name suggested,but was nationalisticand anti communist.
Hitler raises to power. He writes a autobiography, titled Mein Kampf (My Struggles). In it he calls for the unification of all Germans underone government. He claimed that Germans, particularly blond, blue eyed Germans, belonged to a master race called Aryans. He also believed in something calledlebensraum, or living space, and called for Germany to expand east into Poland and Russia. He also believed that Slavic people were inferior and that German should enslave them. His prejudice was strongest however toward Jews.
Japan←Emperor Hirohito General Tojo→
• During the early 1930’s Japan also suffered from an economic depression. Japanese military leaders and the civilians who supported them argued that the only way for Japan to get needed resources was to seize territory. They targeted the resource rich province of Manchuria in the northern China as the perfect place to conquer. Their reign of conquering did not stop there.
United Kingdom-Great BritainPrime Minister Winston Churchill
United States –President Franklin D. Roosevelt
World War II Begins• By the late 1930’s Germany had rebuilt— against the Versailles Treaty of WWI.• European leaders did not try and stop Hitler at first—WHY?
Reasons for not stopping Hitler• Shadow of WWI• Bringing all Germany speaking regions of Europe was reasonable.• Hitler would be satisfied.• BUT…
So Hitler starts his march • 1St Austria-with little opposition-same language and culture- no Allies • 2nd Czechoslovakia— but this country was different-why? --a democracy -- many languages --allies --they resisted
Munich Conference• Britain, France, Italy and Germany met in Munich to decide the fate of Czechoslovakia.• To prevent another war, they agreed to Hilter’s demands-- a policy that came to be known as appeasement. Appeasement is the policy of giving concessions in exchange for peace.• http://youtu.be/eQ9AC7GH9Sc
Hitler wanted the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia but took over theentire country in brazen violation of the Munich agreement.
Poland After that heset his sights on Poland. Appeasement had failed.
• The British announced that if Poland went to war to defend its territory, Britain and France would come to its aid. In 1939 Hitler ordered the German army to invade Poland.
The Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression PactIf Germany was going to fight Britain and France, Hitler did not want to have to fight the Soviets too. So they made a treaty with each other. A deal was made thatPoland would be divided between the 2 countries if the Soviets helped Hitler
The Polish held up bravely but they were no match for the Germans.
The Germans used a new type of warfare called blitzkrieg—or lightning war.
Next France• But before Hitler invaded France he attacked Norway, Denmark, Netherlands Belgium and Luxembourg first
The Miracle at Dunkirk • German forces trapped French and British forces at Dunkirk. The Germans kept pressing them and then Hitler decided to withdraw. An all call bulletin was called in England to help evacuate all stranded ships. In all the evacuation saved an estimated 338,000 British and French troops.
Hitler fully expected the British to negotiate peace after France surrendered. But for Churchill, peace was not an option.Churchill delivered a defiant speech in Parliament, intended not only to rally the British people but to alert the isolationist United States to Britains plight.http://youtu.be/qdOFNTYDEWAChurchill’s Famous Speech
Battle of Britain• When Hitler realized that Britain would not surrender, he ordered his commanders to prepare to invade.• In June 1940, the German air force, Luftwaffe, began to attack British shipping, then an all out air battle to destroy the British RAF and then finally Hitler began to bomb London and other major cities. This air battle became known as the Battle of Britain.
• Hitler’s goal was to terrorize the British people into surrendering. The British people endured.
Radar• Although the British RAF was greatly outnumbered, the British had one major advantage—Radar-a new technology. By pacing radar stations along their coast, the British were able to detect incoming German aircraft and directly intercept them.• After the loss of many German planes, Hitler called off the invasion of Britain.• The skill of a few hundred pilots saved Britain from invasion.
Praising the pilots, Churchill told Parliament, “Never in the field ofhuman conflict was so much owed, by so many, to so few” http://youtu.be/BbcvmI2b9AM