EUT440 LAW 4 (Intelectual Property)


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EUT440 LAW 4 (Intelectual Property)

  1. 1. The IP Chain of Activities Creation Innovation Commercialization Protection Enforcement
  2. 2. Intellectual property Copyright Industrial Property a.Trademarks b. Patent c. Industrial designs d. Confidential information e. Geographical Indications
  3. 3. IP as intangible property Tangible property Land, houses, estates,car Intangible property -intellectual property Intangible wealth, easily appropriatedand reproduced,once created themarginal cost of reproduction isnegligible
  4. 4. The role of IP as intangibleproperty 1. economic rights of creators 2.commercial exploitation of owner ofIP expenditure 4.transfer of technology 5.cultural development
  5. 5. Why IP protection is given Capital expenditure for new products R and D Marketing and advertisement No free loaders Maintaining loyal followers profit
  6. 6. IP as a property Can be sold Can be bought Can be lease or rent Can pass under a will Can be assigned
  7. 7. The Legal Framework for IP MyIPO is the legal custodian. Three machinery of administration - the IP office - the external machinery - the court
  8. 8. International Convention forIP Paris Convention for Protection ofIndustrial Property 1967 ( 1989) Berne Convention for the Protection ofLiterary and Artistic Works 1971( 1990) Trade-related aspects of IntellectualProperty Agreement 1994 ( 1995) WCT ( digital agenda) PCT 2004
  9. 9. Paris Convention Protection for industrial property Trade mark Patent Unfair competition Governed by domestic legislation
  10. 10. Berne Convention Protection of literary and artistic work Governed by national legislation
  11. 11. Wipo Copyright Treaty Digital agenda. Technological measures such ascircumvention of technologicalmaesures.
  12. 12. TRIPS 1994 (1995) Additional to Paris and Berne. Minimum requirement. Most favoured nation treatment. Strong enforcement procedure.
  13. 13. Patent Cooperation Treaty Making it easier to make patenapplication Designated country. International phase to national phase.
  14. 14. Basic principle ofinternational convention Laying down the minimumrequirement for the nationallegislation. “members may but shall not be obligedto implement more extensiveprotection in their law than isrequired by the agreement. TRIPS 1(1)
  15. 15. The principle of nationaltreatment “Each members shall accord to thenationals of other Members treatmentno less favourable than it accord to itsown national”
  16. 16. Obligation of convention State to state Not open to individual. Example : India v USA.
  17. 17. The Laws For IntellectualProperty Protection Copyright Act 1987 Trademarks Act 1976 Patent Act 1983 Industrial Design Act 1996 Geographical Indications Act 2000 Law of Tort -passing-off Confidential information
  18. 18. Protection for Copyright Protection given by law for a term ofyears to the composer, author etc… tomake copies of their work.. Work include literary, artistic,musical,films, soundrecordings,broadcasts. Commercial and moral rights. No registration provision.
  19. 19. Protection for trade marks Commercial exploitation of a product To identify the product, giving it aname “mark” includes a device, brand,heading, label, ticket, name,signature,word, letter, numeral or anycombination. Does not include sound or smell
  20. 20. Trade marks (cont.) Can either be registered or notregistered Advantages of registered trade marks Application can be made for goods andservices Perform certain function such asindication of quality,identifying atrade connection
  21. 21. Choosing the correct mark Compare the trade mark “Dove” tousing the mark “crows”. Would the “Frog restaurant ” beacceptable? Would Marksman and Weekend Sexbe acceptable?
  22. 22. Protection for patent Basic idea of granting a patent “ the applicant applied to thegovernment for the right of patent andin return for the monopoly given hemust disclose everything about theinvention in the patent document”( the description) Duration 20 years.
  23. 23. Patent (cont.) Patent for invention Patent can be applied for a product ora process. Patentable invention must benew,involves an inventive step andindustrially applicable Priority date- first to file
  24. 24. The role of patent Innovation Anticipating the changes that iscoming - Kodak - Polaroid - Haeir
  25. 25. The various route forapplication The national route The Paris route The PCT route
  26. 26. Protection for industrialdesigns Protection for industrial designs thatare new or original Design are feature of shape,configuration, pattern or ornament The design must be applied to anarticle The design must be applied by anindustrial process. Appeal to the eye.
  27. 27. Commercialization strategies Novelty Effect of failure to register beforemarketing
  28. 28. Protection for geographicalindications Meaning “ an indication whichidentifies any goods as originating in acountry or territory, or a region orlocality where a given quality,reputation or other characteristic ofthe goods is essentially attributable totheir geographical origin”
  29. 29. Protection for geographicalindication Product must come from a particulargeographical territory Uses a name link to the particulargeographical nature of the territory Such as labu sayung from the sayungPerak, Batik Trengganu,batik Kelantan etc. To stop others from using
  30. 30. Examples of GI Swiss made Swiss chocolates Sarawak pepper Salted egg Sweet tamarind
  31. 31. Protection under the law ofTort Based on common law There is no legislation pass byParliament Enforced by court’s decision. Strict application of precedent.
  32. 32. Passing-off For trade mark ( registered andunregistered) Started from the tort of deceits. The deceiver, the audience and thevictim. Requirement of “goodwill”
  33. 33. Confidential information Protection under the law of tort Protection for confidential informationunder contract, employer-employeerelationship,husband and wife,etc Need to show:- - information are confidential - recipient who obtained theinformation uses it - damages suffered by the owner
  34. 34. Illustration Customers list Secret recipes Smells of a new perfume
  35. 35. Qualification for protection ofIntellectual property inMalaysia. Protection are territorial. Procedural requirement must be met. Intellectual Property CorporationMalaysia act as the governing body. Forms submitted,search made,prescribetime period observed. Abiding to International Convention.
  36. 36. Duration of protection Life + 50 50 20 15 10 Payment of statutory fee.
  37. 37. Ownership Who is the owner? Proper plaintiff rule. -employer and employee relationship - independent contractor. - government employee. - joint-ownership. Commissioned works
  38. 38. Exclusive rights To control the whole or a substantialpart of the work.:- the reproduction in any material form. The communication to the public. The public performance,showing orplaying Distribution by sale or other transfer Commercial rental to the public.
  39. 39. The exception to the exclusiveright Fair dealing exception Statutory exception under section13(2) Temporal ( duration) Geographic Non-material works Compulsory licenses
  40. 40. Enforcing IP rights civil action Criminal prosecution Cost in litigation Assistance from Enforcement Division Being vigilant/ self help
  41. 41. Civil action Starting a civil action Advantages Liability for cost Monetary compensation in term ofdamages
  42. 42. Criminal prosecution Making a complaint Police or enforcement division Cost borne by the government No monetary compensation Remedy in term of fines orimprisonment for the offender
  43. 43. IP infringement Primary infringement - who does or causes -making the product Secondary infringement - commercial activities - selling,distribution for sale etc
  44. 44. Secondary infringement sells,lets for hire or by way of tradeexposes or offer for sale or hire anyinfringing copies. Distribute infringing copies. Importing into Malaysia
  45. 45. Commercialization Assignment Licenses - exclusive - non-exclusive
  46. 46. Intellectual propertyawareness in Malaysia Only 20 % of IP rights such as inpatent, trade marks are owned byMalaysian. 80 % are owned by foreigners.
  47. 47.  Thank you.