Détente becomes the newContainment Policy• Nixon and Henry Kissinger sought to create anew international order based on the ideal of“multi-polarity” in which China, Japan, andWestern Europe would play an increasingrole, to replace the bipolar US-Soviet systemthat had existed.• SALT• Nixon Doctrine-support and aid
Domestic Policy• New Federalism: returning power to theStates• Family Assistance Plan—a reform of thewelfare system—failed• “Silent Majority”• Chief Justice Warren and his “liberal”decisions-expanded rights to the criminaldefendants
• Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC)• Rising energy costs• Decline of the industrial sector• High interest rates• Nixon proposed a wage and price control• 10% tariff• Fewer regulations
Re-election 1972• Nixon was very concerned about winning re-election. Nothing was going to get in his way.Kept an enemy list filled with people whom heconsidered a threat to his presidency.• Seeking to gain an edge in every way hecould, Nixon’s team engaged in a host ofsubversive tactics—from spying on oppositionrallies to spreading rumors to false reports.
Watergate• One tactic included breaking into theDemocratic Party’s headquarters, a placecalled Watergate, and stealing sensitiveinformation and placing wire tapping devices.• The Burglars got caught.
Watergate• http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=20E84D78-D141-4905-83C5-4BF4CB54215B• All the President’s Men• http://youtu.be/1fLdCZm7qgs
No one is above the Law• Gerald Ford becomes President and PardonsNixon of all wrong doing
Cost of Watergate• Can Americans trust their government?• Secret bombings, invasions, abuse ofpower, administration cover up, etc.• Journalists: “Bring down the Politicians”• Politicians: No part of their lives would besecret.• Proved that the US constitutional system ofchecks and balances worked.
Jimmy Carter-end of the ImperialPresidency• Carter’s efforts to distance himselffrom the Washington establishment helped himto defeat Ford. Moral and decent man, whoignored the advice of the more establishedand relied on many of his Georgia advisers.• Committed American foreign policy to thedefense of Human Rights.
Foreign Policy• Carter wanted the US to be “right and honestand truthful and decent” in dealing with othernations.• He moved to give the Panama Canal back toPanama• Boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics inMoscow because the Soviet Union hadinvaded Afghanistan.• Pardoned the Draft Dodgers
Camp David Accords-bringing Israeland Egypt together
The Hostage Crisis• The US had long supported the leader ofIran—the Shah of Iran—because Iran was amajor supplier of OIL to the US.• The Shah however was growing unpopularwith the Iranians and was becoming arepressive ruler.• He was also introducing “Western” reforms tothe society.• This did not make the Islamic clergy happy
• A revolution occurred and forced out the Shahand an Islamic Republic was then declared.• Islamic Republic is when religion andgovernment are united.• In 1979 revolutionaries stormed the Americanembassy in Tehran and held 52 Americanshostage.
For 444 days the hostages were heldcaptive. Carter could not negotiate fortheir release.