ACCA SMALL PROJECT REPORTin YOGYAKARTA CITY, INDONESIA 2010-2011 “a community creative process to unite separated spirit” ARKOM JOGJA, December 2011
CITY CONTEXT 1. Yogyakarta is a capital city of Special Territory (Daerah Istimewa) Yogyakarta province, with a governor as the Local Area Leader. The governor is also as a king (Sultan) in this territory. 2. More than 40% land in Yogyakarta are in Tanah Kraton status. Tanah Kraton means belongs to king (Sultan). 3. Poor villages in Yogyakarta city are located in 3 riverbanks area which are Winongo river (West), Code river (Middle) and Gajah Wong river (East). 4. The status of land where poor community settle/ live is : a. Land belongs to Kraton Yogyakarta (Sultan Ground), with the principle cannot be traded, but can be used and can be inherited, with permission of Kraton Yogyakarta. b. Land belongs to city government of Yogyakarta, called as “Wedhi Kengser” (riverbank area). As the rule, people cannot live here, but until now there are still some kampongs in this area.• Poor People Population (2009): 881,334 people of444,236 people (18.3%)*• 80% live in 3 riverbanks area, Sultan grounds area andgovernment land• 25% live in some private land and formal kampong * Source: Statistics Center of Yogyakarta City, 2009
LOCATIONS of ACCA’sPROJECTLEDOK GAJAH WONG Kampong 3Project: Paving Road and Drainage (135 mtrs length)Progress : finishedSorowajan Baru KampongProject: Public ToiletProgress : Starting saving group (Not yet started) 6CIPTOMULYO KampongProject: Community Center Building (Bamboo) 4 2Progress : finished 5Notoyudan RT.77 KampongProject: Public ToiletProgress : problems identificationNotoyudan RT.89 KampongProject : Public ToiletProgress : problems identificationNGENTAK SAPEN KampongProject: DrainageProgress : Starting Saving Group (not yet started) 1 Number of locations are not final, we are still in city-wide survey, community network will be in decision where is the most priority projects
ABOUT 3 RIVERS IN YOGYAKARTA CITY Identification process of poor kampongs in Yogyakarta was started in the beginning of 2010. The identification is based on data from city government of Yogyakarta which mention that 75% of 65,000 poor household live in 45 sub district Yogyakarta city. These sub district are in river banks of: 1.Winongo River (west side of city) 2.Code River (middle side of city) 3.Gajah Wong River (east side of city) They live in informal land with the status: 1.Sultan Ground (land belongs to kraton) 2.Wedi Kengser without legacy (land belongs to city government of Yogyakarta) 3.Wedi Kengser with legacy/ building permission (land belongs to city government of Yogyakarta) 4.Ngindung (belongs to person, rent for a long term period) Code River Since 2000 the city government of Yogyakarta have implemented renovation program for poor kampongs in riverbank area. The pilot project which implemented by city government are in kampongs located in Code riverbank (middle side of city) by some programs: 1.Block grant: grant for kampong reconstruction 2.Segoro Amarto (kampong poverty decreasing program of Code riverbank) 3.“Save Jogja for Code” is a program to make Code kampong as a tour destination. 4.Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Perkotaan (PNPM) Mandiri – National Program for Urban Community Empowerment. 5. Prokasih (Program Kali Bersih – Clean River Program) 6. Reconstruction of dike in Code riverbank 7.Reconstruction of Rusunawa (Hunian Sewa – Rent House with cheap price) twin block 6 floors in riverbank of Code river.
This cultural observer who is called Romo Mangun has success built a settlement close with Coderiverbank. Before his action, houses in riverbanks are scattered one another. Maybe Romo Mangunhope that Code river can be like rivers in Venice, Spain, with a beautiful view. And the result, houseface the river become part of city beautiful view.Previously, the settlement in those riverbanks never been noticed by them who have authority, evenby city government or architect groups. City government of Yogyakarta also had a plan to condemnthe settlement. The reason is because of bad city view. But, it is different with Romo Mangun. He isan architect graduated from Aachen, Jerman, and he can see that Code river can be a magnet for ariver tour. The greatest of all, this achiever of SEA Write Award from Thailand through book "Burung-burung Manyar", give his opinion that community in Code river have right to build a settlement here.Even not in a smooth way, - city government refused the opinion, but the effort could bring this man,who was born in Ambarawa, Middle Java, get an award, The Aga Khan Award, in 1992. More thanthat, Code river also achieved an award, The Ruth and Ralp Erukine Fellowship (1995), as a prove thatRomo Mangun always give his support to minority person. Another success story in Code river kampong
Winongo and Gajah Wong River Different with Code river, another 2 rivers in Yogyakarta city, Winongo river and Gajah Wong river until present still not become the focus of government agenda, even the city government of Yogyakarta in 2007 has started with some reconstruction programs in kampongs in riverbank of Winongo river and Gajah Wong river. There are some: 1.Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (PNPM) Mandiri Perkotaan – National Program of Urban Community Empowerment, $200,000 for each sub district per year (credit from World Bank) 2.Block Grant for 3 settlement area through Winongo Asri community, $30,000 per area per year 3.Reconstruction of dike program in riverbanks, $100,000 per year 4.Reconstruction of community IPAL (Instalasi Pembuangan Air Limbah – Installation of Waste Water) 5.Kampong Tour Program to Increase the Potency in riverbank, $10,000 per kampong per year. 6.Reconstruction of rusunawa (hunian sewa – rent house with cheap price) in riverbanks.Until now, majority people in this poor settlement in riverbank of Winongo and Gajah Wong river, livein informal land belongs to Sultan (Sultan ground) and riverbank area. They still have problems:1.Bad sanitation system2.There is no drainage installation3.Unsafe landslide as in a dangerous area.4.Road in kampong still in an non pavement condition5.Clean water installation6.GarbageCity government still doing some reparation in settlement area in riverbank of Winongo and GajahWong river with community-based programs. The term in Indonesia is “Kelompok SwadayaMasyarakat” (KSM).
STARTING SMALL PROJECT (September 2010):UNITE COMMUNITY SPIRIT planning ACCA Small Project is focused for poor kampongs in 2 riverbanks in Yogyakarta, Winongo river and Gajah Wong river with consideration: 1.Physical condition in informal settlement in these 2 rivers, generally are worse than settlement in riverbank of Code river. 2.There are too many NGO and government program which were implemented in the settlement in riverbank of Code river since 2000, but in riverbank of Winongo and Gajah Wong river there are still have not. 3.Socially, people who live in riverbank of Code river feel apathetic and passive with institution/ other side of community which ask people for rehabilitation. Because there are too many programs implemented in riverbank of Code river. Without any organizing, program still coming (by contractor approach).. 4.But the community who live in riverbank of Winongo and Gajah Wong river, they are more active to find and try a joint working with other side (NGO) which can give facilitation about infrastructure reconstruction, beside city government of Yogyakarta. Identification process of kampongs in Winongo and Gajah Wong riverbanks are did in a simple way: 1.Kampongs with less number of community (less than 50 household) and they already have kampong organization (paguyuban) so the organizing process in community level is not too long and in an easy way. 2.Kampongs with bad infrastructure condition: Road still in non paving block, no public toilet, bad drainage installation and status of informal land.
STARTING ACCA SMALL PROJECT (September 2010):UNITE COMMUNITY SPIRIT implementation Name of Type of No. of CO-FINANCING to PROJECTS (USD) Kampongs Project HHs ACCA Community Government Others TotalLedok Gajah Paving Road 45 500 722 0 50 1,272Wong* and DrainageCipomulyo* Bamboo 26 3,500 1,000 0 0 4,500 Community (as community Center revolving fund)Ngentak Drainage 43 4,000 - - - -Sapen**Sorowajan Public Toilet 33 2,000 - - - -Baru**Notoyudan Public Toilet 45 2,500 - - - -RT.77 **Notoyudan Public Toilet 61 2,500 - - - -RT89 **Total 244 15,000 1,722 0 50 5,772**** Finished** Not yet Started (pending after city-wide survey finished on December 2011).***Amount is updated on 1st November 2011
LEDOK GAJAH WONG Community “..by our power to build our road in kampong, we want to show to the government that we have abilities; energy, money and spirit to work together. For a long time we just received promises that our road would be built, but the reality is nonsense..” (Kenthut, 45 years old – Leader of Road Reconstruction Team ) planning process Mapping process is created with representative of community who were pointed in community meeting. The results of mapping are kampong map with location of houses, wheels and septic tank. There are also some kampong problems which should be solved together based on the priority and community ability. There was a meeting after the mapping process with all people in community, to discuss about priority project, how to implement and who conduct the implementation.Community Mapping
LEDOK GAJAH WONG Community planning processTechnical Planning There is an agreement with community that the priority project is paving road reconstruction, so the implementation team with ARKOM JOGJA started to measured the road based on kampong map as the result of mapping. The result of measurement are 135 meter for the long and 1,2 meter for the wide of road. The next step is calculated the material needed and surveyed the price of material in material distributors in 3 different location. After calculated the budget, people in community are prepared to collect material which should not be bought but just collected from river. The material is sand. In 2 weeks, people collected sand together, and the result is 34 m3 sand (equal with $296).
LEDOK GAJAH WONG Community 4 days collected sand from river = 34 m3 by 20 persons 3 days worked together set the paving block = 135 meter by 15 persons 2 day finishing process = 270 meter by 10 persons Implementation process Contribution of people in this community: 1.Workers for 9 days x 35 person as equal as $ 622 2. Sand material 34 m3 as equal as $296 3. Grant from kampong leader $50 for cement purchasing
LEDOK GAJAH WONG Community final result BEFORE AFTER
CIPTOMULYO Communityplanning process:Repeated the processes in previous kampong, Ledok Gajah Wong, therewas planning process by mapping with community to identify someproblems in this location:1.There is no community center, there is no area for this facility.2.There is no river dike for prevent flood3.There is no treatment system for solid waste4.There is no management and treatment center for garbage.5.There is no electricity for 23 houses of 26 houses After meeting with community, all agreed that the priority problem in this area is community center. The term in Indonesia is Balai Warga. They need the community house for community meeting like: learning together for children, meetings for saving group, monthly community meeting and ritual ceremony.
CIPTOMULYO Community People used some grant from ACCA Small Project for about $ 900 to buy a land 6x8 m2 in riverbank. They agreed that they will use the grant as community fund with rolling system. Every household should return the grant $ 22 per month or $ 1 per day. Community organization (paguyuban) will manage the grant and there will be an announcement for community every date 20.implementation process ARKOM JOGJA team facilitated the design process, ask people to use bamboo with special treatment as a main material for build the community center. There is a training for worker team to learn about special treatment for bamboo (preservative treatment). But for bamboo as main material in community center building, SAHABAT BAMBAU (SABA) has treated bamboo first (not by community themselves). Because the process of treatment take a long time and need a wide place. If the process is doing by community, it will take a long time. Community want the building finish in 1 month reconstruction. The reconstruction process is for 4 weeks, by 10 workers and supervised by bamboo expertise from ARKOM JOGJA. The reconstruction process cost $ 2,600. There is also community contribution as worker which is as equal as $ 700 and sand material from river which is as equal as $ 300.
CIPTOMULYO Community “..before we have community center, we always have our meeting in street. It is very uncomfortable especially in rainy day, the meeting can be end. Now we have a community center for our activities: children can learn together, we can have out meeting about savings, ritual ceremony…” (Sumiyati, 50 years old – live in Ciptomulyo)final result BEFORE “..we have good experiences from architects about bamboo technology. For a long time we just use bamboo as a simple way for build a house. Now we know that by treat bamboo with specific treatment we can get a good quality of building. It is stronger and beautiful...” (Prih, 52 years old - coordinator of worker team) AFTER
LESSON LEARN PASCA SMALL PROJECT MODELIn Ledok Gajah Wong and Ciptomulyo 1. Community participation in 2 kampong is very active, which can give $ 1,722 independently as material (sand) and worker which were working together. And the fund from ACCA Small Project in 2 kampongs is used $ 4,000 for 6 months. 2. Community initiative to start kampong upgrading give attention impact from kampong leader/ key person, and they give grant $ 50 to support the process. 3. The opportunity to implement ACCA Small Project make community aware about how important is the networking between one to another community. They believe that there is still another poor community in riverbank of Winongo and Gajah Wong river. They need the same activity. 4. The opportunity to create a networking is a new thing for poor community in Yogyakarta. Previously they did not care one another. Now they realize that their feeling about “being minority” is real and there are still another communities feel the same feeling. For these reasons they want to doing survey for all poor kampongs in riverbank of Winongo and Gajah Wong river. They want to know how many communities live in the riverbank and know about the community problem. Are they also have the same one, are they also still have spirit? They hope the result about community problem here can be delivered to city government of Yogyakarta and ask them to solve the problems together, similar with another 2 kampongs, Ledok Gajah Wong and Ciptomulyo kampong.
The next PROCESS:CITY-WIDE SURVEY by Jaringan Antar Kampung The process is being worked using ACCA’s Small Project Budget is identify as many slum kampongs in urban and sub-urban of Yogyakarta City area. From the identification/ initial survey, we are finding several kampong in three riverside area. We had started to organize 5 kampongs to do community mapping. Community mapping results in 5 kampongs used to start Small Projects based on priorities of each kampong such as: 1.Build paving road 2.Build Bamboo Community Center During the identification process in more than 10 slum kampongs surveyed, we found some interesting characteristics and typology of the slum area in Yogyakarta Urban Areas: 1.Community live in illegal land along riverside 2.Community live in “Sultan Ground” 3.Community live in “private land” (rent a plot) 4.Community live in illegal land of Train Company
The importance of continuing the process identification and early surveyfor slum area in Yogyakarta Urban and Sub-Urban area. Early identificationthat shows some typology of slum kampongs interesting to be exploredwith community network that has been running the ACCA program IYogyakarta City.The early findings of the four typologies of slum area in Yogyakarta City;1.Community live in ilnformal land along riverside2.Community live in “Sultan Ground”3.Community live in “private land” (rent a plot)4.Community live in illegal land of Train Companyshows that poorest people living in threatened by eviction and lost ofhousing rights by group who have other interests.Although the number and condition is not as much and as bad as other bigcities in Indonesia, but by looking the poorest kampongs in Yogyakarta willbe able to provide an overview of complex issues and potential because wewill get accurate database in qualities and quantities, locations andcharacteristics.By City Survey Program will be used as a tool for build strong cooperationwith City Government to make “city-wide”.
1.Create participatory database (included: number of households, housing security issues, land targetownership, infrastructure, community organizations, saving activities, existing developmentinitiatives, another NGOs program) of all Slum area in Yogyakarta city using website and simplebook.2.Community finding and formulate a specific definition of slum area in Yogyakarta City.3.Community network (5 communities) know the problems of other communities and finding thealternative solution of their settlement.4.Community network to do negotiate to the City and Region Government to suggest acommunity-driven program as a model program for poverty problems and resolving of security oftenure. survey/ assessment Community network together with ARKOM’s team (community architects and architecture student from Duta Wacana Christian University) to do city survey in all slum area in Yogyakarta urban and sub-urban area. There are more than 15 slum area will be survey and indentify. Community and Community and ARKOM’s team ARKOM’s team Negotiate Community and Community and Community with City ARKOM’s team ARKOM’s team City-wide database of all Government Survey slum area in to make Community and (more than 15 Community and Yogyakarta model / ARKOM’s team communities) ARKOM’s team City partnership program Community and Community and ARKOM’s team ARKOM’s team Finding some criteria of slum area
On-going Process of City-wide Survey the fact 16 communities in Winongo Riverside , 14 communities in Gajah Wong Riverside, 5779 people, 1693 HHs live in unsecured land: • 13 communities live in informal land • 3 communities live in Sultan Ground • 9 communities live in informal rent of private land • 3 communities live in local government land • 2 communities live in conflict land Problems: • 774 HHs in 11 communities have bad condition of road • 834 HHS in 14 communities don’t have drainage system • 3175 HHs in 24 communities dispose solid and liquid waste to the river (without treatment system) • 524 HHS in 11 communities don’t have public toilet • 1360 HHS in 23 communities dispose the garbage to the river
IMPACT and FOLLOW UP 1. Database which we get from survey with kampong relationship become a tool for negotiation with city government of Yogyakarta and DPRD Yogyakarta city. 2. There are some informal discussion with government of Yogyakarta city, especially for division of infrastructure development. And the government appreciate poor community wishes in Yogyakarta city for the survey result that really help them to solve the problems about settlement especially in infrastructure division. 3. The city government of Yoggyakarta has a commitment to make a joint program to finish the settlement problems in Winongo and Gajah Wong riverbanks with approachof ARKOM JOGJA and kampong networking in 2012. 4. 30 kampong networking have a deal to keep the ACCA Small Project going in 4 kampong as the needed and ability of each. Another 26 kampongs have a deal to wait a joint program with government of Yogyakarta city and DPRD.