SCALE of the DISASTER275 killed (burned) by hot clouds of ash, 453 people injuries400,000 people evacuated390,000 people life in +700 makeshift camps428,230 cattles burned 4,000 cows killed2,800 houses destroyed+6,000 hectares of mount forest fired Source: National DisasterManagement Agency (BNPB), November, 2010 MAP of MERAPI HAZARD ZONE
IMPACTS of MERAPI’s ERUPTION HAZARD MAPFarm is crop failure Covered by volcanic materialsVolcanic smoke Covered by volcanic materials Lava flow from the crater Dangerous zone (300 meters riverside)Damage area by hot cloud ashes Burned and damage by hot cloud ashes
DIFFERENT IMPACT in CENTRAL JAVA and YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE IMPACTS CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE YOGYAKARTA PROVINCE Number of victims (dead) 76 people killed 199 people killed and burned by hot cloud ashes Farm fields Radius15K from the crater is totally covered by Radius 10K from the crater is covered by volcanic volcanic ashes (30 cm high), pady’s field is crop ashes (5 cm high), individual forest of 35 villages failure burned by hot cloud ashes Mountain forest Radius 5K from the crater totally damaged and Radius 5K from the crater totally damaged and burned (more than 1,000 Hectares) burned (more than 5,000 Hectares) Number of cattle victims 32,032 cattles killed and burned 396,198 cattles killed and burned Settlement Damaged Less than 50 houses in 5 districts with small 2,656 houses in 35 hamlets totally damaged, damaged by volcanic ashes (old construction) 90% of village area in Gendol Riverbank covered by volcanic materials (5-10 meters high) Public Facilities Damaged ?? 217 schools, 7 traditional markets, 15 health (not finding the data) clinics Local Government Disaster Primary Impact: Emergency response (barracks) Primary Impact: Red Zone 5K from the crater Management Focus Secondary Impact: Cold Lava in some riverbank (90% damaged area), Rehabilitation and settlements (relocation scheme) Reconstruction of 7 districts Social Conditions Normal Stress, stuck on the government barracks, no activities, detached from the old community Livelihood Recovery after emergency relief Totally collapse, because 90% of community life: (3 month after), except secondary impact of cold farming, livestock, people forest, houses are lava flood. damage (starting economy from zero after 3 months) Post Disaster Policy from No Specific Policy, because of small impact of the Build 6 area of temporary houses without Provincial Government disaster, people already back to the own village participation, 7 Hamlets on 5-10K from the crater must clear from settlement, settlement will be relocate in save area* Source: Compilations of National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) to Local Government, January 2011
VILLAGES in 4 to 15K from the CRATER UNREBUILDABLE AREA: • on 300 meters riverside area; 5 rivers in Yogyakarta and 10 rivers in Central java. • more than 75% area of kampong covered by volcanic 7 hamlets in Sleman Regency* materials; sand and rocks, more than 5 meters deep. • direct impact by hot clouds of ash and cold lava hazard. REBUILDABLE AREA: • out site 300 meters riverside area. • less than 25% area covered by volcanic materials; sand and rocks, less than 0.5 meters deep. • undirect impact by hot ashes and cold lava hazard.* Source: Recommendation of National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) to Local Government, January 16, 2011
STRATEGY in COMMUNITIES Strengthen and empower the community in one hamlet to become a “model” and give effect to other hamlets by Big Project of ACCA. Small Project of ACCA as a media to strengthen network of inter- SPIN OFF activities starting village to negotiate and advocacy didtrict-wide policy. from person to group5 Government support ACCA Program to Community Network 4 GOAL: Policy Change3 ADVOCACY: district-wide/government Post Disaster Policy at District Level2 Link together with other Communities/NGOs to district/city-wide process 1 (ON GOING PROCESS) Activities and person SPIN OFF strategy to strengthen communities and Community Network inter communities network
HORIZONTAL NETWORKNumb Name of Organization Activities 1 People to People Post-Disaster Network Communities effected by Earthquake 2006 are supporting Communities effected by Merapi Eruption 2010: carpenters, bamboo, plantation and some materials to build self help shelter 2 Architecture Students Network (Duta Wacana Post-disaster Volunteer Program Christian University and Gadjah Mada University) 3 Duta Wacana Christian University Community Mobilized volunteer during Emergency Phase After Merapi Development Organization Eruption 4 Disaster Risk Reduction Weekly Forum (more Coordination meeting to solve some problems in Sleman District than 30 Local NGO members) effected areas 5 Shelter Working Groups in Yogyakarta Province Community Advocacy for Shelter Top-down Policy (25 Local NGO members) 6 UN-OCHA for Post Merapi Eruption Program Weekly Community Quality Monitoring for Shelter Development by Local Government 7 Rujak Center for Urban Studies (RCUS) Jakarta Advised Post Disaster of Merapi Eruption Program 8 Local Cultural and Artisan Network Weekly Discussion to explore local wisdom and cultural aspect 9 Goethe Institute Jakarta Reactive Architecture Exhibition (local community adapted and inspiring disaster mitigation issues) 10 Urban Poor Consortium (UPC) Coordination how to link Community-Driven Program after Merapi Eruption, advocacy district/ciy-wide post disaster policy 11 Vice Regent of Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta Monthly coordination meeting to proposed alternative concept for Province Street Vendor Communities 12 Local Parliament in Sleman Regency and City Participatory Process for Sleman District Post Disaster Master Plan 2010-2030 13 Citizen Band Radio Organization (RAPI) of Joint together supported build self help shelter in some Yogyakarta communities affected area after Merapi Eruption
On-going ACTIVITIES to support THE STRATEGY :HAMLETS UNCOVERED by Volcanic Materials:- Community mapping and planning in old hamlets- Build self-help shelter in individual plots: 1 Hamlet- Build inter-hamlets community network: 13 Hamlets- Focus Group Discussion with Local Disaster Management andMitigation Agency: 13 Hamlets- Setting priority for ACCA’s small upgrading project to encourage inter-community involvement: 1 Hamlet- Starting to discus with community how to manage ACCA’s budget tobuild their life, especially rebuilding their houses: 13 HamletsHAMLETS COVERED by Volcanic Materials:- Community Quality Monitoring for 6 locations of government’s shelterconstruction- Community Meeting in shelter: Finding long-term settlement solution,community mapping and planning- Looking for alternative location of new settlement (within 3 km fromold hamlet): 12 Hamlets- Setting up to shared most priority of ACCA’s small upgrading project topush inter-community involvement in each Hamlet: 13 HamletsADVOCACY:- Together with communities network negotiate with Local Governmentand Local Parliament- Networking with local NGO in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) WeeklyForum(27 Local NGOs), UN-OCHA and especially with UPC
WORKING AREA (after shelter life) Merapi’s Crater +2941 Most affected area Cold lava affected area 1 Rivers flow from the crater 2 3 5 6 4 8 7 MEMBER of Village NETWORK: 1. Kali Tengah Lor 9 2. Kali Tengah Kidul 10 3. Srunen 11 4. Singlar 5. Petung 6. Batur 7. Kepuh 8. Pager Jurang 9. Gondang 10. Pusung 11. Bakalan
THE LOCAL WISDOM Collective self-sufficiency has been passed from generation to generations. It has been rooted strengthened together with development of Mount Merapi. For some, the mountain is called as the great grandfather. The call forms the base of relationship between two: grandfather will not put harm to the grandsons, and on the other hand, the latter will not make the former angry. They care about each other, respect is traded between the two. Therefore, those living around the mountain never see its eruption as a disaster. It is seen more as a project being launched by the great grandfather. Whose ends would bring prosperity and grace to the grandsons.
FINAL ACTIVITIES Desa Dukun : build 5 units temporary latrinein EMERGENCY PHASE 327 household : support basic needs logistic in 9 refugee camps 0 killed Desa Hargomulyo : support basic needs logistic in 9 refugee camps 215 household 2 killed Desa Mangunsuko 215 household : support basic needs logistic in 9 refugee camps 0 killed Desa Sruni 239 households : build 10 units temporary latrine 2 killed Desa Ngipikrejo : build 6 units temporary latrine 24 households : children drawing and origami in 1 refugee camp 0 killed Desa Glagaharjo : build 18 temporary shelters 327 household : evacuate any leftovers for 7 households 7 killed : alternative health treatment for 554 survivors Desa Kepuh Harjo : alternative health training for 105 survivors 690 households : public news paper for 5 hamlet camps 2 killed : evacuated any leftovers for 5 hamlets : alternative health treatment for 152 survivors Desa Wukirsari : alternative health training for 35 survivors 259 households : children drawing for 15 kids 18 killed : public news paper for 3 hamlet camps : Merapi’s Crater : evacuate any leftovers for 3 hamlets : Magelang Regency, Central Java : alternative health treatment for 109 survivors : Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta : build communal clean water tank in 1 refugee camps : Boyolali Regency, Central Java Desa Argomulyo : build 3 temporary shelter s : Klaten Regency, Central Java 78 household : children drawing for 15 kids 3 killed : children school transportation for 15 kids from refugee camp : public news paper for 1 hamlet camp : evacuate any leftovers for 10 households
OBJECTIVES AND EXPECTED RESULTSDevelopment Result (Changes at Policy Level)Contribute to the Changes in Community-Based Disaster Management Policy Pushing for changes in local policies to be based on community needs. Pushing for changes in public policy making with regards to human rights fulfillment and community participation. Local government to support ACCA Program.Enabling Result (Direct Changes in the Corresponding Communities)Empower local communities to take active participation and control in the decision makingprocess of reconstruction and rehabilitation plans. The fulfillment of basic rights of the affected in temporary shelters. The establishment of community bodies concerned with policies to fulfill people’s basic rights in post-disaster rehabilitation and reconstruction. The establishment of organized community groups capable and able to run related programs. The availability of land for the location of permanent housing for the affected. The construction of disaster-responsive permanent housing. Strong inter-village network.
Kalitengah Lor Hamlet:Built 23 units Self-help Shelter* • build temporary shelter in original plot • community organizing to collect debris materials (bamboos, planks, woods, roof tiles) • mobilization carpenters and masons (people to people approach) • starting sub-village mapping *field progress until January 31 2011, by ARKOM team
Self-help Shelter 1. Identification of beneficiaries who high-spirited return to the old village, 2. Assist the clearing debris in individual plot, 3. Build kampong committee to build individual shelter, 4. Community meeting agreeing the location of shelters, with extreme weather consideration, 5. Collecting debris materials (bamboos, woods, stones and bricks), 6. Mobilizing the artisan groups from other village (Jogja disaster kampongs network), 7. Together build shelters1 2 5 6 3&4 7