Crop Tree Strategies               H. Lee Allen            ProFOR Consulting                Cary, NCProgressive Forestry f...
Uncertainty - 70% Drop in Housing Starts From US Census Bureau - www.census.gov/briefrm/esbr/www/esbr020.html
Uncertainty - 40% Drop in Sawtimber Prices From Timber Mart-South - www.timbermart-south.com/prices.html
What are appropriate strategies formanaging forests and especially crop trees in the face of uncertainty?
First Principles•   Continue to invest•   Maintain flexibility•   Reduce risk•   Practice good silviculture    – Use appro...
Southern Pine SilvicultureA Success Story       4X yield           in     >1/2 the time 1 to 10 tons/acre/year1/3 to 3 cor...
Optimizing Value Requires an Understanding of the    Factors Affecting       Productivity
What is Potential Productivity?                  600                                Investing in the RIGHT Silvicultural P...
600ft3/acre/yr                  500                  400                                                       Growth Effi...
What are the factors affecting leaf area and            growth efficiency?                         Genetics             Wa...
Factors Affecting Leaf Area  and Growth Efficiency   •   Genetics   •   Stand Density   •   Resource Availability
JONES 5 EDAPHIC STUDY                                                                  8-Year Old Loblolly Pine           ...
JONES 5 EDAPHIC STUDY                                                 8-Year Old Loblolly Pine                 4.0        ...
42     ANNUAL GROWTH ft3/acre/yr              Fam 8-103   11 Families                                 35                  ...
Factors Affecting Leaf Area  and Growth Efficiency   •   Genetics   •   Stand Density   •   Resource Availability
Age 14 UGA PMRC          Volume Increases Reaches Inflection at 400tpaPienaar, L. V., B. D. Shiver and W. M. Harrison. 199...
Factors Affecting Leaf Area  and Growth Efficiency   •       Genetics   •       Stand Density   •       Resource Availabil...
Southeast Tree Research and Education Site                           SETRES1U.S. Forest ServiceNorth Carolina State Univer...
SETRES1Control                    + Nutrients
SETRES: Peak leaf area index                        4.0                                   ControlPeak leaf area index     ...
SETRES1Control             +Nutrients
SETRES: Standing volume                           4000                           3500       ControlStanding Volume (ft3/ac...
SETRES: 1992-2000 Volume growth - leaf area                             450                             400Volume growth (...
Factors Influencing Leaf Area and Growth                                 800                                             L...
Potential Current Annual Increment                               LAI =4.0                                          Legend ...
Minimize per acre establishment and           tending costsMinimize per unit production costs and  maximize value with an ...
Suitability of coastal plain soils for                          intensive silviculture                                    ...
Many acres are suitable for intensive            silviculture… but not allGreen = strong candidates, Yellow = possible can...
Suitability of coastal plain soils for                          intensive silviculture                                    ...
Deployment         Is there G X E?Do certain species/families/clonesperform better on different sites?
UPLAND P DEFICIENT SITE - 25 YEARS                       80                                        Loblolly   Slash   Long...
Deployment          Is there G X E?Do certain species perform better on           different sites?                 YES!
LOBLOLLY PINE FAMILY PERFORMANCE ACROSS SITES                                                  8-YEAR GROWTH         ft 3/...
Deployment           Is there G X E?Do certain families perform better on            different sites?  For all practical p...
Potential for Using Varieties– Outstanding growth– Stack multiple traits in addition to growth   • Extremely low rust inci...
Increase in the percentage of trees      with sawtimber potential
Using Varieties• Opportunities within existing silvicultural systems  – Reduce planting density     • No need to plant ext...
Using Varieties• Opportunities to develop new silvicultural systems  – Planting take rows with lower quality genetic    ma...
Using Varieties• Opportunities to develop new silvicultural systems  – Plant fewer trees per acre     • Lower seedling and...
No Thin Sawtimber Regime - LOBDSSSawtimber = 13” or greater dbh to 8” top, $35/ton, Everything else = $7/ton,discounted pr...
Silviculture for Loblolly Pine in Arkansas                       Prescription Guidelines• Planting Considerations    – Sel...
Crop Tree Strategies
Crop Tree Strategies
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Crop Tree Strategies

476
-1

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
476
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Canada 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Canada227,395228,343211,056149,081189,930
  • Crop Tree Strategies

    1. 1. Crop Tree Strategies H. Lee Allen ProFOR Consulting Cary, NCProgressive Forestry for Production Forests
    2. 2. Uncertainty - 70% Drop in Housing Starts From US Census Bureau - www.census.gov/briefrm/esbr/www/esbr020.html
    3. 3. Uncertainty - 40% Drop in Sawtimber Prices From Timber Mart-South - www.timbermart-south.com/prices.html
    4. 4. What are appropriate strategies formanaging forests and especially crop trees in the face of uncertainty?
    5. 5. First Principles• Continue to invest• Maintain flexibility• Reduce risk• Practice good silviculture – Use appropriate genetic material (species, families, varieties) for site/management conditions – Manage density – crop and competing vegetation – Ameliorate soil physical and nutritional limitations
    6. 6. Southern Pine SilvicultureA Success Story 4X yield in >1/2 the time 1 to 10 tons/acre/year1/3 to 3 cords/acre /year Fox, Jokela, Allen 2004
    7. 7. Optimizing Value Requires an Understanding of the Factors Affecting Productivity
    8. 8. What is Potential Productivity? 600 Investing in the RIGHT Silvicultural Prescriptionsft3/acre/yr 500 Intensive Plantations 400 Annual Growth 300 200 Traditional Plantations 100 Natural Stands 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Age years
    9. 9. 600ft3/acre/yr 500 400 Growth Efficiency VOLUME GROWTH 300 200 100 Light Interception 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 LEAF AREA INDEX
    10. 10. What are the factors affecting leaf area and growth efficiency? Genetics Water Temperature ? Nutrients CO2 Stocking
    11. 11. Factors Affecting Leaf Area and Growth Efficiency • Genetics • Stand Density • Resource Availability
    12. 12. JONES 5 EDAPHIC STUDY 8-Year Old Loblolly Pine 550CURRENT GROWTH ft3/acre/yr 92 Volume Growth 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 61 74 01 59 68 5 7 2 6 6 06 3 0 3 8 5 8 10 8- 8- 8- 8- 8- 10 10 -1 10 10 10 8- 11 8- 7- 8- 8- 8- FAMILYFrom Svensson 1996
    13. 13. JONES 5 EDAPHIC STUDY 8-Year Old Loblolly Pine 4.0 92 Peak LAIPEAK LEAF AREA 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 61 74 01 59 68 05 37 06 82 56 86 3 10 10 10 -1 10 10 10 8- 8- 8- 8- 8- 8- 11 8- 7- 8- 8- 8- FAMILY From Svensson 1996
    14. 14. 42 ANNUAL GROWTH ft3/acre/yr Fam 8-103 11 Families 35 28 21 14 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 PEAK LEAF AREAFrom Svensson 1996
    15. 15. Factors Affecting Leaf Area and Growth Efficiency • Genetics • Stand Density • Resource Availability
    16. 16. Age 14 UGA PMRC Volume Increases Reaches Inflection at 400tpaPienaar, L. V., B. D. Shiver and W. M. Harrison. 1997. Growth potential of loblolly pine plantations in the Georgia Piedmont: A spacingstudy example. PMRC Technical Report 1997-1. 15pp.
    17. 17. Factors Affecting Leaf Area and Growth Efficiency • Genetics • Stand Density • Resource Availability – Water – Nutrients – Temperature
    18. 18. Southeast Tree Research and Education Site SETRES1U.S. Forest ServiceNorth Carolina State UniversityDuke UniversityVirginia Tech
    19. 19. SETRES1Control + Nutrients
    20. 20. SETRES: Peak leaf area index 4.0 ControlPeak leaf area index 3.5 Irri Fert 3.0 Fert+Irri 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 Data from Albaugh et al 1998, 2004 Year
    21. 21. SETRES1Control +Nutrients
    22. 22. SETRES: Standing volume 4000 3500 ControlStanding Volume (ft3/ac) Irrigated 3000 Fertilized 2500 Fert+Irri 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 Year
    23. 23. SETRES: 1992-2000 Volume growth - leaf area 450 400Volume growth (ft 3/ac/yr) Control Vol gro = 94 x LAI 350 Irrigated 300 Fertilized Fert+Irri 250 200 150 Vol gro = 65 x LAI 100 50 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 Peak leaf area index
    24. 24. Factors Influencing Leaf Area and Growth 800 Loblolly Pine – Southeast USAAnnual Volume Growth ft3/ac/yr 700 600 500 400 Temperature Genetics 300 Water 200 Nutrients 100 Density 0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Leaf Area Index
    25. 25. Potential Current Annual Increment LAI =4.0 Legend CAI (ft^3/acre/yr) 0 - 350 350 - 400 400 - 450 450 - 500 500 - 550 > 550Flores and Allen unpublished
    26. 26. Minimize per acre establishment and tending costsMinimize per unit production costs and maximize value with an integrated system
    27. 27. Suitability of coastal plain soils for intensive silviculture Subsoil Horizon – Texture of Argillic and Presence of Spodic Drainage Class Argillic Argillic Argillic Weak to no Spodic with Spodic C, SiC SC, CL, SCL, SiCL L, SL argillic, LS, S Argillic Only Very Poorly Organic Very Poorly Poorly Somewhat Poorly Moderately Well Well Excessively WellGreen – strong candidates , Yellow – possible candidates, Red – not appropriate (too wet), Purple – strong caution(severe nutrient limitations and seasonal water deficits).
    28. 28. Many acres are suitable for intensive silviculture… but not allGreen = strong candidates, Yellow = possible candidates, Red = not appropriate forintensive management (soils too wet)
    29. 29. Suitability of coastal plain soils for intensive silviculture Subsoil Horizon – Texture of Argillic and Presence of Spodic Drainage Class Argillic Argillic Argillic Weak to no Spodic with Spodic C, SiC SC, CL, SCL, SiCL L, SL argillic, LS, S Argillic Only Very Poorly Organic None None None None None None Very Poorly <40/75 <40/80 <40/80 <40/80 <40/75 <40/70 Poorly 45/75 45/80 45/80 45/80 45/75 40/70 Somewhat Poorly 45/75 50/85 50/85 50/80 50/80 45/75 Moderately Well 50/80 55/85 55/85 55/80 55/80 50/75 Well 55/75 55/85 55/80 55/75 55/75 50/70 Excessively Well 50/70 50/75 50/75 45/75 45/75 45/70Green – strong candidates , Yellow – possible candidates, Red – not appropriate (too wet), Purple – strong caution(severe nutrient limitations and seasonal water deficits). Base and target estimates of site index (25 year).
    30. 30. Deployment Is there G X E?Do certain species/families/clonesperform better on different sites?
    31. 31. UPLAND P DEFICIENT SITE - 25 YEARS 80 Loblolly Slash Longleaf 70 feet 60 AVERAGE HEIGHT 50 40 30 20 10 0 Control Cult+100N22P42K Cult+400N86P166KClark and Saucier (1991)
    32. 32. Deployment Is there G X E?Do certain species perform better on different sites? YES!
    33. 33. LOBLOLLY PINE FAMILY PERFORMANCE ACROSS SITES 8-YEAR GROWTH ft 3/acre 1600 1400 07056 1200 Family Mean Volume 1000 08059 800 600 01064 400 200 0 Poor Average GoodMcKeand et al. 1996
    34. 34. Deployment Is there G X E?Do certain families perform better on different sites? For all practical purposes - NO!
    35. 35. Potential for Using Varieties– Outstanding growth– Stack multiple traits in addition to growth • Extremely low rust incidence • Small branch size, narrow crowns • High percentage of sawtimber quality trees– Greater uniformity in non growth traits– Potential for greater stand uniformity in tree size
    36. 36. Increase in the percentage of trees with sawtimber potential
    37. 37. Using Varieties• Opportunities within existing silvicultural systems – Reduce planting density • No need to plant extra trees to offset losses due to mortality, poor stem quality, and suppression • No need to plant extra trees to maintain stem quality • Better diameter growth – More thinning options • Greater percentage of sawtimber quality crop trees • Greater flexibility in terms of timing and intensity – Synergy with other silvicultural investments • More sawtimber quality trees = greater profitability
    38. 38. Using Varieties• Opportunities to develop new silvicultural systems – Planting take rows with lower quality genetic material • Reduced planting costs with a varietal component at conventional planting densities • Additional volume at first thinning • Some lost flexibility - Must thin early so as not to reduce growth potential of varietal crop trees
    39. 39. Using Varieties• Opportunities to develop new silvicultural systems – Plant fewer trees per acre • Lower seedling and planting costs – Wider row spacing becomes an option • Lower per acre costs for row related treatments (bedding, machine planting, banded weed control, banded fertilization) • Possibly eliminate the need to remove entire rows and their crop trees during thinning – No thin sawtimber regime a possibility – optimum planting density
    40. 40. No Thin Sawtimber Regime - LOBDSSSawtimber = 13” or greater dbh to 8” top, $35/ton, Everything else = $7/ton,discounted present value of all costs (except seedlings) = $450/acre, seedlings $.35 each
    41. 41. Silviculture for Loblolly Pine in Arkansas Prescription Guidelines• Planting Considerations – Select best family or variety – Morphologically improved seeding – Density and spacing based on product goals• Ameliorate Soil Physical Limitations – Bed wet soils – Rip shallow mountain soils• Manage Non-Crop Tree Vegetation – Prior to planting - hardwood and woody shrubs – Grass and weed control for at least the first year – Thin - timing and intensity based on product goals – Understory vegetation in conjunction with thinning and/or fertilization• Ameliorate Nutrient Limitations – 18N+20P lbs/acre banded (36N+40P broadcast) DAP at age 0 - 1 if P deficient – 150N lbs/acre (Urea) broadcast at age 6 to 8 years – 200N+25P lbs/acre broadcast every 6 years starting at first thinning 10/11
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×