AP Chapter 24 The New Era Commonly known as the “RoaringTwenties”, this new era for America was the backdrop for a clashing of old and new, traditionalists vs.liberalism, country life vs. city life. It was a time of significant change in terms of social, economic and political views.
• The 1920’s was an era of rapid change and clashing values. Many Americans believed society was losing its traditional values and they took action to preserve these values. Other Americans embraced new values associated with a freer lifestyle and the pursuit of individual goals.
• A disillusioned America turned away from idealism after WWI and many turned toward social conservatism—they turned inward and became hostile to anything foreign or different
The New Economy• The US economy experienced a time of remarkable growth and prosperity—however still serious inequalities and imbalances among the people.
major economic developments of the 1920’s• Assembly line and Mass Production-created the consumer economy with the automobile at its center.
Paved roads New towns due New industries to new (car, gas) highways New architectural styles of homes Urban sprawl (garages, carports, driveways) Vacations, shopping, & Gas stationsentertainment Impact of the Automobile Tunnels Car repair shops Traffic signals Motels Shopping centers Tourist camps
Let the good times roll! Sales of Consumer Goods 1915 - 1930 1919 Cars 1929 9 million 26 million 1920 1929 Radios 60,000 10 million 1915 1930 Telephones 10 million 20 million 1921 1929 Refrigerators For every one … There were 167Overall, the output of American industry doubled in the 1920s
The New Culture—A Consumer Society• Per capita income $522-1921 $716-1928— greater than anywhere in the world.• Nation’s manufacturing output rose 60%• Inflation—almost nonexistent
Why?• European Needs—US could provide supplies to rebuild Europe• Technology—automobile …• Communication—radio, motion picture,• Energy-oil reserves and coal fields abundant
Labor in the New Era• Welfare Capitalism—some employers eager to avoid labor unrest adopted this—shortened work week, raised wages, and instituted paid vacation. Also some safety and sanitation• Only a small number of workers were involved.• It helped to keep Unions out of industry
Women and Minorities in the Work Force• Women: “Pink Collar” jobs-low paying service occupations—secretaries, sales clerks, telephone operators• African Americans: “Great Migration” produced many unskilled workers who took jobs as janitors, dishwashers, garbage collectors, laundry attendants, domestics
• Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters-1925-• A. Philip Randolph• Railroad employees- powerful labor union• Asians: Chinese Exclusion Act kept the Chinese out. Japanese took their place. The Issei (Japanese immigrants) and the Nisei (children born in American of Japanese parents) did have some success by establishing their own businesses. So much in fact that legislation was passed against them between 1913 and 1920 to make it much more difficult for them to purchase land.
Mexicans• ½ million entered the US in the 1920s. Most lived along border states. Living conditions were poor. Barrios in cities-no services like running water and sewage. Worked in factories, shops, mines, migratory farm laborers.
The American Plan• Unions were weak due to the strength of the corporations. Unionism was equated to subversive activities. Employers wanted an “open shop” rather than unions. This was called the American Plan—requiring no worker to join a union. Plan was endorsed by the National Association of Manufactures and the Government supported it as well.• Membership dropped in the 1920’s
Mass Consumer Culture• Electricity in homes enabled millions of Americans to purchase the new consumer appliances of the decade—• Automobiles became very affordable and sold by the millions—by 1929 over 26.5 million
Impact of the Automobile• More than anything else the car changed the pattern of American life—socially, economically and geographically.
The Advertising Industry• The growth of business produced the advertising industry• Businesses offered the installment plan, which allowed consumers to use credit to purchase expensive items a little at a time• America became a consumer society for the first time (status was measure by how many “things” you owned• However, people were going into debt and saving less money
• Newspapers and magazines began to appear—The Saturday Evening Post, Reader’s Digest, Time, Fortune, Life, Sports Illustrated— delivered to homes—carried advertisements and stories—made artists and writers famous
The Movies and Broadcasting• Silent films were well attended, but in 1927 the first “talkie” The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson was an huge success. The son of a Jewish Cantor must defy his father in order to pursue his dream of becoming a jazz singer.• http://youtu.be/TncSKQXYENQ• Birth of a Nation
Radio• The really important communications appliance was the radio. It developed news programs, soap operas, farm shows, comedy shows—just about anything one could ask for.
Religion• Religion was taking a back seat to other forms of family activities. But not by everyone..
Fundamentalism• Fundamentalism is the belief that the Bible is literally true, because it was written by God and cannot contain contradictions or errors• The rise of fundamentalism in the 1920s was caused by the belief that traditional life was under attack• Fundamentalists attacked women’s suffrage, education, and science
• Women’s suffrage was attacked by fundamentalists who believed that it upset traditional gender roles• Evangelical ministers spread the word of the fundamentalists at revivals & over the radio Billy Sunday, Evangelical Preacher
• Page 818—Professional Women and Changing Ideas of Motherhood
The Playful flapper here we see, The fairest of the fair.Shes not what Grandma used to be, You might say, au contraire. Her girlish ways may make a stir, Her manners cause a scene, But there is no more harm in her Than in a submarine. She nightly knocks for many a goal The usual dancing men. Her speed is great, but her control Is something else again. All spotlights focus on her pranks. All tongues her prowess herald.For which she well may render thanks To God and Scott Fitzgerald. Her golden rule is plain enough - Just get them young and treat them rough. by Dorothy Parker
Women in the 1920’s• The Flapper—a modern women of the 20’s.• Fashion took on a modern look during the 1920’s
“Flappers” sought individual freedom Ongoing crusade for equal rights Most women remain inthe “cult of domesticity” sphereDiscovery of adolescence Teenaged children no longer needed to work and indulged their craving for excitement
Flappers pursued social freedoms by entering the workforce as salesclerks, secretaries andphone operators as well as making contributions in science, medicine, law and literature.
Thoroughly Modern Millie• http://youtu.be/KVNcLUE87HQ
Education and Youth• The Belief in the value of education stimulated more state governments to anact compulsory school laws• More people were attending school than ever before—high school students doubled in the 20’s—this allowed students to create a culture of their own with their own hobbies, extracurricular activities, clubs etc.—a teenage culture developed.
Lost GenerationA group of novelists and poets including Ernest Hemingway and poets Ezra Pound and T.S. Eliot, abandoned the US for Europe.Many of writers expressed disillusionment with the materialism that they witnessed.
Poets and Writers• Ernest Hemingway “For Whom the Bell Tolls”• “ A Farewell to Arms”• F. Scott Fitzgerald “The Great Gatsby”• Many of these artist and authors were distraught due to the lack of direction or vision for America. The ideals of progressivism were gone and were replaced by big business, consumerism and politics.
The Harlem Renaissance• After WWI, black populations swelled in large northern cities—particularly in the New York City neighborhood of Harlem. It was there that African Americans created an environment that stimulated artistic development, racial pride, a sense of community and political organization. The result was a flowering of AA arts that became known as the Harlem Renaissance.
Writers• One of the most prolific, original, and versatile writers of the Harlem Renaissance was Langston Hughes. He became a leading voice of the African American experience in the US.
The Negro Speaks of Rivers Ive known rivers: Ive known rivers ancient as the world and older than the flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. I bathed in the Euphrates when dawns were young. I built my hut near the Congo and it lulled me to sleep. I looked upon the Nile and raised the pyramids above it. I heard the singing of the Mississippi when Abe Lincoln went down to New Orleans, and Ive seen its muddy bosom turn
Jazz, Blues and the Theater• Jazz-a new style of music influenced by Dixieland music and ragtime, with its ragged rhythms and syncopated melodies.• http://youtu.be/9idqeiACqn4• http://youtu.be/E2VCwBzGdPM• Duke Ellington• Louis Armstrong• The Cotton Club
•Beginning of the Jazz Age in New York City•Acceptance of African American culture•African American literature and music
A Conflict of Cultures• How did events reveal the major cultural conflicts of the 1920’s?• Sacco-Vanzetti case• Immigration restrictions• Prohibition• Nativisim and the KKK• The Scope Trial
The Sacco-Vanzetti Case-demonstrated the resurgence of nativism and the cultural divide of the nation
• Both Italian immigrants (anarchist)• Convicted of murder during a robbery• Evidence was insufficient, found guilty and executed in 1927
Controlling Immigration-sought to keep out the “wrong sort”• After WWI, American immigration policies changed in response to the postwar recession and nativist pleas to “Keep America American”.• In 1921, President Harding signed the Emergency Quota Act, which established a temporary quota system.• Only 3% on the total number of people in any ethnic group already living in the US could be admitted in a single year.• http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/immigrati on-us.html
•The U.S. Government began to restrict certain “undesirable” immigrants from entering the U.S. •Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910. •Immigration Act of 1924, the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America.
Prohibition-represented an unsuccessful attack on urban, immigrant culture• The 18th Amendment- making the manufacturing, selling and distributing of liquor illegal.• Enforcing the new law proved to be very difficult. Americans blatantly ignored the law. Speakeasies, bootlegging and hip flasks became part of common speech.
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•Goal: was to reduce crime and povertyand improve the quality of life by makingit impossible for people to get their hands on alcohol. •Called the "Noble Experiment" •Midnight, January 16th, 1920, US went dry. •The 18th Amendment, known as theVolstead Act, prohibited the manufacture,sale and possession of alcohol in America. Prohibition lasted for thirteen years.•So was born the industry of bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin.
•No other law in America has been violated so flagrantly by so many "decent law-abiding" people. •Overnight, many became criminals. •Mobsters controlled liquor created a booming black market economy. •Gangsters owned speakeasies and by 1925 there were over 100,000 speakeasies in New York City alone.
Organized Crime• Organized crime specialized in supplying and often ran the speakeasies. Crime became big business and some gangsters had enough money to corrupt local politicians. Al Capone became the most notorious gangsters of the era.
The Red Scare• Americans had become very anti-German as the war progressed, and when the Communists withdrew Russia from the war, they seemed to be helping Germany. American anger at Germany quickly expanded into anger at Communists as well. Americans began to associate communism with being unpatriotic and disloyal.
Nativism Resurges• The fear and prejudice many felt toward Germans and Communists expanded to include all immigrants. This triggered a general rise in racism and in nativism, the desire to protect the interests of old-stock Americans against those of immigrants.
Return of the KKK-functioned as an all purpose hate group—terrorists• At the forefront to restrict immigration, the new KKK targeted not only African Americans, but also Catholics, Jews and other groups believed to represent “un American” values.• By 1924 membership in the Klan exploded, reaching nearly 4 million.
The Scopes Trial-reflected the fundamentalist rejection of modern science• New ideas & fundamentalism clashed during the Scopes Trial--A historic trial that pinned evolutionists and creationists against each other.• A Tennessee teacher, John Scopes, was arrested and tried for teaching Darwin’s Theory of Evolution instead of the Bible’s account of Creation
The Scopes Trial• Main Characters:• John T. Scopes—science teacher who taught evolution• William Jennings Bryan—prosecutor, represented the creationists• Clarence Darrow—most famous trial lawyer at the time, defended Scopes
Popular Culture• The economic prosperity of the 1920’s provided many Americans with more leisure time and more spending money, which they devoted to making their lives more enjoyable.• Baseball and Boxing
Charles Lindbergh• He flew the first transatlantic flight in his plane called the Spirit of St. Louis and became a national hero
African American Politics• The racial pride that sparked the artistic achievements of the Harlem Renaissance also fueled the political and economic aspirations of many African Americans.• A dynamic black leader from Jamaica, of millions of African Marcus Garvey captured the imagination Americas with his call for “Negro Nationalism” which glorified the black culture and traditions of the past.
“Return to Normalcy”• This was Warren Harding’s campaign slogan.• 2 presidents during the 1920’s:• Warren Harding• Calvin Coolidge
The War’s Impact• Racial Unrest: As hundreds of thousands of white American soldiers from Europe returned home looking for a job, clashes occurred with the African Americans who had moved north during the war to take those jobs. Frustration and racism combined to produce violence. In the summer of 1919, over 20 race riots broke out across the nation.
Red Summer• The worst violence occurred in Chicago. On a hot July day, African Americans found themselves at a White only beach.• http://chicagotonight.wttw.com/2011/10/12/r ed-summer