Ch. 3
Society and Culture in Provincial
America
Assess the validity of the following:
By the 1750’s, the British North Ame...
Colonial Population
• In less than a century, the European and
African population outnumbered the Native
American.
• Reaso...
European Immigrants
• England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland
Africans
• By far the largest single group of non-English
immigrants who came against their free will.
• By 1770’s 20% of ...
General Characteristics
• Dominance of English culture
• Self-government
• Religious toleration
• No hereditary aristocrac...
The Colonial Economies
• By the mid 1700’s, almost half of England’s
world trade was with its American colonies.
England p...
The Economy
• New England: rocky soil and long winters-
subsistence farming-small farms, under 100
acres. Money from
loggi...
• Southern Colonies: varied geography and
climate, farming ranged from small subsistence
family farms to large plantations...
Monetary System
• A major English strategy in controlling the
colonies economy was to limit the use of
money.
Transportation
• Transporting goods over water was much
easier than by land, making cities such as
Boston, New York, Phill...
The Colonial Mind of the 18th Century
• Two powerful forces:
• --traditional outlook of the 16th and 17th c
emphasizing a ...
The Decline of Piety—Why?
The Decline of Piety—Why?
• A rise of denominationalism
• Western movement
• Growing increasingly secular and materialisti...
The Great Awakening
1730-1740’s
• A religious movement characterized by fervent
expressions of religious feeling among mas...
Impact of the Great Awakening
Impact of the Great Awakening
• Emotionalism became a common part of
Protestant services
• First shared experience-profoun...
The Enlightenment
• John Locke: 2 important writings
• --Essay Concerning Human Understanding
• --Two Treaties of Governme...
• Americans who will make their mark as
Enlightened thinkers are Benjamin
Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine and
Jam...
Education
• Basic education was limited and varied among
colonies. Formal efforts were directed to
males-females were trai...
Concepts of Law and Politics and the
Press
• Lawyers often viewed as talkative
troublemakers, during the 1700’s became
nec...
Newspapers
• John Peter Zenger: jailed for printing true but
unfaltering truths about the Governor of New
York. Defended b...
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Ap ch. 3

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Ap ch. 3

  1. 1. Ch. 3 Society and Culture in Provincial America Assess the validity of the following: By the 1750’s, the British North American Colonies had created a separate identity and society. (remember your gripes)
  2. 2. Colonial Population • In less than a century, the European and African population outnumbered the Native American. • Reasons: Natural causes and immigration
  3. 3. European Immigrants • England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland
  4. 4. Africans • By far the largest single group of non-English immigrants who came against their free will. • By 1770’s 20% of population, and 90% lived in the south
  5. 5. General Characteristics • Dominance of English culture • Self-government • Religious toleration • No hereditary aristocracy • Social mobility
  6. 6. The Colonial Economies • By the mid 1700’s, almost half of England’s world trade was with its American colonies. England permitted limited manufacturing— making of flour and rum-but forbade competition with the English industries such as textiles.
  7. 7. The Economy • New England: rocky soil and long winters- subsistence farming-small farms, under 100 acres. Money from logging, shipbuilding, fishing, trading and rum- distilling • Middle Colonies: rich soil-an abundance of wheat and rye and corn. Indentured servants and hired laborers worked the farms of about 200 acres. • A variety of small manufacturing efforts developing-iron making—trade led to the growth of large cities like Philadelphia and New York.
  8. 8. • Southern Colonies: varied geography and climate, farming ranged from small subsistence family farms to large plantations of over 2000 acres. • Cash crops in the Chesapeake and North Carolina colonies was tobacco and rice and indigo in South Carolina and Georgia. • On large plantations, a shortage of indentured servants led to the increase use of slaves. Mainly located near rivers so as to easy shipping
  9. 9. Monetary System • A major English strategy in controlling the colonies economy was to limit the use of money.
  10. 10. Transportation • Transporting goods over water was much easier than by land, making cities such as Boston, New York, Philly and Charleston –with good harbors and navigable rivers –important. • News, ideas, and political thought were exchanged in Taverns • Postal system using horses and overland routes were in full operation by mid 1700’s
  11. 11. The Colonial Mind of the 18th Century • Two powerful forces: • --traditional outlook of the 16th and 17th c emphasizing a personal god keeping watch- stern moral code—intellect was less important than faith VS • --new spirit of Enlightenment—stressing the importance of science and human reason- people had control over their lives, the world could be explained. • Religion was brought from Europe but took on new and distinctive patterns
  12. 12. The Decline of Piety—Why?
  13. 13. The Decline of Piety—Why? • A rise of denominationalism • Western movement • Growing increasingly secular and materialistic • Enlightenment thought from Europe
  14. 14. The Great Awakening 1730-1740’s • A religious movement characterized by fervent expressions of religious feeling among masses of people. The movement fulfilled people’s need for direction and meaning which was missing. • Jonathan Edwards • George Whitefield
  15. 15. Impact of the Great Awakening
  16. 16. Impact of the Great Awakening • Emotionalism became a common part of Protestant services • First shared experience-profound effect- • Ministers lost some of their authority (Rebellions were made easier) • Divided many congregations • Perpetuated the idea of freedom of religion in America—many new churches were formed-350 new churches, over 50,000 new converts • Formation of new colleges—Harvard, William and Mary, Yale, Princeton-founded for training of ministers
  17. 17. The Enlightenment • John Locke: 2 important writings • --Essay Concerning Human Understanding • --Two Treaties of Government • Both advanced the revolutionary theory that political authority was not given by God to monarchs. Authority is derived from social compacts that people make—to preserve their “natural rights”
  18. 18. • Americans who will make their mark as Enlightened thinkers are Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine and James Madison
  19. 19. Education • Basic education was limited and varied among colonies. Formal efforts were directed to males-females were trained only for household work. • New England: Puritans emphasis on learning the Bible led to the first tax supported schools. • Middle Colonies: church sponsored or private—only the wealthy • Southern Colonies: Wealthy had tutors
  20. 20. Concepts of Law and Politics and the Press • Lawyers often viewed as talkative troublemakers, during the 1700’s became necessary as trade expanded and legal problems became more complex. • John Adams, James Otis and Patrick Henry— lawyers whose legal arguments would provide the basis for the American Revolution.
  21. 21. Newspapers • John Peter Zenger: jailed for printing true but unfaltering truths about the Governor of New York. Defended by a powerful lawyer, the courts ruled that criticisms of the government were not libelous if factually true. • This case perpetuated the concept of the freedom of the press in America

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