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Tip Moth Life Stage Monitoring: “ Egg Stage” First instar larva mine pine needles. After molting, second instar larva migrates to a shoot bud.
Tip Moth Life Stage Monitoring: “ Tent Stage” Note the transparent webbing among the expanding needles near the ends of the shoots (arrows).
Tip Moth Life Stage Monitoring: “ Bored-in-larva Stage” Note the dead needles and opaque silk and pitch covering of the entrance hole (above), and the larva with a brown head inside the shoot (arrow - right)
Tip Moth Life Stage Monitoring:“Emerged Stage” Green arrows point to empty pupal cases indicating that the adults have already emerged from these shoots.
Tip Moth Life Stage Monitoring: “Emerged Stage” The pen points to the larval gallery inside the shoot which is empty indicating the tip moth has already emerged or has been parasitized.
Which shoots? – Green arrows indicate shoots in the top whorl. The shoot in the middle is the terminal. If the tree top is “bushy” without an obvious terminal shoot due to prior tip moth damage, select the center-most shoot as the terminal. Tip Moth Damage Assessments
Close-up of a tip moth damaged shoot showing the opaque, white “pitch blister” covering the entrance hole of a tip moth larva which has hollowed out the inside of the shoot (above). Shoots in the “top whorl” (above hands below) with two lateral shoots damaged by tip moths (green arrows).
Typical tip moth infested shoots - Green arrows indicate three tip moth damaged shoots. Although several tip moths likely attacked the middle shoot, it is still counted as one damaged shoot.
Typical tip moth infested shoots - Terminal and two lateral shoots. Very heavy tip moth infestation - Multiple attacks on each shoot and down the main stem. Note dead shoots and white pitch blisters covering entrances.
Tip Moth Outbreak in the Western Gulf Region Extensive tip moth damage to Multiple tip moth attacks on Shoot mortality (12”) on 3 4 year-old loblolly pine in AR. loblolly pine shoot in LA. year-old loblolly pine in TX.
d Loblolly pine in 2 nd growing season after planting, deformed as a result of severe and repeated tip moth infestations.
Impact Sites (105)
Tip moth damage levels in the Western Gulf Region, 2001 - 2010.
Differences in 3 rd -year volume index (cm 3 ) of protected and unprotected loblolly pine exposed to different tip moth pressures.
Tip Moth Control
Mean Number of Pine Tip Moth Adults Caught per Trap per Day in the Lufkin, TX, Area (1999 – 2003)
Tip Moth Control Standard Method : Foliar chemical spray applications once per month; potential of 8-9 applications per year. Many Products Available : At least 18 active ingredients & 53 formulations; Pounce ® (permethrin) and Mimic ® (tebufenozide) are effective. Challenge : Fettig et al. 2000 & 2003 presents optimal spray periods for numerous sites in 10 SE and 3 WG states, reducing number of sprays to 3-5 per year. Still not economical for forest plantations.
Tip Moth Control Optimal Spray Periods for Sites in MS, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC and VA http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/rp/rp_srs018.pdf Optimal Spray Periods for Sites in TX, LA and AR http://www.srs.fs.usda.gov/pubs/rp/rp_srs032.pdf
Tip Moth Control Perhaps systemic insecticides could provide long-term protection 2002 Evaluated tip moth damage on seedlings treated (root soak) with: emamectin benzoate, fipronil, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam
Tip Moth Infestation per Generation after Treatment with Different Systemic Chemicals – Plot 1 & 2, 2002 & 2003
Effect of fipronil in-furrow and plant hole treatments on tip moth infestation – TR#1, 3 WG sites: 2004 - 2006 *, a or £ = M eans are significantly different from check.
PTM ™ Spot Gun via Red River Specialties Kioritz Soil Injector PTM ™ Injection Probe via Aqumix PTM ™ Applicators Production Discontinued
Machine Planters Fitted with Soil Injection Systems 2008 Lane Day System - TX 2011 Chris Dowden System - LA
PTM ™ (fipronil)
EPA approved Section 3 (Full) registration of PTM ™ Insecticide in June 2007 for application during or post-planting of seedlings.
C3M, Helena, ProSource, Red River Specialty and UAP are current distributors.
Red River Specialty is selling PTM ™ at $320 per gallon ; can purchase in 20 oz ($60) and 2.5 gal containers ($800).
Can only apply 21 oz of product per acre (chemical cost per acre is $52.50 ).
No restriction on number of seedlings that can be treated. However, the lower the density – the higher the concentration per seedling.
Research Efforts in 2007 - 2010
Evaluate efficacy of PTM™ applied to containerized seedlings.
Evaluate efficacy of PTM™ applied one year after planting at different rates, placement, volume.
Effects of fipronil soil treatment on infestation of containerized and bareroot loblolly pine by pine tip moth on 2 sites: 2007 - 2010
Effects of fipronil soil treatment on volume (cm 3 ) growth of containerized and bareroot loblolly pine on 2 sites: 2007 - 2010
PTM™ placed in plant hole or containers works best and for the longest duration (3+ years).
PTM™ applied after planting is best placed shallow (4 inches deep) and at higher volumes (30 ml). Still, duration is reduced (< 2 years) compared to plant hole treatments.
Operational treatments have been inconsistent. Work need to improved machine planter system.
Application of PTM into containers in the nursery could reduce application costs.
BASF is now willing to extend PTM ™ registration for use on containerized seedlings if EPA concerns are addressed.
Leaching of Active Ingredient (AI) :
Application of PTM into cells early in the growing season and subsequent watering will result in leaching of some (1-3%) AI out of cells – up to 3 lbs AI / acre .
Worker Exposure :
Seedling packers and planters usually hold seedlings at the plug. Workers will be exposed to AI present on the surface of the plug.
PTM™ for Containerized Seedlings - 2010 PTM (Hi UD) X X PTM (Hi D) X X PTM (Hi D) X X PTM (Med. UD) X X PTM (Med. D) X X PTM (Med. D) X X PTM (Med. D) X X PTM (Low UD) X X PTM (Low D) X X PTM (Low D) X X PTM (Low D) X X Check (Cont) X Check (BR) X __________________________________________________________________________________ Cont. Bareroot PI SI
Effects of fipronil plug and soil injection treatment on infestation of containerized and bareroot loblolly pine by pine tip moth on 10 sites: Gen 1-3, 2011
SilvaShield ™ (imidacloprid)
SilvaShield ™ Forestry Tablet was registered with EPA in December 2006. It is now registered in all states, except CA.
Helena, UAP and Red River Specialties are distributors.
Red River Specialty is selling the ball tablet
at ~$0.20 a piece ( $730 per case of 3600 ).
The label restricts the number of tablets
applied per acre to 450. This equates
to $91.25 per acre.
Effect of SilvaShield™ tablets and placement on tip moth infestation – 5 sites: 2007 - 2009
Effect of SilvaShield™ tablets and placement on volume growth (cm 3 ) – 4 sites: 2010
SilvaShield ™ Forestry Tablets can significantly reduce tip moth damage through the 3 rd year after planting.
Tablets placed in plant hole are more effective compared to those placed adjacent to seedling.
Higher rates most effective for longest duration. Depth of tablet placement had no apparent affect.
Tablets reduced tip moth damage and improved growth. Weed control and fertilization did not.
Operational tablet treatments have been more effective and consistent compared to PTM ™ . Work is need to develop applicator system.
PTM™/SilvaShield™ Comparison - 2010 PTM X X PTM X X PTM X X PTM X X X X PTM X X PTM X X PTM X X X PTM X X SilvaShield X X SilvaShield X X SilvaShield X X SilvaShield X X X X SilvaShield X X SilvaShield X X X X SilvaShield X X X Check ____________________________________________________ Dec.‘09 Sep.’10 Feb.‘11 AP PP
Effect of PTM™ and SilvaShield™ and timing on tip moth infestation: 2010
Mean height (cm) of one-year old PTM ™ - and SilvaSheild™-treated and untreated loblolly pine: 2010.
Tip Moth Hazard Rating Study Objective : Identify abiotic factors that influence the occurrence and severity of tip moth damage. Methods : 84 sites with one to two 50 tree plots established between 2001 and 2009. Site characteristics collected at each site. Tip moth damage evaluated after each generation for two years.
Hazard Rating Sites (142)
Soil texture, drainage and nutrients
Depth to horizons, hard-pan and gleying
Slope, aspect, position, size
Proximity and area of susceptible host type
Percent tip moth infestation
Relationship between rainfall and tip moth damage levels in the Western Gulf Region, 2001 - 2010.