Writing Chapter 3: Methods and Procedure Begin the chapter with a brief explanation of what the chapter is all about. The common introductoryexplanation is as follows:Writing the Introductory Paragraph This chapter presents the discussion on the research methodology of the study, the subjects, samplingtechnique, research instruments, procedure of data gathering, and statistical treatment that will be uses foraccurate data analysis and interpretationResearch Methodology This section specifies what method of research will be used – descriptive, correlational, experimental, ordocumentary analysis.Subjects/Respondents of the Study A distinction should be made between subjects and respondents of the study. Subjects are personsinvestigated in the study. When learning abilities of pre-school pupils are being assessed in the study, the pre-school pupils are the subjects. The pupils’ teachers and mothers who will be interviewed and asked to fill out aquestionnaire are the respondents of the study. Respondents, therefore, are providers of information needed inthe study, elicited orally or in writing. It is important to state your number of subjects or respondents and who they are. Also, explain how thenumber will be decided upon.Sampling Technique Explain what sampling technique will be used – random, purposive, stratified, etc.—why you used it, andwhat procedure will be followed to carry out the technique.Research Instruments It is necessary to have a separate discussion for this, if several research instruments have been utilized inthe study. Research instruments are questionnaires, tests, interviews, observations, etc.Procedures of Data Gathering Identify your sources of data. If a questionnaire will be used, explain what kind and how it will be constructed if it is original, how it is pre-tested, distribution, retrieval, collation, etc. Thus, your procedures may include: Construction of the questionnaire, Validation, Distribution, Retrieval, Collation, Presentation of Data and Interpretation of Data.Statistical Treatment of Data Specify the statistical treatment/s you will use for interpreting your data and why they are necessary. Also,include the scale or verbal interpretation for the statistical processing of your data; mention the name of theoffice or agency, or the person taking charge of it.
Sample CHAPTER 3 (NOTE: Past tense was used because it is a finished research. For proposals, future tense verbs should beemployed.) CHAPTER 3 Methods and Procedure This chapter presents the methods to be used in the study. It also describes the subjects of the study, the instruments used, the procedure of data gathering, and the statistical treatment of the data. This study will determine the effectiveness of Blended instruction in the teaching of Communication Skills 1 by comparing the students’ performance in their posttest scores and in their final grades. Method of Research Used The descriptive, experimental, and survey methods of research will be used in this study. Descriptive because its main concern is to get the holistic view of the characteristics of the subjects exposed to blended learning as well as those receiving the textbook-based instruction. This study is also experimental because two sets of subjects (experimental and control) will be compared in terms of their performance in English subjects. Pretest and posttest scores of the subjects will also be compared. Both quantitative and qualitative research shall be observed as it will elicit opinions and numerical data from the respondents through survey questionnaire. Subjects of the Study In this experimental study, 10 classes (sections) of CEU English teachers will be selected to participate in the process. Five sections of which will comprise the experimental group, and the other five sections, the control group. Students receiving blended instruction will be chosen as experimental group of the study. Those receiving classroom instruction will be the control group. The subjects and respondents of this study will be the first-year students of Centro Escolar University enrolled Mendiola and in Makati. A total of three hundred seventy-five students (375) will be composed of the experimental and control groups. They will be handled by five faculty members in Communication Skills 1 in the first semester of school year 2009-10.
As seen in figures 1 and 2, ten sections will be chosen to participate in theexperiment. Five sections (experimental) will be exposed to blended instruction; while theother five (control), to the classroom (traditional) instruction. Each teacher will handle onecontrol and one experimental sections that are comparable based on their pretest and GPA.The control group will total 185 students and the experimental group, 190 students.Therefore, Sections 1-5 will comprise the Control group as shown in Figure 1; and Sections6-10 will comprise the Experimental group, Figure 2.Sampling Technique Used Convenience sampling will be utilized in this research. Since the researcher teachesin the College of Nursing, she will use Nursing students as her subjects and respondents.The four groups will be selected on the basis of their comparability computed statistically.After determining them, the researcher will subject the two sections to online instruction,and the other two to the traditional way.Research Instruments Used The following instruments will be used in the conduct of the research: 1. Teacher-made tests. These are the achievement tests that will evaluatequantitatively the students’ performance in the control and experimental groups. These alsocomprise the pretest and posttests. 2. Questionnaire. The questionnaire will be used to assess the students’ perceptions ofonline instruction, including the electronic materials to be used in presentation.
Section 1 Section 2 32 students 39 studentsSection 3 Section 435 students 40 students Section 5 Total 39 students 185 students Figure 1 The Subjects in the Control Group Handled by Five Teachers
Figure 2The Subjects in the Experimental Group Handled by Five Teachers
Validation of Instruments The 10 expert faculty members will validate the questionnaire. Theircorrections and suggestions will be incorporated in the draft for the next stage ofvalidation. The 15 students who will not be included as the final respondents will beasked to answer the questionnaires. Their responses will be tested for reliability.Procedure of Data Gathering This study will consist of eight stages: Stage 1 deals with the training of English faculty members to blendedinstruction. All English teachers in the International Languages department will betrained in the computer laboratory for one week. However, in the final selection ofteachers, only 5 teachers will be included, whose classes will be identified ascomparable in the experimental procedures. Stage 11 deals with the development of online instructional materials. http://www.quia.com, will be subscribed to open a virtual classroom. Otherwebsites to be used are: http://wizard.4teachers.org, www.slideshare.net,www.blogger.com, http://tinypic.com/, www.mulitply.com, and www.quizmoz.com, www.nicenet.org will be utilized as the students’ site for conferencing withtheir teacher and peers outside classroom hours. This will be their main site; othersites, including their quizzes and exercises are linked here. Stage 111 deals with the construction and content validation of thequestionnaires and pretest and posttest materials. The 10 expert teachers in theInternational Languages Department will be requested to validate the questionnairesand the pre/post tests. The questionnaires will also be used for dry run to 15 studentswhose results will be subjected to reliability test.
Stage 1V deals with establishing comparability between the experimental and controlgroups through a pretest. Stage V deals with training/orienting of experimental groups to online navigation of thevirtual classroom. The five sections who will be selected as the experimental group will betrained and oriented to the blended instruction format. Stage V1 deals with the actual conduct of the study using blended and traditionalinstructions.Stage V11 deals with administration of posttests to the control and experimental groups andgathering of data in the posttests and final grades in Comskills 1. Stage V111 deals with the tabulating, analyzing and interpreting of the data gatheredusing several statistical tools.Statistical Treatment To interpret the gathered data, the researchers will use the following:1. Percentage, arithmetic mean and standard deviations to describe the profile of therespondents.2. ANOVA to determine the comparable groups for the experimental and control sections. 3. The t-test (test of difference between paired observations/groups) will be used todetermine if there is a significant difference between the performance (posttests and final grades)of the students in the experimental and control groups.