Articles of confederation


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Articles of confederation

  1. 1. Articles of Confederation One law making body called the Congress States sent representatives to Congress All states had 1 vote in Congress A super majority to get laws passed No President No Courts
  2. 2. Under the Articles • The Federal Government could : • Declare war and make peace • Raise an army • Make and borrow $$ • Send and receive diplomats • Control Indians affairs • Est. post offices
  3. 3. Congress Could NOT: • Regulate trade between states • Pass taxes • Enforce a law • Act directly or defend a state • Stop states from issuing $$$
  4. 4. • The Articles succeeded in making the United States legitimate – • Northwest Ordinance 1785
  5. 5. • Financial Problems • Foreign Problems • Britain • Spain • Indians • Barbary Pirates • Domestic Problems- Shay’s Rebellion
  6. 6. The Constitutional Convention • James Madison-Father of the Constitution • Principles of the Constitution • Federalism • Popular Sovereignty • Separation of Power • Checks and Balances • Limited Power of Government
  7. 7. A Series of Compromises • Representation—how would states be represented?? • 2 Plans: Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan • Bicameral House • Upper House • Lower House
  8. 8. Slaves?? • Should Slaves be Counted? • 3/5 Compromise
  9. 9. Who would elect the President? • Founders did not want one faction to ever be able to control and win the election • States wanted some power • Example of Indirect Democracy • Electoral College
  10. 10. 538 Electors—Magic number 270
  11. 11. Federalist vs. Anti Federalists • Federalists Papers-Hamilton, Madison, Jay • Bill of Rights • 1st 6th • 2nd 7th • 3rd 8th • 4th 9th • 5th 10th
  12. 12. George Washington • 1st Cabinet • Sec of State-Jefferson • Sec of Treasury-Hamilton • Sec of War-Knox • Judiciary Act of 1789 • The Assumption Bill and the Creation of the National Bank-Excise Tax and Protective Tariff • Whiskey Rebellion
  13. 13. 1st Political Parties • The Federalists Republicans Hamilton Jefferson Reading the Constitution The Nature of Man Fed. Vs. State Gov. Business, $$$, industry Leaders: Who should govern?
  14. 14. • The Federalists The Republicans Taxes Farmers and rural life Cities Foreign Affairs Voters
  15. 15. Foreign Affairs-England & France • Establishing legitimacy with Great Britain was a major goal but difficult to achieve. • In 1793 England and France to go war • Washington issued a Proclamation of Neutrality (Jefferson resigned) • France-Edmond Genet • Searching and Seizing & Impressment-England
  16. 16. Jay’s Treaty • The withdrawal of British soldiers from posts in the American West • A commission to be established to settle outstanding border issues between the U.S. and Canada • A commission to be established to resolve American losses in British ship seizures and Loyalist losses during the Revolutionary war • Missing from the treaty was a provision for the British to refrain from the arrest of American ships and impressment of American seamen.
  17. 17. • Jay's Treaty significance- tremendously controversial - Washington was admired man, but he came under sharp attack during this time. • Jay resigned from the Supreme Court and later remarked that he could have traveled the length of the country by the light of bonfires burning his effigy. • Most historians acknowledge the Treaty's shortcomings, but believe that it was the best that could be hoped for given America's lack of international clout at the time.
  18. 18. Pinckney’s Treaty • Spain recognized U.S. borders at the Mississippi and the 31st parallel (the northern border of Florida, a Spanish possession) • Spain granted Americans the right to deposit goods for shipment at New Orleans.
  19. 19. Farewell Address • Warned against Political Parties • Warned us against permanent alliances • Remain neutral
  20. 20. 2nd President John Adams • Superb statement but poor politician • Had to deal with France • XYZ Affair-three Frenchmen gave the United States an offer or more precisely a deal – the deal stated that if the United States paid France a sum of ten million dollars, then the French would stop seizing the ships that belonged to the United States. • Infuriated America and led to an undeclared naval war with France • Ultimately France chose to negotiate, averting war
  21. 21. Alien and Sedition Act • enacted in response to the XYZ Affair, and were aimed at French and Irish immigrants, who were considered subversives. • Alien Act--empowered the president to arrest and deport dangerous aliens • Sedition Act-- made it illegal to publish defamatory statements about the federal government or its officials
  22. 22. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
  23. 23. Election of 1800 Revolution of 1800? • Midnight Appointments