The purpose of this portfolio is to make readily available for all stakeholders and educational administrative parties interested in the methodical workings, educational assiduity, artifacts and evidences from the educational career of Arkiel Aburashid S. Brown
Enclosed herein are assessment samples, goal statements, teaching philosophy, the Curriculum Vitae and more.
The teacher’s philosophy, teacher’s goal statement and Curriculum vitae tend to be the most convincing artifacts and therefore have been detailed and presented accordingly.
It is the teachers’ responsibility to assess the level and needs of the students, Prepare and model the students’ lessons in an appropriate learning environment. He/she should also assess the progress and development of the students. Finally, use the results to improve the approach.
Teaching Objectives, Strategies, and Methodologies
conception of teaching and learning- Objectives a. I begin with the end in mind. Students are expose to simulations and examples and are expected to match or excel beyond the model.
description of how you teach- Strategy a. Present, Practice and Perform. Realistic problem base/project base techniques. b. Drilling exposure to various situations (critical thinking). c. Differentiated and Independent learning strategies.
Justification for why you teach that way- methodology
a. Grammar-Translation method
b. Communicative Approach
c. Immersion Method
Chapter II Teaching Philosophy
IV. Efforts to Improve
V. Ratings on Diagnostic
VI.Evidence of Learning
ESL Teaching Methodology Introduction When teaching English, the teacher should always adapt whatever approach or method is appropriate to the needs and abilities of the student. This is my philosophy and statement from my own heart, although taken from page twenty-nine of the module one section B, these are my words and I could not have said them better myself. These words may be easily said and we may wholeheartedly believe in the philosophy; I mean in theory this stuff is cake walk; but in practice well, that’s something different. Like anything else, without knowledge of the options available or awareness of the functions of the tool, your job may be all the more difficult. When we consider how many language teachers feel frustrated after numerous attempts to get desired results from students. Most of the anxiety or feelings of hopelessness are usually associated with miscalculated expectations, limited knowledge of the options available or how to properly use the tools available. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
ESL Teaching Methodology Grammar-Translation Method Take the Grammar-Translation method for example, amongst all the popular methods it is considered outdated or the hallmark of the old system. In the modern education system, the last thing anyone wants to do is be associated with something old. “Out with the old; in with the new.” That is the popular mentality. Although this mentality is the view of the general populace, we must still accept that in some cases “you can not teach an old dog new tricks.” Let us take my case; up until I read LTTC Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers Of Other Languages module one, I thought I knew the Arabic language. After close studies and a clearer definition of language I have come to realize that I have been using the Grammar-Translation method; which explains my continuant struggle to speak and understand raw Arabic conversation. I am literally unable to think outside the box when it comes to the language. I have a pretty impressive vocabulary for an American with only three months of formal Arabic training. I initially started learning for religious purposes so, my learning had context and has a touch of the direct method. I read frequently and find translating newspaper articles, signs and nutritional facts labels amusing. However, after spending five years in Arab countries I still struggle on the telephone trying to describe my air condition problems to the repair man. I am familiar with many of the language rules. I depend heavily on my first language. I often need to listen to something three and four times before really comprehending the content. All these are handicaps of undergoing the S+A+A1} R process. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
ESL Teaching Methodology Grammar-Translation Method continued The place of Grammar in language teaching PT 1 By Arkiel AbuRashid Brown People often describe grammar as the “rules” of the language; but, as I understand it, there are no true rules to any language. The English language is no exception to the rule; it (language) is ever changing pending participants, venue/situation and era. Therefore grammar is more similar to a reflection of the language at that time. Linguists have gone so far as to conclude that there are different types of grammar. Respectively, they suggest that spoken grammar differs from written grammar. Nonetheless, far from being a rule grammar does reward us with structure and some consistency in language. As a teacher of English as a foreign language, I am the first to admit that having knowledge of grammar proves most helpful when attempting to explain an otherwise complex concept of the language. Furthermore, the majority, students included, expect you to have sound knowledge in the tenants of the language; especially grammar, because they too believe it to mean “the rules of the language”. In addition to appearing very smart, most language teaching books and materials tend to focus namely on vocabulary and grammar skills, therefore, some grammar knowledge would be required to make heads or tails of the grammar jargon flooding the language teaching industry. It should be obvious by now, knowledge of grammar is necessary for the language teacher as well as anyone interested in serious language studies. Although grammar is not the rules of the language it is a useful system to understanding the functions of a language. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
The place of Grammar in language teaching PT 2 In some cases grammar may very well be the essence of clarity in the communication process. Throughout module four of the London Teacher Training College Diploma in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Language Masters course much emphasis is placed on how there is no one correct English pronunciation. Also, words alone do not bear clear meaning; it is only in context that we may truly understand and define the word. Additionally, do to variations in English accents we tend to subconsciously rely on sentence structure, clauses and or phrases to draw conclusions toward the most probable meaning. The Cockney example cited in module four would be a prime example of spoken grammar in demand. As stated in the course the Cockney pronunciation of paint sounds like the American English Pint and they pronounce pint like the Americans pronounce the word point. The result is a phrase like “use a pint of paint.” Sounds more like “use a point a pint”. Now someone with some grammatical knowledge would use deductive reasoning and infer based on the content of the conversation that he/she means, ‘use a pint of paint’. Of course this is with the other elements in place; you are speaking with a painter about painting a small room for example. Often, by having background knowledge of certain grammar points you use the process of elimination. By knowing that the next word should have been a preposition, the word stress and knowing how many syllables where used your brain narrows down the choices to a few options; thereby strengthening your ability to comprehend. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
The place of Grammar in language teaching PT 3 Ironically, despite the invaluable support grammar lends to the formulating and validating the language system; outside of introducing some tips and points which may prove most useful in justifying some mechanics of the language, teaching grammar is relatively unnecessary. Many may go so far as to state that teaching grammar has absolutely no place in language teaching. They use the natural way methodology as the basis of their argument. The claims are numerous that it (grammar) is something that is inherited through usage and grammar schools in both the United Kingdom and in the United States of American were institutes that used unsuccessful methods of teaching the language. In addition these anti-grammar lobbyist argue that many people in the world speak there own native language without ever having knowledge of the grammar involved. Even native English speaking children communicate years before ever hearing the word grammar, much less understand its role in the language. Let us note here that, there may need to be a distinction made between teaching native speakers and non-native speakers; this may very well determine the need for grammar lessons. Non- native speakers possess language functions which are embedded through the natural way approach; however, it is not natural to acquire multiple language functions simultaneously. Hence the target language has to compete with the first language acquisition. So, in all honesty the natural way approach should not even be used as an argument, when referring to non-native speakers; despite psychologist’s previous views on the matter. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
The place of Grammar in language teaching PT 4 The argument that people are capable of communicating without understanding the mechanics of the language is similar to a person driving without ever understanding the mechanics of the vehicle. It is obvious being a mechanic is not a prerequisite for operating a vehicle. However, we are strongly recommended to read the owner’s manual thoroughly before operating any vehicle and in doing so we somewhat familiarize ourselves with the general functions of the vehicle. The general functions are not “the rules” but, neither is grammar. Therefore we should begin to look at grammar as the general functions of the language; subject to change pending the make and model. It may very well be possible to operate the language without ever having knowledge of the functions; however, it is ill-advised and harbors many limitations. In a small survey conducted using one hundred Arab secondary school boys, I have found that most students are concerned with their vocabulary and grammar. Despite, the abundance of material on the market, students fear that they have not acquired nearly enough to be successful. How are they measuring their success? They are learning the language and are expected to pass examinations. This dilemma is common amongst high school and university students, because these students are learning English that will be assessed by traditional examination. This is a totally different arena in language learning and the students are aware from previous experience that knowledge of the language function “grammar” is not only useful, but in some cases necessary. Based on the one hundred students used in the survey, grammar was forty percent of the Common Education Proficiency Assessment administered by the United Arab Emirates Government. This Common Education Proficiency Assessment is mandatory and candidates are required to score a minimum of sixty percent before they are awarded the secondary level graduate diploma issued by the United Arab Emirate’s ministry of Education. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
The place of Grammar in language teaching PT 5 The above cases are few from numerous cases proving that it may be very necessary for someone teaching English to speakers of other languages to have at least a basic knowledge of the language functions (grammar). Although it may be equally beneficial, it may not be as necessary or practical to expect the teacher to be well grounded in the grammar of the students’ language or languages. Language teachers may have five different nationalities in one classroom on any given day. Paradoxically most native speakers of a language seldom familiarize themselves with grammar. Chances are the students would not relate to the grammar of their own language. Oddly enough this may even have an adverse affect; confusing students more than bringing clarity. In conclusion, after defining grammar as a system used to identify, categorize and organize the functions of the language, as oppose to being the rules of language. The objectives to learning the language may very well determine if there is a need for focus on grammar. We can state that grammar is initially unnecessary in language learning and special situations dictate the level of grammar required. Grammar should not be taught separate; but rather taught in unison with speaking and writing skills. The teacher should be knowledgeable enough in grammar as to best assist the student in grasping the general idea about the structure of the language. If there was a language rule regarding grammar it should be, “knowledge of grammar in the student’s language as well as the target language should be for the teacher’s benefit and with the exception of special cases should not be the objective in the lesson”. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
ESL Teaching Methodology The Communicative Approach The Communicative approach is the approach I use in the classroom. I prefer this approach mainly because it is all inclusive. It fits the philosophy of adopting whatever approach or method appropriate to the needs of the students. I would be a hypocrite to deny my students the ability to rely on their first language when I know I use my first language to study the Arabic language and the method has its benefits. In the communicative approach the goal of language teaching is communication by any means necessary. This approach I fell in love with the first time I read about it and practiced it in the Duke University TESOL course. In the class I present real problems and situation as well as hypothetical ones. The class deal with the problems using whatever means available in the target language. We do everything from editing catalogues/brochures mistakes, movie reviews to articles in the school newspaper and actually ordering pizza after role playing restaurant scenarios. We use project base learning and web quests assignments frequently. I have seen wonders with this approach and I am an advocate. VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
ESL Teaching Methodology The Immersion Method The Immersion method in my opinion is another one of those cases where we say in theory it makes perfectly good sense; but, in practice it requires more research. As stated earlier I am over five years experienced with Arab countries. I have been to Egypt, The Sultanate of Oman, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and I am currently residing in the United Arab Emirates. I am immersed in almost every since of the word. I eat the food and live amongst natives, teach their children, wear their traditional clothing and practice the religion, yet I am not fluent or remotely close to fluent in the language. I agree when discussing L1 learners it is easy to say that the child is totally immersed in the L1 environment and therefore intuitively learns the language and culture. However, I would not go so far as to say that immersion is a practical method for L2 learning adults nor for L2 learning children. Another scenario, our first year in the United Arab Emirates we lived in an apartment we inherited from some French friends of ours in Ajman. Well, they left a television set and the satellite package was only in French. For approximately three months we had over one hundred and fifty channels of nothing but French television shows. Everything from French news, French sports to French cartoons. Up until today my family does not know three sentences in French. Not a fair example of the immersion method you may say. Well, consider this, even the students who go to Canada, USA, Australia and the UK; they use L1 to L2 dictionaries, translators and language tools to assist them. They use whatever they must to assist them in acquiring the target language or communicating. Therefore, we may say technically they are using the communicative approach more so than the immersion method. . VIEW NEXT PAGE VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE
ESL Teaching Methodology Summary In conclusion the Grammar-Translation method is great for L2 beginners, sort of a language with training wheels so to speak. However, the limitations will never allow you to achieve the language proficiency needed to communicate fluently and accurately. Cross country cyclist rarely use training wheels. Furthermore, trying to communicate in a professional or mature situation using a language with training wheels make it difficult for people to take you seriously. The immersion method is the flooding approach in psychology. Basically, you overwhelm the patient with his/her phobia until they are mentally exhausted and submit. Thereby, freeing them of their phobia or turning them into a complete mental case. Perhaps we can describe it as a coach pushing his pupil into a pool and forcing him to swim. Actually, it is more like a mother bird pushing her chic out of the nest whilst he sleeps; fly or die situation. Maybe it is ideal for intermediate to advance learners. Finally, the communicative approach has a place for the Grammar-Translation method as well as the immersion method. It all depends on the student’s ability and needs. The shackles are off and if there ever was any, this would be your one size fits all language teaching method. VIEW PREVIOUS PAGE VIEW CHAPTER 3
I prefer the communicative approach; however, in this particular lesson, material was used to address a grammar and vocabulary need.
More than one language skill was exercised.
-Test prep lesson-
Chapter III Teaching Materials
IV. Efforts to Improve
V. Ratings on Diagnostic
VI.Evidence of Learning
Diagnostic Test A diagnostic test for a class I am about to take over By Arkiel AbuRashid Brown General information School/college: Institute is mostly English medium Venue: In the country of the students Class/students: Age: 17 Arab nationality Upper Secondary school level Current ability level between false beginners and lower Intermediate A minimum of two years prior experience with the English language English required for academic and professional purposes Should know: Present simple, perfect and continuous- Past simple-Future: will/shall and going to Lexical resource should exceed 1500 words. VIEW TEACHING M ATERIALS
depth - deep – height – high – born – die - death - take off land – danger - dangerous – cartoon - science fiction documentary – comedy – tragedy - boring safety - historical – marry – married - single - road pedestrian – there – their – they're - crime Section I Vocabulary is a cloze type test; testing for level of lexical resource related to a particular theme or set of subjects as well as usage of verbal nouns and possessive pronouns. Part B focuses on lexical resource using opposites and word family. Spelling is also assessed. Diagnostic English Test Student Name: ________________________________ Teacher Name: ____________________ Section/class: __________ TOTAL ____/ 100 % SECTION I: VOCABULARY PART A: Choose the correct word and write it in the answer booklet. (10 marks) 1. Jebel Hafeet has a __________________ of 1240 meters. 2. William Shakespeare was _______________________ in 1564. 3. Driving too fast on a wet road is very _______________________. 4. This country has the lowest______________________ rate. 5. My parents forgot to take ___________________ passports. 6. When I was a child, my favorite ___________________ was "Tom and Jerry". 7. When a man and a woman get _____________________, they usually have a wedding. 8. The movie was very long and ____________________, so many people left the cinema before the end. 9. A ____________________ is a person who crosses the road on foot. 10. When all passengers are on board, the plane is ready to ____________________. VIEW CHAPTER 3 H OME Duration: 2.5 hrs Time:_____ Date: _____
PART B: Write the OPPOSITE WORD .Write ONE word ONLY. (10 marks) Example: female- male 1. married ______________ 2. take off ______________ 3. arrive ______________ 4. loud ______________ 5. cheap _______________ 6. narrow ______________ 7. death _______________ 8. away from ______________ 9. dangerous _______________ 10. dark ________________ SECTION II: GRAMMAR PART A: Fill in the blanks with the PAST SIMPLE OR PAST CONTINUOUS forms of the verbs in brackets. (10 marks) ACCIDENTS VIEW CHAPTER 3 HOME
I. A teenager (1) _____________ (die) in Al Ain on Saturday when he (2) _________________ (race) on the road near his house. According to reports, he (3) _________________ (drive) without a license when the accident (4) ________________ (take) place. II. A young woman (5) _______________ (lose) her life on Saturday. She (6) ___________________ (cross) the road when a speeding car (7) _________________ (run) over her. A policeman (8) __________________ (see) the accident and (9) __________________ (call) an ambulance. The ambulance (10) _________________ (arrive) right away. GRAMMAR PART B: Choose the words that best complete the sentences (10 marks) 1. Yesterday, I …………… a football match. a. PLAYS b. PLAY c. PLAYED d. PLAYING Test the simple past tense regular form. VIEW CHAPTER 3 HOME
2. It often …………. in Seattle, Washington. a) Rain b) rainy c) raining d) rains
3. All the students are doing ……… exams.
Test the appropriate usage of group pronouns and possessive. Test the verb order with using adverbs of frequency. Section two grammar part A focus primarily of testing for past simple and past continuous skills. Part B has a mixture which is not advisable in any case other than a diagnostic assessment. The odd number questions are targeting form and the even are focusing on use. VIEW CHAPTER 3 HOME
SECTION III READING A BIOGRAPHY Amelia Mary Earhart was born on the 24th of July 1897. She went missing on the 2nd July 1937, and was finally declared dead on the 5th of January 1939. Amelia Earhart was a famous American pilot and was the first female pilot to fly over the Atlantic by herself. She became a national heroine. Earhart set many other records, wrote best-selling books about her flying experiences, and was a member of a famous group of women pilots called the “Ninety-Nines.” The Ninety-Nines began with 99 members in 1930. By 1935, there were over 600 women in the group. Amelia was born in Atchison, Kansas. Both her grandmothers were called Amelia and she was given the same name. From an early age Amelia was a leader. She was home-schooled by her mother and a nanny. At the age of 12, Amelia was enrolled in public school for the first time in the seventh grade. Many years later, in 1932, in a small field in Northern Ireland, a man watched an airplane land. He walked to the airplane and the pilot jumped out. The pilot was a young woman! With a big smile the woman asked, “Where am I?” “In Gallagher’s pasture,” he said. “Have you come far?” “From America,” she said. The pilot was Amelia Earhart. Even after Amelia flew over the Atlantic, she was still looking for adventure. She wanted a bigger challenge and decided to fly around the world. On June 1, 1937, she started her journey around the world from Miami, Florida. She stopped in Puerto Rico, Karachi, Calcutta, Bangkok and Singapore. The whole world watched as Amelia flew around the globe. By June 29, she reached New Guinea. She had travelled 22,000 miles. There were only 7,000 miles to go. Amelia left New Guinea on July 2nd, but she was never seen again. Her last radio contact was near an island in the South Pacific. To this day, her story is well-known across the world. Adapted from: http://www.esl-library.com/ http://www.ameliaearhart.com/about/biography.html http://en.wikipedia.org VIEW CHAPTER3 HOME
PART A: Choose the correct answer. (20 marks) 1. The last time Amelia was seen was on the: a) 2nd July, 1937 b) 1st June, 1937 c) 29th June, 1937 d) 5th January, 1939
2. Amelia became famous:
a) because she went missing.
b) because she was the first female pilot.
c) after she flew over the Atlantic on her own.
d) a, b and c
PART B: Write T (true) or F (false) on the line. (10 marks) 6. Amelia’s grandmothers had the same name. _____ 7. As a young girl, Amelia was a leader. _____ 8. There were thousands of female pilots when Amelia started her career as a pilot. _____ Section 3 Reading is used for testing comprehension and drawing conclusion by contextual clues. Skimming and scanning may be required to meet the time frame provided. VIEW CHAPTER 3 HOME
PART B: Write a text of 15 sentences about your favourite film OR book. (20 marks) Choose ONE TOPIC ONLY . MY FAVOURITE FILM You can include: type of film; the film director; the main characters in the film; the story; Why you like it? OR MY FAVOURITE BOOK You can include: type of book; the author of the book; the main characters in the book; the story; Why you like it? Test sentence writing skills, recount and reporting skills. Part A targets mainly sentence structure and comprehension amongst the numerous skills required to complete the task. The use of past tense and verbs of feeling are necessary. Although these many of these skills may be advanced I am also testing for some of the skills I intend to introduce according to the syllabus. VIEW CHAPTER 3 HOME
My greatest strength as a teacher is my imagination and foresight. They are most useful for creating differentiated learning activities.
The one thing I would most like to change about my teaching the inability to keep my planning simple. Reducing the time allocated to lesson planning has helped limit the over planning.
Recently, I exercised the Silent Way teaching method. I never really favored this method and little has changed.
Differentiated learning appears to be latest teaching approach, it is common sense. However, I am still a fan of the communicative approach.
I use prefect positions and extra credit marks to motivate superstar students. These incentives also motivate struggling students.
I advise all new ESL teachers to be mindful that you are always teaching. The students watch intensively and mimic your good and bad conduct. The lessons that make the most lasting impressions are the natural ones; so, practice what you teach.
I have a very positive attitude about teaching. However, I didn’t realize how much bureaucracy was involved, with regards to the educational field. I switched careers to avoid the politics and bureaucracy, sometimes I question my choice.
1. I, Arkiel Aburashid Sayfallah Brown, hope to complete a Doctorate of Education (EdD) in the Instructional Leadership program. 2. My teaching career began in Durham North Carolina 2002; trained in basic management, leadership and supervision skills I was most useful to those preparing for interviews or employed in similar positions. I quickly learned to integrate my management knowledge and my natural talent for teaching to create a technique that convinced me to change careers. With my desire to travel and the demand of teachers I had decided to enroll in Duke University’s TESOL program. 3. I have a great passion for teaching .The experience of witnessing someone arrive confused or troubled and leave with relief and enlightenment is unmatched by any other profession. Thus far, I’ve only dreamed of teaching in a University full time. Once I attain the EdD of Education in Instruction Leadership I plan to pursue the lifelong dream of becoming a college or university lecturer. 4. I am excited about learning and completing an EdD of Education program as I am confident with such a prestigious reward of higher learning I will not fall short of high standards and success. Paired with my Online Teaching skills, TESOL, IELTS, ICDL, Business management background, I plan to use my EdD in Education degree to establish myself in the education field and to gain the University teaching experience necessary to strengthen my awareness of the teaching and learning science. Eventually, allowing me to contribute considerably to teaching and training adults in face-face mainstream classrooms and online or distant learning environments. Furthermore, I hope to maintain a successful online training program of my own with an accredited University in the near future, therefore the online experience is of personal preference.
I am a hard working male teacher with over eight years ESL/EFL training experience. I am a native English language speaker with an enthusiastic and vibrant attitude; who is eager to learn, ready to adapt and willing to experience new teaching styles. I take pride in conducting my affairs in the utmost dependable and professional manner. I am familiar with the customs and culture of the region. Lastly, I am positive that I would be an asset to your school. As a teacher with your school, I will not only bring my devotion and knowledge of the English Language, but also a vibrant attitude and a dedication to your students.
2005-PRESENT EFL Teacher- Institute of Applied Technology RAK, UAE
Project base teaching-English as the target language
Prep secondary students for engineering careers, CEPA and the IELTS
Initiate a new education system in the gulf region government schools
2005 Iranian Hospital Professional Development Program Dubai, UAE
Trained the medical staff in conversational and English literacy skills
TOFEL training sessions
EFL Teacher- Al Resala School of Science Sharjah, UAE
2009 MA in TESOL St Clement University and Higher Education School-Niue
2007 Certified K-12 Online Instructor University of Michigan-Flint
2002 TEFL/TESL Certification Duke University
2000 BS, Business Administration Trinity College
ADDITIONAL SKILLS AND QUALIFICATIONS
Over five years of supervisory experience, PMI 4 TH edition- project management trained, completed British Council official IELTS examiner and invigilator training, London Teacher Training College certified to teach IELTS training, ICDL and certified IC3 Proctor. Trained and certified in online course development, teaching K-12 online, Blackboard operations, Intro to Graphic Design, excellent knowledge and experience of the significant trends in ESL learning such as language immersion and education; various other techniques promoted by The National Council of Teachers of English. Experience working with students from diverse ethnic, religious, and cultural backgrounds.
I am currently enrolled in Stonebridge’s Online Psychology courses. I find psychology to be very intriguing. Occasionally I enroll in local centers to advance my Arabic language skills. I enjoy learning; in my leisure time I read. I have a large family therefore I spend a great deal of my time participating in outdoor events such as picnics and beach lunches at the weekends. The family indoor activity is usually watching some educational program. Although I am not very athletic I often accompany my wife during her home exercise routine. Outside of reading, my favorite pass time activity is traveling.
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