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Chapter four ap empire under strain

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  • 1. Chapter Four The Empire Under Strain King George III
  • 2. The Albany Plan of Union
  • 3. The French and Indian War
  • 4. Effects of the War • --Gave unchallenged supremacy in North America • --dominant naval power in the world • --American colonies no longer face the threat of attacks from the French, the Spanish or Indian allies
  • 5. The British View • Low opinion of colonial military effort—poorly trained, disorderly rabble—refusing to contribute money or troops to the war effort.
  • 6. The Colonial View • Proud of their military performance • Confident of their own defense • Not impressed with the British effort—badly suited for American terrain • Still very proud to be British
  • 7. 2 Big Problems for the King • A huge area to maintain • A huge war debt • The End of Salutary Neglect
  • 8. Proclamation of 1763 • To deal with the problem of maintaining a large empire and stabilizing the western frontier and prevent hostilities between colonists and Native American. • Colonists reaction: anger and defiance
  • 9. • The Proclamation was a first in a series of actions and reactions— • British: each act justified as proper method of protection and sharing the cost of burden • Colonists: each act threatened their liberties and long established practice of representative government
  • 10. New Revenues and Regulations • Sugar Act: placed duties on foreign sugar, lower price of molasses, stricter enforcement of the Navigation act and established vice admiralty courts. • Quartering Act: required the colonists to provide food and living quarters for British soldiers
  • 11. • The Stamp Act—required revenue stamps on most printed paper—legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets etc-- antagonized and unified the colonist the most. • Why? Not a tax on trade for commerce sake— it was a tax to raise money without the consent of the colonial assemblies. First direct tax.
  • 12. • Patrick Henry • The Stamp Act Congress • Sons and Daughters of Liberty • Boycotts • Repealed having never collected one cent
  • 13. To what extent did changes in British policies toward the American colonies after 1763 cause the American Revolution?
  • 14. The Townshend Acts • Tax on tea, glass, and paper—provided the authority to search private homes for smuggled goods. • Reaction –boycott—repeal of the acts
  • 15. “No Taxation without Representation” • John Dickinson: Letters of a Pennsylvania Farmer– stated that taxes were legal to regulate trade only, not to raise $$ • “virtual representation vs actual representation”
  • 16. The Boston Massacre 1770
  • 17. The Tea Excitement • The Tea Act—to save the East India Tea company from going bankrupt—actually lowered the price of tea—so what was the problem??
  • 18. The Boston Tea Party 1773
  • 19. Reaction From England • The Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts) • --closed the Boston Harbor • --Put in a royal governor • --trials in England • --expanded the Quartering act to all colonies
  • 20. Cooperation and War • New Sources of Authority emerged as royal authority in the colonies crumbled. • --Sons of Liberty—vigilante action and boycotts • --Committees of Correspondence- • First Continental congress 1774—endorsed grievances, recommended colonies prepare militarily and agreed to meet again next year
  • 21. Lexington and Concord April 18, 1775