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  • 1.  
  • 2. Introduction 1 Causes and Effects 2 Solutions 3 Conclusion 4
  • 3.  
  • 4.
    • Definition:
    • Energy crisis is a situation in which the nation suffers from a disruption of energy supplies (e.g., oil) accompanied by rapidly increasing energy prices that threaten economic and national security.
    • Concept:
    • An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy.
    • Representation:
    • Oil crisis, petroleum crisis, energy shortage, electricity shortage or electricity crisis.
  • 5.
    • Actuality:
    • With the
    • Development
    • of economy ,
    • more and more
    • energy is needed.
  • 6. Source: National Geographic
  • 7.  
  • 8. This is what HAPPENING around......
  • 9.
    • 1. That one must almost always consume fuel and dirtily provide EM energy and power has failed.
    • 2. Economic collapses and more intensive global changes are looming. With additional severe drought and water shortages, and increasing changes and violence in climate and weather.
    • 3. Most energy is presently obtained by “dirty” methods. Hence as energy production increases, so do harmful combustion byproducts, nuclear wastes, and biospheric contamination—as well as global warming. Such as coal and oil combustion, consumption of nuclear fuel rods, etc.
    • 4. Applying it has caused —and thus cannot solve:
    • (a) the escalating world fuel crisis
    • (b) the escalating energy crisis
    • (c) its accompanying and escalating global warming, climate change, and biospheric
    • pollution crises.
  • 10. Mid-East Oil Russia Canada As per IEA: The world has to invest $30 Trillion by 2030 to tap new oilfields as current ones dwindle to meet the increased demand. INCREASED DEMAND FOR LIMITED RESOURCES OF FOSSIL OIL WILL ESCALATE PRICES AND INCREASE ENERGY SECURITY ISSUES EXPONENTIALLY Intake figures are in Quadrillion Btu Number of years if current oil consumption Projections by EIA are followed Black Arrows are reliable sources to USA Red Arrows are not so reliable sources to USA USA prosperity will hit a wall every-time economy heats up Economic volatility & confrontations will escalate even more. Nigeria Venezuela Wall Street Article Nov 14 th 2008 Without imports US runs out of oil rapidly
  • 11. A STATUS QUO GLOBAL ENERGY SNAPSHOT Implications of Key Dynamics Shaping Energy & Climate Tsunami Energy Consumption in Quadrillion Btu China will consume more energy than USA by 2030 ‘ 06 pop. 307M ‘ 06 pop. 1,280M 3 rd in 1990 to 3 rd in 2030 1 st in 1990 to 2 nd in 2030 The Debate: per capita or absolute On per Capita Basis: USA emitted 5 times more CO2 than China in 2006 and will STILL emit twice as much in 2030 UNLESS WE CHANGE THE WAY WE GENERATE ENERGY QBtu CAUSE EFFECT Per Capita Data
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14. www.themegallery.com
  • 15.  
  • 16.
    • We have experience the energy crisis before:
    • 1972/73 – The Oil Embargo by Arab producing oil countries (Blackmail weapon)
    • 1978 – Iran/Iraq War
    • 1990 – The Gulf War
    • 2000/01 – California electricity crisis
    • Etc.
  • 17.
    • Why Crude Oil Price is increasing sharply ?
    • Increase in world consumption.
    • Rapid demand in major Asian Countries.
    • Control of supply by oil producing countries.
    • Disrupted supply due to other circumstances by oil producing countries.
    • Weak American currency.
    • Institutional investors – index speculators and hedge
    Ref: Dato’ Dr.Abdul Aziz b. Jamaluddin, 2008; The Energy Crisis: The Way Forward; Department of Veterinary Services.
  • 18. Year Price/ Barrel ($) 2000 30.29 2001 25.97 2002 26.05 2003 30.95 2004 41.37 2005 56.79 2006 66.54 2007 71.05 2008 (March) 98.13
  • 19.
    • Tax on fuel for road use is made up of two elements, that is, fuel duty and value added tax.
    • Historically, fuel duty was increased annually, broadly in line with inflation. By year 2000, tax accounted for 81.5% of the total cost of unleaded petrol, up from 72.8% in 1993.
    • Fuel prices in the UK had risen from being amongst the cheapest in Europe to being the most expensive in the same time frame.
    • The protesters said that higher transport costs in the UK were making it difficult for haulage industry to remain competitive.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fuel_protests_in_the_United_Kingdom
  • 20.
    • Why California had an electricity Crisis ?
    • In-state power output failed to keep up with demand – did not build any new power plants although the population increased by 13%.
    • Government price caps – by keeping the consumer price of electricity artificial low, the California government discouraged citizen from practicing conservation.
    • New regulations - The new rules called for the Investor Owned Utilities to sell off a significant part of their electricity generation to wholly private, unregulated companies.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/California_electricity_crisis
  • 21.
    • Since 2004, the Argentine energy sector is going through an important crisis as a consequence of the natural gas shortage, fixed energy tariffs, a cap on energy prices, and no investments in increasing energy generation, since 1999.
  • 22.
    • Lack of Investments in the Electrical System.
    • Economic Growth - Since 2003, Argentina has been growing at a rate of 7 to 8 percent annually. This resulted in larger electricity consumption without a corresponding increase in the generation capacity.
    • Natural Gas and Diesel Deficit.
    • Freeze Tariffs. Electricity tariffs remain frozen since 2001
    Ref: Julio Campos (LATAM) and Georgina Benedetti (NA), Feb 2008; Argentine Energy Crisis; Frost Sullivan
  • 23.
    • High Confidence in Regional Energy Integration.
    • Extreme Temperatures caused by Global Warming - Argentina's winter of 2007 was the harshest in 45 years, and is having one of the hottest summers in the decade.
    • Low Hydrology in Argentina - from November 2007 to April 2008, a decrease in the rainfall is expected, as a consequence of "La Niña" meteorological effect in the Pacific Ocean.
    Ref: Julio Campos (LATAM) and Georgina Benedetti (NA), Feb 2008; Argentine Energy Crisis; Frost Sullivan
  • 24.
    • 2008 Central Asia energy crisis - caused by abnormally cold temperatures and low water levels in an area dependent on hydroelectric power.
    • South African electrical crisis - large price rises for platinum in February 2008 and reduced gold production.
    • China energy crisis towards the end of 2005 and again in early 2008 - they suffered severe damage to power networks along with diesel and coal shortages.
  • 25.
    • United Kingdom energy crisis - coal fired power stations reduced, politician's unwillingness to set up new nuclear power stations.
    • Zimbabwe has experienced a shortage of energy supplies for many years due to financial mismanagement.
    • Malaysia - ???
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_crisis
  • 26. Raw Material Prices Raw Material Year (RM/MT) 2001 2003 2005 2007 Corn 467 530 595 879 Soybean meal (local) 880 995 1102 1218 Soybean meal (imported) 873 973 1047 1207 Fish meal 1388 1524 1929 2225 Corn gluten meal 1450 1513 1500 1946 Wheat Pollard 295 356 403 598 Palm kernel cake 124 199 172 528 Crude palm oil 975 1615 1443 2433
  • 27.  
  • 28. Electricity consumers may experience intentionally-engineered rolling blackouts during periods of insufficient supply or unexpected power outages New technology and energy efficiency measures become desirable for consumers seeking to decrease transport costs . Social Effects 1 2
  • 29. Industrialized nations which dependent on oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers. Economic effects
    • Tourism
    • The development
    • of coastal area
    3 4
  • 30.  
  • 31.
    • Potential Energy Choices (1985-2010): Energy Demands in the Developing Countries: prospects for the future. The World Bank Washington, D.C
    • Social & Economic Effects
    • Effects on Construction Industry
    • Implication on Energy Efficiency Measures
    • Potential Energy Supply Constraints: Energy Demands in the Developing Countries (Brazil, China,India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand) by The World Bank
  • 32. Source: Mudassar Imran, Philip Barnes. Energy Demands in the Developing Countries: prospects for the future. The World Bank Washington, D.C.
  • 33. Source: Mudassar Imran, Philip Barnes. Energy Demands in the Developing Countries: prospects for the future. The World Bank Washington, D.C.
  • 34. Source: Mudassar Imran, Philip Barnes. Energy Demands in the Developing Countries: prospects for the future. The World Bank Washington, D.C.
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.
    • Because energy is the resource used to exploit all other resources. The macroeconomic implications of a supply shock-induced energy crisis are large,
    • When energy markets fail, an energy shortage develops .
    • Electricity consumers may experience intentionally-engineered rolling blackouts which are released during periods of insufficient supply or unexpected power outages, regardless of the cause.
    • Industrialized nations are dependent on oil, and efforts to restrict the supply of oil would have an adverse effect on the economies of oil producers .
    • For the consumer, the price of natural gas, gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises .
    • An early response from stakeholders is the call for reports, investigations and commissions into the price of fuels.
    • There are also movements towards the development of more sustainable urban infrastructure.
    • Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_crisis
  • 38.  
  • 39.
    • Due to worsening energy crisis, power shortage will soon begin threatening new building projects.
    • Electricity shortages and skyrocketing energy prices could end up delaying or killing new housing projects.
    • The contrast on the supply of energy will ultimately work to constrain the permitting of real estate development projects, and in doing so, may cause housing shortage.
  • 40.
    • In the market, new technology and energy efficiency measures become desirable for consumers seeking to decrease transport costs.
    • Examples include:
      • In 1980 Briggs & Stratton developed the first gasoline hybrid electric automobile; also are appearing plug-in hybrids.
      • the growth of advanced biofuels.
      • innovations like the Dahon, a folding bicycle
      • modernized and electrifying passenger transport
      • Railway electrification systems and new engines such as the Ganz-Mavag locomotive
      • variable compression ratio for vehicles
      • (with reference to the US)
    • Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_crisis
  • 41.
    • Other responses include the development of unconventional oil sources such as synthetic fuel from places like the Athabasca Oil Sands, more renewable energy commercialization and use of alternative propulsion.
    • There may be a Relocation trend towards local foods and possibly microgeneration, solar thermal collectors and other green energy sources.
    • Tourism trends change and ownership of gas-guzzlers vary, both because of increases to fuel costs which are passed on to customers.
    • Items which were not so popular gain favour, such as nuclear power plants and the blanket sleeper, a garment to keep children warm.
    • Building construction techniques change to reduce heating costs, potentially through increased insulation
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.
    • Energy demand in Developing Countries……
    • (Brazil, China,India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand)
    • …… by The World Bank
    • Energy supply is a serious constraint in many countries reviewed
    • Brazil – 40% public investment in early 1980’s was for domestic energy investment
    • China – huge pent-up demand for energy which is severely controlled by supply
    • Pakistan – stagnation in growth of gas supplies led to severe gas shortages.
    • Resulting in electricity shortages & increased oil imports
    • Other examples:
      • From a single nuclear plant that supplies electricity to the state of Rajasthan, India to the crippling effect of oil import bills in 5 out of the 8 countries reviewed
  • 45.
    • 1970s- early 1980s – in most countries, oil exporters & importers, promoted policies to diversify away from oil
    • And to increase access to indigenous sources of energy.
    • Not universally successful, but these policies broadened the supply base & provided foundation for future diversification.
    • Cost effective development of energy resources is vital for successful economic development.
    • In most countries reviewed, (Malaysia, Indonesia, India) pricing policies are changing to reduce discrimination between producers and consumers
    • Domestic prices are being aligned to world market prices to reflect the scarcity values of the resources.
    • This is expected to contribute to the development of the energy sector in most of the countries.
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48.  
  • 49. www.themegallery.com
  • 50.
    • Oil Was Used To Manufacture Every Item In This Photograph
    ENERGY CRISIS
  • 51.  
  • 52.
    • Government has to concentrate on the distribution and transmission of power system, because there is lot of potential available.
    • Government has to motivate and educate the top management personal to minimize the power wastage.
    • As the saving of 1% of power of our country, it is more than 1000M.W. it’s requested all the concerned power lost concentrate and give our cooperation for the concerned to save or minimise the waste of power
  • 53.
    • Even from the project time onwards, it may be another request not to use or encourage inefficient utilities, equipments and processes.
    • There are rules and regulation for every sectors in the industry to be obey for the minimum energy consumption towards the impact of energy crisis to the society.
    • We should minimize the usage of energy by using low energy consumption devices to contribute at least a little and it will be a lot of energy saved if every houses do so.
  • 54.
    • Renewable energy will play a major role in the energy industry of the twenty-first century and beyond.
    • British Petroleum, Royal Dutch/Shell for example, and other companies are investing heavily in renewable sources of energy.
    • Industry experts realize that these alternative energy systems not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but they predict that over the next half century, renewables may grow to supply half the world's energy.
    (Dohn Riley -November-December, 2000 Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #34)
  • 55.
    • Successfully generating electricity by harnessing the perpetual power of the Sun and wind is not only technologically feasible, it is already a reality.
    • Hydroelectric is also one of the renewable energy resources. (no longer considered environmentally benign sources of power)
  • 56.
    • Solar power relies on the energy produced by nuclear fusion in the Sun.
    • This “God given” energy can be collected and converted in different ways, such as simple water heating for domestic use or by the direct conversion of sunlight to electrical energy using mirrors, boilers, or photovoltaic cells.
    (Dohn Riley -November-December, 2000 Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #34)
  • 57.
    • The technology is improving and the economics are getting more competitive.
    • Photovoltaic panels don't generate electricity at night, but they can be used to produce hydrogen in the daytime, which can then be stored.
  • 58.
    • As of October 2009, the largest photovoltaic (PV) power plants in the world are the Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 60 MW) (It produces enough electricity to power more than 40,000 homes)
    • Strasskirchen Solar Park (Germany, 54 MW)
    • the Lieberose Photovoltaic Park (Germany, 53 MW)
    • Puertollano Photovoltaic Park (Spain, 50 MW)
    • Moura photovoltaic power station (Portugal, 46 MW)
    • Waldpolenz Solar Park (Germany, 40 MW)
    • Nellis Solar Power Plant (located within Nellis Air Force Base in Clark County, Nevada)
    • Serpa solar power plan (Serpa, Portugal)
  • 59.  
  • 60.  
  • 61.  
  • 62.
    • Some photovoltaic power stations which are presently proposed will have a capacity of 150 MW or more, for the idea of converting unrenewaeble energy resources to renewable energy resources supply.
    • Many of these plants are integrated with agriculture and some use innovative tracking systems that follow the sun's daily path across the sky to generate more electricity than conventional fixed-mounted systems.
    • There are no fuel costs or emissions during operation of the power stations.
  • 63.
    • Humans have been harnessing the wind for thousands of years, and are now cleanly producing electricity with it.
    • Air flowing through turbines or spinning blades generates power that can be used to pump water or generate electricity.
    • But wind power has some drawbacks; a "wind farm" requires extensive areal coverage to produce significant amounts of energy.
    http://www.newswiretoday.com/news/50910/
  • 64.
    • But it can be overcome by placing “wind farm” offshore which consist of a very large area for it, as well as the wind speed is sufficient to turn the turbine. (wind generators are practical if windspeed is 16 km/h or greater)
    • In May 2009, consultancy Frost & Sullivan estimated that installed capacity of offshore wind power would grow to 18,769 MW by 2015.
    http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/List_of_offshore_wind_farms
  • 65.
    • Farm    Installed capacity (MW)   Country   
    • Adair Wind Farm 175 USA
    • Altamont Pass Wind Farm 596 USA
    • Alto Minho Wind Farm 240 Portugal
    • Anse-à-Valleau Wind Farm 100 Canada
    • Arada-Montemuro Wind Farm 112 Portugal
    • Ashtabula Wind Farm 196 USA
    • Barton Wind Farm 160 USA
    • Barton Chapel Wind Farm 120 USA
    • Bear Mountain Wind Park 102 Canada
    • Benton County Wind Farm 130 USA
    • Big Horn Wind Farm 200 USA
    • Biglow Canyon Wind Farm 275 USA
    • Bii Stinu Wind Farm 164 Mexico
    page 1 of onshore wind farm
    • Black Law Wind Farm 124 UK
    • Bliss Wind Farm 100 USA
    • Blue Canyon Wind Farm 225 USA
    • Blue Sky Green Field Wind Farm 145 USA
    • Brazos Wind Farm 160 USA
    • Buffalo Gap Wind Farm 523 USA
    • Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm 225 USA
    • Bull Creek Wind Farm 180 USA
    • Callahan Divide Wind Farm 114 USA
    • Camp Grove Wind Farm 150 USA
    • Camp Springs Wind Farm 130 USA
    • Capital Wind Farm 140 Australia
    • Capricorn Ridge Wind Farm 662 USA
  • 66.
    • Carroll Wind Farm 150 USA
    • Cedar Creek Wind Farm 300 USA
    • Centennial Wind Farm 120 USA
    • Centennial Wind Power Facility 150 Canada
    • Century Wind Farm 150 USA
    • Champion Wind Farm 126 USA
    • Colorado Green Wind Farm 162 USA
    • Crystal Lake Wind Farm 350 USA
    • Crystal Rig Wind Farm 180 UK
    • Danjinghe Wind Farm 200 China
    • Desert Sky Wind Farm 160 USA
    • Dutch Hill/ Cohocton Wind Farm 125 USA
    • El Marquesado Wind Farm 198 Spain
    • Elbow Creek Wind Project 122 USA
    • Elk River Wind Farm 150 USA
    page 2 of onshore wind farm
    • Enbridge Ontario Wind Farm 181 Canada
    • Eurus Wind Farm 250 Mexico
    • Fântânele Wind Farm 600 Romania
    • Fenton Wind Farm 206 USA
    • Forest Creek Wind Farm 124 USA
    • Forward Wind Energy Center 129 USA
    • Fowler Ridge Wind Farm 750 USA
    • Gardunha Wind Farm 106 Portugal
    • Glacier Wind Farm 210 USA
    • Glenrock Wind Farm 118.5 USA
    • Goodland I 130 USA
    • Gray County Wind Farm 102 USA
    • Green Mt. Energy Wind Farm 160 USA
    • Gulf Wind Farm 283 USA
  • 67.
    • Hackberry Wind Farm 165 USA
    • Hadyard Hill Wind Farm 120 UK
    • High Winds Wind Farm 162 USA
    • Higueruela Wind Farm 161 Spain
    • Hopkins Ridge Wind Farm 149 USA
    • Horse Hollow Wind Energy Center 736 USA
    • Huitengliang Wind Farm 300 China
    • Intrepid Wind Farm 160 USA
    • Jardin d'Eole Wind Farm 127 Canada
    • Jilin Tongyu Tongfa Wind Farm 100.5 China
    • Judith Gap Wind Farm 135 USA
    • Kibby Wind Power Project 132 USA
    • King Mountain Wind Farm 281 USA
    • Klondike Wind Farm 400 USA
    page 3 of onshore wind farm
    • Lake Bonney Wind Farm 239 Australia
    • Langdon Wind Energy Center 159 USA
    • Lone Star Wind Farm 400 USA
    • Maple Ridge Wind Farm 322 USA
    • Maranchon Wind Farm 208 Spain
    • Marengo Wind Farm 140 USA
    • McAdoo Wind Farm 150 USA
    • Melancthon EcoPower Centre 199 Canada
    • Milford Wind Corridor Project 203 USA
    • Mount Storm Wind Farm 264 USA
    • Musselroe Wind Farm 168 Australia
    • NedPower Mount Storm I 164 USA
    • New Mexico Wind Energy Center 204 USA
    • Noble Chateaugay windpark 106 USA
  • 68.
    • Noble Weathersfield Windpark 126 USA
    • Panther Creek Wind Farm 458 USA
    • Peetz Wind Farm 400 USA
    • Peñascal Wind Farm 202 USA
    • Pine Tree Wind Farm 120 USA
    • Pinhal Interior Wind Farm 144 Portugal
    • Pioneer Prairie Wind Farm 293 USA
    • Pomeroy Wind Farm 196 USA
    • Port Alma Wind Farm 101 Canada
    • Portland Wind Project 195 Australia
    • Prarie Star Wind Farm 100 USA
    • Prince Township Wind Farm 189 Canada
    • Project West Wind 143 New Zealand
    • Rail Splitter Wind Farm 100 USA
    page 4 of onshore wind farm
    • Red Hills Wind Farm 123 USA
    • Rolling Hills Wind Farm 118.5 USA
    • Roscoe Wind Farm 781 USA
    • San Gorgonio Pass Wind Farm 619 USA
    • Santo Domingo Wind Farm 160 Mexico
    • Sherbino Wind Farm 750 USA
    • Shiloh Wind Farm 300 USA
    • Sisante Wind Farm 198 Spain
    • Smoky Hills Wind Farm 249 USA
    • Smøla Wind Farm 150 Norway
    • Snowtown Wind Farm 170 Australia
    • St. Leon Project 104 Canada
    • Stanton Energy Center 120 USA
    • Stateline Wind Project 300 USA
  • 69.
    • Story County Wind Farm 150 USA
    • Sweetwater Wind Farm 585 USA
    • Tararua Wind Farm 161 New Zealand
    • Tatanka Wind Farm 180 USA
    • Tehachapi Pass Wind Farm 685 USA
    • Trent Wind Farm 150 USA
    • Turkey Track Wind Farm 169 USA
    • Twin Groves Wind Farm 396 USA
    • Vankusawade Wind Park 201 India
    • Ventominho Wind Farm 240 Portugal
    • Walnut Wind Farm 153 USA
    TOTAL 132 onshore wind farms operating and some under construction. There are around 100 more proposed wind farms project will be carry on soon. page 5 of onshore wind farm
    • Waubra Wind Farm 192 Australia
    • Wethersfield Wind Park 124 USA
    • Whispering Willow Wind Farm 200 USA
    • White Creek Wind Power Project 204 USA
    • Whitelee Wind Farm 322 UK
    • Wild Horse Wind Farm 229 USA
    • Wildorado Wind Ranch 161 USA
    • Wolfe Island Wind Project 197.8 Canada
    • Woodward Wind Farm 159 USA
    • Woolnorth Wind Farm 140 Australia
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_onshore_wind_farms
  • 70.  
  • 71.  
  • 72.  
  • 73.  
  • 74.
    • The 209 MW Horns Rev 2 wind farm in Copenhagen, Denmark is the world's largest offshore wind farm which build on September 17, 2009.
    • Currently, the largest wind farm which is 500 megawatt (MW) Greater Gabbard wind farm in the UK.
    • New wind farms which are purposed is 1,500 MW Atlantic Array and the 1,000 MW London Array, both in the UK
  • 75.
    • Newly technology, floating-turbine technologies are only recently beginning to be deployed.
    • The first large-capacity floating wind turbine is the Hywind, a 2.3 MW turbine in 220-meter deep water in the North Sea, which became operational in September, 2009
  • 76.  
  • 77.  
  • 78. 7.5 megawatt electric produced Or 20 million kilowatt hours per year This turbine has a rotor diameter of 126 meters A quick calculation would be average 300 kwh per home per month. For 12 months, that’s 3600 kwh per year per house. That’s 5555 Malaysian homes on one wind turbine. http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/06/queen-offshore-wind-turbine-power-clipper.php
  • 79.  
  • 80. www.themegallery.com World is probably beyond peak oil and gas If we are still close, turn around and retreat Finding new oil and gas takes decades The facilities need to be rebuilt.
  • 81. It will never “be gone” but will soon be “far less than needed” addicted It is past time for debating, the crisis is here. The time to fight is NOW !! The earth’s energy has peaked and its use will start to disappear
  • 82. www.themegallery.com
  • 83.  
  • 84.
    • www.themegallery.com
    • http://images.google.com
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_crisis
    • Chen, A. (2006, March 27). Averting an energy crisis. eWeek , 23 (13), 33-35. Retrieved July 18, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
    • Lstiburek, J. (2008, July). Energy Security And Saving the Planet. ASHRAE Journal , pp. 61,64. Retrieved July 18, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
    • Hodgson, P. (2008). Nuclear Power and the Energy Crisis. . (pp. 238-246). Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Retrieved July 18, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database.
    • The Energy Crisis, Papers Submitted to the 9th IOCU World Congress held in London, July 1978
    • Mudassar Imran, Philip Barnes, World Bank Staff Commodity Working Paper Number 23, Energy Demand in the Developing Countries: Prospects for the Future, The World Bank Washington D.C., 1990
  • 85.
    • Energy Crisis - by P C Sinha
    • The Coming Energy Crisis (Originally Published November-December, 2000 In Infinite Energy Magazine Issue #34) - by Dohn Riley
    • Frost & Sullivan: Offshore Wind Energy Set to Boom in the Next Few Years, news release, 2009-05-13
    • Patel, Prachi (2009-06-22). "Floating Wind Turbines to Be Tested". IEEE Spectrum.
    • Meet the world's largest offshore windfarm, 22 May 2007
    • http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/green-tech/wind/floating-wind-turbines-to-be-tested. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
    • http://www.infinite-energy.com/iemagazine/issue34/comingenergycrisis.html
    • London Array official site
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Giant_photovoltaic_array.jpg
    • http://www.treehugger.com/files/2008/06/queen-offshore-wind-turbine-power-clipper.php
  • 86.  
  • 87. www.themegallery.com