• The accidental President— “wild man”—in
favor of reform but not revolution.
• Extremely energetic
• He believed the federal government should
not serve as the champion of any particular
Trust Regulator—did not want to bust
all trusts just the worst offenders
• Sherman Antitrust Act against J. P. Morgan’s
Railroad Northern Securities Company-• “If we have done anything wrong, send your
man to my man, and they can fix it up”Morgan
• Found to be a monopoly and it was dissolved.
Roosevelt’s policy toward Labor
• He saw himself as an arbitrator between labor
• Threatened to send in troops in the Coal strike
of 1902 and seize the mines if the mine
owners failed to agree to arbitration.
Square Deal—TR’s domestic Policypromise of fair and equal treatment
• The Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act of 1906sought some regulatory authority to the RR
but not much.
• Pure Food and Drug Act & Meat Inspection
Act –both passed as a result of The Jungleestablished federal inspection of meat and set
national standards to prevent business from
adding harmful preservatives other hazardous
ingredients to food and drugs.
Reform-The New Nationalism
• TR pushed for other reforms such as the 8
hour day, compensation for victims of
industrial accidents, income taxes, and
regulation of the stock market. He criticized
those conservatives who would not go along
with his reform measures. This caused a split
in his support within the party.
• TR believed in restricting private development on
undeveloped government lands. He loved the
outdoors and wanted to preserve it for posterity.
• With the help of John Muir, founder of the Sierra
Club, and Gifford Pinchot, TR used his influence
to preserve almost two hundred million acres of
• Created the National Forest Service
• No patience with legislative process—Executive
• TR was ready to take on the challenges of the
new world. He believed in using Americans
power in the world when and where it was
• Persuaded Congress to appropriate money for
a new modern Navy
• The Great White Fleet—16 Battleships
• He was convinced that there were the
“civilized” and the “uncivilized” nations in the
• Civilized Nations: white, Anglo-Saxon,
economically developed and producers of
• Uncivilized Nations: generally nonwhite, Latin
or Slavic, sources of raw materials and
• Racism did not play the only role of distinction
in his judgment. Japan was an economically
developed nation, therefore it was civilized.
• Civilized societies had the right and duty to
intervene in the affairs of a “backward” nation
to reserve order and stability for the sake of
• Proponent of a powerful Navy
Protecting the Open Door in Asia
• He wanted the Open Door policy to remain
strong in China. So when war broke out
between Russia and China he intervene and
helped bring about a peace treaty.
• He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for this
Iron Fist Neighbor
• When the government of the Dominican
Republic was deeply in dent to several
European nations, France and Italy were
threatening to take over the country if the
debt wasn’t promptly repaid. TR repeated the
principles of the Monroe Doctrine and added
the Roosevelt Corollary that stated the US
would intervene in the affairs of any Latin
American country that proved incapable of
governing itself. Very controversial.
Roosevelt saw construction of a canal through
Central America as vital to American power in
the world. A canal would save time and
money for both commercial and military
The US offered Colombia $10 million for the
right to construct a canal but they said no.
So then the US persuaded some Panamanians to
revolt against the Colombia government with
our help. Within 2 weeks Panama was an
independent country and the US had a treaty
with them to build a canal.
• Progressives expected Taft to enforce the
antitrust laws and to make sure that the
country’s natural resources were protected
from big business.
• He lost their support early on.
• New cabinet officers
• Taft was more conservative that TR, but
criticism was unfair
• First to protect federal lands on which oil had
• Also protected land that contained coal
• Both going against Big Business
• Better record than TR
• Twice as many prosecutions
Under the Sherman Anti Trust
Act—90 to 44 that TR had.
(Standard Oil )
Also under Taft’s Watch
• 16th amendment—Income tax
• 17th amendment-direct election of senators
Foreign Policy-Dollar Diplomacy
• Taft used financial as well as military might to
promote US business interests overseas and
During Taft's Administration
• The Titanic sinks-1912
Heaviest –332 lbs
Only President to
serve as Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court
• TR decided his successor was a mistake, so he
decided to would run again. The Republican
convention however nominated Taft instead.
• Bitterly disappointed TR decided to run on the
3rd party ticket –The Bull Moose Party
• If TR Bullied the Congress, Taft Bargained with
the Congress and Wilson Seduced persuaded
the Congress—1st PhD—words
• First since John Adams to go to the Hill and
address personally State of the Union speech.
• Self righteous, religious, and moral
• Energetic, firm, and committed to
to reform—but not by regulated Government but by fair
Wanted US to be isolated from Global affairs
• very productive and progressive first 2 years
• Underwood Tariff—lowered the tariff rates
From 45% to 27% (Income tax made up difference)
Federal Reserve Act-reorganized the banking systemcontrol money supply-set interest rates
During his term
Margaret Sanger worked on birth control
His wife died and 1 year later remarries
The Great Migration
19th Amendment-Women’s Suffrage