Chapter four ap empire under strain


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Chapter four ap empire under strain

  1. 1. Chapter Four The Empire Under Strain King George III Mid 1750’s no sign of major strain between England and her colonies. Colonies enjoyed many benefits
  2. 2. Benefits • Trade and commerce • Military protection • Political stability • The tradition of Salutary Neglect
  3. 3. What was revolutionary about this revolution? • What caused American colonists to become so discontent with England? • How radical was this American Revolution? • Was it a revolution or an inevitable evolution? • Was the Revolution a political and intellectual event? • Or was it a social and economic phenomenon?
  4. 4. The Albany Plan of Union • 1754-illustrate the importance for colonial unity
  5. 5. The French and Indian War 7 Year War-
  6. 6. Effects of the War • --Gave unchallenged supremacy in North America • --dominant naval power in the world • --American colonies no longer face the threat of attacks from the French, the Spanish or Indian allies
  7. 7. The British View • Low opinion of colonial military effort—poorly trained, disorderly rabble—refusing to contribute money or troops to the war effort.
  8. 8. The Colonial View • Proud of their military performance • Confident of their own defense • Not impressed with the British effort—badly suited for American terrain • Still very proud to be British
  9. 9. 2 Big Problems for the King • A huge area to maintain • A huge war debt • The End of Salutary Neglect • George Glenville was Prime Minister of England
  10. 10. Pontiac’s Rebellion • First major test of the new British imperial policy • Chief Pontiac led a major attack against colonial settlements on the western frontier. • British sent in the troops
  11. 11. Proclamation of 1763 • To deal with the problem of maintaining a large empire and stabilizing the western frontier and prevent hostilities between colonists and Native American. • Colonists reaction: anger and defiance
  12. 12. Proclamation of 1763 • Control westward movement of the white population—orderly fashion • Protect their trade and costly for defense
  13. 13. • The Proclamation was a first in a series of actions and reactions— • British: each act justified as proper method of protection and sharing the cost of burden • Colonists: each act threatened their liberties and long established practice of representative government
  14. 14. New Revenues and Regulations—to deal with the problem of $$$$ • Sugar Act: placed duties on foreign sugar, lower price of molasses, stricter enforcement of the Navigation act and established vice admiralty courts. • Quartering Act: required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers
  15. 15. The Currency Act • Required the colonial assemblies to stop issuing paper money
  16. 16. • The Stamp Act—required revenue stamps on most printed paper—legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets etc-- antagonized and unified the colonist the most. • Why? Not a tax on trade for commerce sake— it was a tax to raise money without the consent of the colonial assemblies. First direct tax.
  17. 17. Colonial Reaction • Patrick Henry • James Otis-The Stamp Act Congress • “Terrorist Groups” Sons and Daughters of Liberty • Boycotts • Repealed having never collected one cent • Declaratory Act-Parliament’s right to tax and make law for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever”
  18. 18. To what extent did changes in British policies toward the American colonies after 1763 cause the American Revolution?
  19. 19. The Townshend Acts • Tax on tea, glass, and paper—provided the authority to search private homes for smuggled goods. • Reaction –boycott—repeal of the acts
  20. 20. “No Taxation without Representation” • John Dickinson: Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer– stated that taxes were legal to regulate trade only, not to raise $$ • First to articulate “No taxation without representation” • “virtual representation vs actual representation”
  21. 21. The Boston Massacre 1770
  22. 22. Boston Massacre •
  23. 23. The Tea Excitement • The Tea Act—to save the East India Tea company from going bankrupt—actually lowered the price of tea—so what was the problem??
  24. 24. The Boston Tea Party 1773
  25. 25. Reaction From England • The Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) • --closed the Boston Harbor • --Put in a royal governor • --trials in England • --expanded the Quartering act to all colonies
  26. 26. Cooperation and War • New Sources of Authority emerged as royal authority in the colonies crumbled. • --Sons of Liberty—vigilante action and boycotts • --Committees of Correspondence- • First Continental congress 1774—endorsed grievances, recommended colonies prepare militarily and agreed to meet again next year
  27. 27. Lexington and Concord April 18, 1775
  28. 28. Lexington and Concord • • • AG