FIRE PREVENTION &
CONTROL SERVICES




      Mohd Rodzi Ismail
INTRODUCTION

Definition of fire prevention & control system:
– “Protection in the aspects of fire prevention,
  control a...
FIRE PREVENTION &
                       FIRE PREVENTION &
                         CONTROL SYSTEM
                       ...
PORTABLE FIRE
                             EXTINGUSHERS
Bucket of water and sands –
inadequate

Colour coded cylinders con...
Colour-coded cylinders, content and application (BS)
Colour-coded cylinders, content and application (BS)
                ...
Objective of portable fire extinguishers
    To remove or sufficiently reduce at least one
–
    component of the fire tri...
7
8
ALARM DETECTION


   Alarm
   Alarm
     bell
    bell




Break-glass
Break-glass
 call button
call button


     1.5 m a...
Automatic Fire Detectors

Objectives of automatic fire detectors
    To indicate location of the outbreak of fire
–

    T...
HOSE REELS




        11
Indirect
                                   supply
Direct
supply




         Hose reel installation
         Hose reel in...
HYDRANTS

Internal hydrants: Dry riser




                                     13
Internal hydrants: Wet riser




                               14
Internal hydrants: Foam installations




                                        15
AUTOMATIC
                    EXTINGUISHERS
Gas extinguishing
systems




                               16
Water sprinkler




   Main                                         Cistern
  supply                                      ...
Types of sprinkler heads
    Glass bulb
–

    Fusible link
–

    Chemical
–

    Open
–




                           18
Sprinkler heads
Sprinkler heads
                   19
Frangible bulb
                 Fusible link   20
Sprinkler bulb colour & rupturing temperature
Sprinkler bulb colour & rupturing temperature
                              ...
(staggered)



 Spacing and area allocation of sprinklers according to hazard group
Spacing and area allocation of sprinkl...
Types of sprinkler systems
    Wet
–

    Dry
–

    Alternate wet & dry
–

    Tail end
–

    Pre-action
–

    Recyclin...
Wet sprinkler system




                       Wet sprinkler
                       Wet sprinkler
                       ...
Sprinkler controls
Sprinkler controls




                      25
Dry sprinkler system




                       26
Alternate wet & dry sprinkler system
       Alternate systems can have the pipes full of water for
   –
       the summer ...
Tail end sprinkler system
       This is a variation on the wet system and the alternate
   –
       wet and dry system
  ...
Pre-action sprinkler system




                              29
Recycling sprinkler system
       This a development of the pre-action system
   –

       The system is used where it is ...
Deluge sprinkler system




                          31
Water supplies for sprinkler systems




      Elevated reservoir
      Elevated reservoir




                           ...
Water supplies for sprinkler systems


                          Gravity tank
                          Gravity tank




 ...
Water supplies for sprinkler systems




        Suction tank & pump
       Suction tank & pump
                          ...
Sprinklers’ pipework configuration




                                     Two-end side with
                            ...
Sprinklers’ pipework configuration




                        Three-end side with end feed pipe
                        T...
Sprinklers’ pipework configuration



                                     Two-end centre
                                ...
Sprinklers’ pipework configuration



                                      Two-end centre
                               ...
Spacing of sprinkler heads relative to adjacent
walls




                                                     39
 * Refer...
Spacing
calculations




               40
Pipe sizing




              41
PRESSURISED ESCAPE
                             ROUTES
Objective
    To create greater
–
    air pressure in
    escape ro...
SMOKE EXTRACTION &
                      VENTILATION
Objective
    To aid fire control by eliminating smoke, heat, toxic
–...
Smoke logging & ventilation
Smoke logging & ventilation



                               44
Number & size of vents




             Roof vent, ventilator factor
             Roof vent, ventilator factor
           ...
Example
From table, vent factor is 0.37 m
Vent area = 50 m x 0.37 m = 18.5 m2

             or
      18.5
           = 0.0...
SHOP EXTRACT AND SMOKE
                    CONTROL
Two methods of smoke control in shopping
centres
     Direct extraction...
Shop extract




               48
Mall extract




               49
DRENCHERS




       50
Fire Preventing in
Ventilating Systems




                      51
Fire Dampers in
Ventilation Ductwork




                       52
REFERENCES

Hall, F. & Greeno, R. (2005). Building
Services Handbook. London: Elsvier
Greeno, R. (1997). Building Services...
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Fire Prevention & Control Services

  1. 1. FIRE PREVENTION & CONTROL SERVICES Mohd Rodzi Ismail
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Definition of fire prevention & control system: – “Protection in the aspects of fire prevention, control and extinguishment for a certain area based on the availability of risks in that areaquot; (JPBM:1997) 2
  3. 3. FIRE PREVENTION & FIRE PREVENTION & CONTROL SYSTEM CONTROL SYSTEM PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE ACTIVE •• Design of buildings •• Portable extinguishers Design of buildings Portable extinguishers •• Structure •• Alarm detection Structure Alarm detection •• Fabric •• Hose reels Fabric Hose reels •• Components & their •• Automatic extinguishers Components & their Automatic extinguishers installation •• Pressurised escape route installation Pressurised escape route •• Smoke extraction & Smoke extraction & ventilation ventilation (Building services area) 3
  4. 4. PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUSHERS Bucket of water and sands – inadequate Colour coded cylinders containing compressed liquids and gasses appropriate to various sources of fire Standard fire fighting equipment in – all commercial & public buildings 4
  5. 5. Colour-coded cylinders, content and application (BS) Colour-coded cylinders, content and application (BS) 5
  6. 6. Objective of portable fire extinguishers To remove or sufficiently reduce at least one – component of the fire triangle 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8
  9. 9. ALARM DETECTION Alarm Alarm bell bell Break-glass Break-glass call button call button 1.5 m above floor level 9 Fire alarm circuit
  10. 10. Automatic Fire Detectors Objectives of automatic fire detectors To indicate location of the outbreak of fire – To operate alarm bells, and – To communicate with the local authority – Various types of operating characteristics: A bimetallic strip – An ionisation chamber – Light scattering devices – A laser beam – 10
  11. 11. HOSE REELS 11
  12. 12. Indirect supply Direct supply Hose reel installation Hose reel installation 12
  13. 13. HYDRANTS Internal hydrants: Dry riser 13
  14. 14. Internal hydrants: Wet riser 14
  15. 15. Internal hydrants: Foam installations 15
  16. 16. AUTOMATIC EXTINGUISHERS Gas extinguishing systems 16
  17. 17. Water sprinkler Main Cistern supply supply Simplified sprinkler installation Simplified sprinkler installation 17
  18. 18. Types of sprinkler heads Glass bulb – Fusible link – Chemical – Open – 18
  19. 19. Sprinkler heads Sprinkler heads 19
  20. 20. Frangible bulb Fusible link 20
  21. 21. Sprinkler bulb colour & rupturing temperature Sprinkler bulb colour & rupturing temperature 21
  22. 22. (staggered) Spacing and area allocation of sprinklers according to hazard group Spacing and area allocation of sprinklers according to hazard group 22
  23. 23. Types of sprinkler systems Wet – Dry – Alternate wet & dry – Tail end – Pre-action – Recycling – 23
  24. 24. Wet sprinkler system Wet sprinkler Wet sprinkler installation installation 24
  25. 25. Sprinkler controls Sprinkler controls 25
  26. 26. Dry sprinkler system 26
  27. 27. Alternate wet & dry sprinkler system Alternate systems can have the pipes full of water for – the summer and be drained down and filled with air (under pressure) for the winter This is important for buildings that are not heated. – 27
  28. 28. Tail end sprinkler system This is a variation on the wet system and the alternate – wet and dry system It is appropriate where only part of a building is subject – to frost of extremely high ambient temperature 28
  29. 29. Pre-action sprinkler system 29
  30. 30. Recycling sprinkler system This a development of the pre-action system – The system is used where it is considered appropriate to – limit damage from water after a fire has been extinguished, or when a sprinkler is accidentally fractured 30
  31. 31. Deluge sprinkler system 31
  32. 32. Water supplies for sprinkler systems Elevated reservoir Elevated reservoir 32
  33. 33. Water supplies for sprinkler systems Gravity tank Gravity tank 33
  34. 34. Water supplies for sprinkler systems Suction tank & pump Suction tank & pump 34
  35. 35. Sprinklers’ pipework configuration Two-end side with Two-end side with central feed pipe central feed pipe 35
  36. 36. Sprinklers’ pipework configuration Three-end side with end feed pipe Three-end side with end feed pipe36
  37. 37. Sprinklers’ pipework configuration Two-end centre Two-end centre with end feed with end feed pipe pipe 37
  38. 38. Sprinklers’ pipework configuration Two-end centre Two-end centre with central feed with central feed pipe pipe 38
  39. 39. Spacing of sprinkler heads relative to adjacent walls 39 * Refer to the “Spacing of sprinkler heads” table
  40. 40. Spacing calculations 40
  41. 41. Pipe sizing 41
  42. 42. PRESSURISED ESCAPE ROUTES Objective To create greater – air pressure in escape routes than the remainder of rooms in buildings 42
  43. 43. SMOKE EXTRACTION & VENTILATION Objective To aid fire control by eliminating smoke, heat, toxic – and inflammable gases from the source of a fire To retain visibility for escapers, and – To provide clear access for fire fighters – 43
  44. 44. Smoke logging & ventilation Smoke logging & ventilation 44
  45. 45. Number & size of vents Roof vent, ventilator factor Roof vent, ventilator factor 45
  46. 46. Example From table, vent factor is 0.37 m Vent area = 50 m x 0.37 m = 18.5 m2 or 18.5 = 0.0093 2000 Or approximately 1% of the floor area Fire vent area Fire vent area calculation calculation 46
  47. 47. SHOP EXTRACT AND SMOKE CONTROL Two methods of smoke control in shopping centres Direct extraction from individual shop units (shop 1. extract) A common extract system (mall extract) 2. 47
  48. 48. Shop extract 48
  49. 49. Mall extract 49
  50. 50. DRENCHERS 50
  51. 51. Fire Preventing in Ventilating Systems 51
  52. 52. Fire Dampers in Ventilation Ductwork 52
  53. 53. REFERENCES Hall, F. & Greeno, R. (2005). Building Services Handbook. London: Elsvier Greeno, R. (1997). Building Services, Technology and Design. Essex: Longman 53
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