EAT446 Environment & Society

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EAT446 Environment & Society

  1. 1. EAT 446ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETYDegree In Environmental EngineeringPrepared By:Ir. Muhammad Arkam Bin Che Munaaim, PEng, IntPEMSc. B Tech (Energy) (USM), B. Elec. Eng. (Hons) (UTM), Dip. Elec. Eng (Power) (UTM).MIEM, MIET, MIEEE, ASEAN Eng, APEC Eng, EMF IntPE, Chartered Eng (ASEAN), SPAN QP.School of Environmental EngineeringUniversity Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Tel: 04 979 8988 Email: arkam@unimap.edu.myReferences:Living In The Environment, G Tyler, Scott E Spoolman, 2009Environmental Science, Fundamental and Applications, Devere Burton, 2008.
  2. 2. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPAl Quran, Ar Ruum, 30:“Corruption doth appearon land and sea becauseof which men’s hand havedone, that He may makethen taste a part of thatwhich they have done, inorder that they mayreturn” (41)
  3. 3. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS DefinitionEnvironment?Everything Around US..!Includes all of living and nonliving things which weinteract. Includes complex web of relationship thatconnect us with one another and with the world welive in.
  4. 4. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSEnvironmental Problems?We run more and more earth’s natural resources foreconomy caused:Shrinking forest, expanding deserts, eroding soils,deteriorating the agricultural lands, lower atmosphere iswarming, melting glaciers, increasing sea levels, moredestructive storms, failing water tables, disappearing of seacorals, drying rivers, fisheries are collapsing, extinction ofmany species.
  5. 5. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  6. 6. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  7. 7. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS
  8. 8. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSEnvironmental Problems: Cause?Major causes are:Population growthWasteful and unsustainable resource usePovertyExclusion of environmental cost of resource useAttempts to manage nature with insufficient knowledge
  9. 9. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS GROWTH POPULATION
  10. 10. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS RESOURCES UNSUSTAINABLE
  11. 11. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS POVERTY
  12. 12. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS COST ENVIROMENTAL EXCLUDE
  13. 13. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS KNOWLEDGE INSUFFICIENT
  14. 14. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMSSustainability:Our lives and economies depend on energy from the sun(sun capita) and on natural resources (natural capita)provided by the earth.Living sustainably means living off the earth’s naturalincome without depleting or degrading the natural capitalthat supplies it.
  15. 15. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPFour Scientific Principles Of Sustainability
  16. 16. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP Ecology-DefinitionEcologyIs the study of how organisms interact with one anotherand their physical environment of matter and energy.EcosystemA community of different species interacting with oneanother and with their nonliving environment of matterand energy.
  17. 17. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPWhat Keeps Us Alive?Life is sustained by the flow of energy from the sunthrough the biosphere, the recycling of nutrients withinthe biosphere, and gravity.
  18. 18. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP
  19. 19. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ECOSYSTEMSMajor Components:Living (Biotic)-Plants, animals, microbes.Non Living (Abiotic)- Water, air, nutrients, rock, heat, solarenergy.Some organisms produce the nutrients they need, othersget their nutrients by consuming their organisms, andsome recycle nutrients back to producers bydecomposing the wastes and remains of organisms.
  20. 20. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  21. 21. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  22. 22. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  23. 23. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  24. 24. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  25. 25. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  26. 26. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  27. 27. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA
  28. 28. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA Living in Comfort
  29. 29. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA Living In Comfort
  30. 30. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Depend Heavily on OilOil-The lifeblood of today’s economics may be unaffordablesometime during this century.Geologist project that known and projected global reserves ofconventional oil will be 80% depleted between sometime 2050 and2100, depending on consumption rate. Natural gas: 60 yrs, Coal:200yrs (World Energy Council, 2004)The challenge for this century is to sharply reduce the waste of oiland other resources and to find array of substitutes for oil andother fossil fuels.
  31. 31. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Depend Heavily on Oil-Petroleum ProductsPetroleum products are useful materials derived from crude oil(petroleum) as it is processed in oil refineriesLargest: Energy carriers: various grades of fuel oil and gasoline, Jetfuel, diesel fuel, heating oil. Heavier : Asphalt, tar, parrafin wax,lubricating and other heavy oils.Chemicals: Plastics, sulphur, Hydrogen and carbon.
  32. 32. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Conventional OilAdvantages DisadvantagesAmple supply for 42-93 years Need to find substituteLow cost within 50 yearsHigh net energy yield Large government subsidiesEasily transport within and Environmental cost notbetween countries included in market priceLow land use Artificially low priceTechnology is well developed encourage wastagesEfficient distribution system Can cause pollution
  33. 33. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do? Energy Resources Non Renewable RenewableFossil fuel Direct SunNuclear WindCoal BiomassNatural gas Flowing water
  34. 34. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Can Save Money and Energy in IndustryBy introducing co-generation system or combined heat and power(CHP) system. Especially for manufacturing that involve heatingprocess where the heat generated is feed back to re-generateelectrical for independent use.Equipments that being used in the system can be replaced by ‘lowloss energy efficient equipment such as motors, lightings and airconditioner.Recycling waste materials from manufacturing also can be aintelligent steps for money saving activities.
  35. 35. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?
  36. 36. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Can Save Money and Energy in TransportationUse high efficient engine that perform well with minimal petrolused.Use hybrid carUse electric car (Plug in hybrid electric vehicle)Energy efficient diesel car, biodiesel can be an alternative fuel.Next Generation: Fuel Cell (Hydrogen to produce electricity) 2012.
  37. 37. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Can Save Money and Energy in TransportationTransportation accounts for 2/3 of US oil consumption, majorsource of air pollution and CO2 emission.Efficient car is considered to be run at least 15 kpl (CAFÉ, Standard2008), CAFÉ: Corporate Average Fuel Economy, US.In US:Hummer H2 runs at 5kpl tax US10k, car price US55k.Toyota Prius Hybrid at 20kpl rebate US10k, car price US22k.
  38. 38. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Can Design Buildings That Save Energy andMoneyDesigning energy efficient buildingGreen architecture, based on energy efficient approachBuilding certification, Green Building Index, LEEDS, BREEAM, etc.Natural lights, natural ventilation, orientation, materials selection.Research:60% of electrical energy goes to Air Conditioning15% of electrical energy goes to Lighting (During Daytime) (Energy Commission, 2002 office building of 1000sm)
  39. 39. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Malaysia’s Typical Climate:Small variation in monthly temperatures (less than 8°C)Hottest month (36°C), Coolest (25.9°C)Relative Humidity (55-70%)Wind speed are quite low mean value 1.2m/sRainfall exceeds 200mm/month for 8 month of the year (A Zain Ahmed, 2008)
  40. 40. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Strategies To Keep Indoor Condition CoolDehumidificationCoolingNatural VentilationShadingStrategies to reduce thermal stress caused by hot & humid climate.In ASEAN, building consumes 1/3 of all electricity produced.Alarming because Malaysia is among fastest developing countries inthe world.(A Zain Ahmed, 2008)
  41. 41. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do? 1-Encourage design of new and existing building: Constructed, operated and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy. 2-Provide minimum criteria and standard for energy efficiency 3-Provide guidance for EE that demonstrate good professional judgment and minimum exceed minimum criteria 4-Encourage the application of RE in new and existing building and minimize non- renewable energy sources.
  42. 42. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do? Objective Statement: “To encourage the application of renewable energy in new and existing buildings to minimize non renewable energy sources, pollution and energy consumption whist maintaining comfort, health and safety of the occupants”
  43. 43. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Sustainable Design Approach:A combined architectural, engineering, site planning andlandscaping (multidisciplinary) approach to design and energyconscious building should optimize the energy efficiency of abuilding especially in employing combined passive and activedevices.
  44. 44. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?National Energy Policy Objectives:Three principal energy objectives are instrumental in guiding thefuture energy sector development. They are:-(1/3) The Supply Objective:To ensure the provision of adequate, secure, and cost-effectiveenergy supplies through developing indigenous energy resourcesboth non-renewable and renewable energy resources using the leastcost options and diversification of supply sources both from withinand outside the country;
  45. 45. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?National Energy Policy Objectives:(2/3) The Utilization Objective:To promote the efficient utilization of energy and to discouragewasteful and non-productive patterns of energy consumption; and(3/3) The Environmental Objective:To minimize the negative impacts of energy production,transportation, conversion, utilization and consumption on theenvironment.
  46. 46. LEED, or Leadership in Energy and EnvironmentalDesign, is an internationally-recognized greenbuilding certification system. Developed by the U.S.Green Building Council (USGBC) in March 2000, LEEDprovides building owners and operators with aframework for identifying and implementing practicaland measurable green building design, construction,operations and maintenance solutions.
  47. 47. • LEED promotes sustainable building and development practices through a suite of rating systems that recognize projects that implement strategies for better environmental and health performance.• LEED is flexible enough to apply to all building types – commercial as well as residential. It works throughout the building lifecycle – design and construction, operations and maintenance, tenant fitout, and significant retrofit. And LEED for Neighborhood Development extends the benefits of LEED beyond the building footprint into the neighborhood it serves.• LEED also makes business sense, benefiting commercial building owners as well as tenants.
  48. 48. The UK’s First BREEAM Outstanding OfficeTower Rises in London
  49. 49. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Passive Design Factors Affecting Energy Use In BuildingsThe building layout, planning, design, shape, fabric and constructioncover a wide number of variables that affect building energyrequirements.1) Size and Shape2) Building Orientation3) Planning & Layout4) Thermo Physical Properties5) Window System6) Construction Details
  50. 50. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?MS 1525:2007: 4.2 Passive design strategyThe design and construction of a building which takes optimaladvantage of its environment need not impose any significant extracost as compared to a more highly serviced building. All buildingshave a primary function to provide an internal environment suitablefor the purpose of the building. The architectural consideration indesigning a building is influenced by its responsiveness to theimmediate environment. The important factors that should beconsidered include the following:
  51. 51. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?MS 1525:2007: 4.2 Passive design strategy:a) Building orientation;b) Building configuration (geometry and layout);c) Effective room depth;d) Floor to ceiling height;e) Location of cores;f) Building façade;g) Internal layout;h) Fenestrations;i) Building materials;j) Roof design and colour; andk) Landscaping and shading.
  52. 52. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do? DAYLIGHTING
  53. 53. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?How to daylight:Daylighting is a systems approach.The Considerations:Orientation and footprint , Climate, region and general availability of natural light ,How Buildings Use Energy, Urban vs. suburban , Floor to floor/floor to ceilingheights , Window to wall ratios , Placement of glazing , Toplighting, sidelighting orboth , Glazing performance (visible light transmittance, etc.) , Exterior shading andsolar control , Interior shading and solar control , Integration with electric lightingsystems (lighting power densities, controls and electric lighting design) , Reducedcooling loads (note: discuss cool daylighting) , Interior design (color, reflectance,furniture selection) , Floor plan (how far will daylight penetrate?)
  54. 54. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?The Basics: Toplighting and SidelightingToplighting brings daylight into the building from above throughclerestories, skylights, tubular skylights, sawtooth designs, etc.Daylight that enters the building above 10 feet, even if its through avertical opening, is referred to as toplighting.Sidelighting brings daylight into the building from the side throughwindows, curtainwalls, etc.
  55. 55. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?
  56. 56. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?How to daylight:General Daylighting Principles:1) Avoid direct sunlight on critical task and excessive brightness.2) Bring the daylight at high location3) Filter the daylight4) Bounce daylight off of surrounding surfaces5) Integrated daylight with other building systems and strategies
  57. 57. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?How to daylight:Light Distribution Strategies:1) Use sloped or curved ceiling planes2) Optimize overhangs based on window height and latitude3) Incorporate light shelves with windows where appropriate4) Employ baffles, louvers and reflectors as appropriate.5) Integrate daylighting with luminious ceiling systems
  58. 58. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Daylight: Do and Don’t:Dont do daylighting without controls to manage the electriclighting levels.Do understand basic lighting design elements before starts.Do understand that daylighting is a systems approach.Dont underestimate yourself or your team.Do get some basic software and training to help give you basicdaylighting design rules and strategies.Dont believe there is only one way to daylight a building.
  59. 59. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Air Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesA Survey Of Energy Efficient Strategies ForEffective Air Conditioning (2003)
  60. 60. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Air Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesConserve air conditioning energy is to properly maintain thebuildings such that the cooled air is not vented into the atmosphere.Develop, frequently update and enforce daily, weekly and monthlyoccupation schedules for each air conditioned space so that coolingis provided only when it is requiredAwareness campaign: People need to be educated about and madeconscious of saving A/C related to energy. (Omar M Al-Rabghi, 2003)
  61. 61. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Air Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesMaintain The Air Conditioning As Recommended:1. Follow manufacturer recommendations for maintenance, partreplacement and operation.2. Periodically visually inspect the system for leakage, noise, vibrationand follow up normal operation and take corrective measures.
  62. 62. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Air Conditioning: Efficiency Strategies3. Monitor the outputs from available measuring devices, comparethem with manufacturers’ recommendations and take necessarycorrective action.5. Periodically replace filters, both fresh air filters and fan coil filters.6. Draw up occupancy schedules and update these frequently. Runthe A/C equipment in accordance with occupancy schedules in orderto satisfy the occupants while at the same time saving energy.
  63. 63. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Air Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesUse The Correct Air ConditioningType For Correct Purposes...!Then use it Correctly…!
  64. 64. WINDOW TYPEAIR CONDITIONING
  65. 65. SPLIT UNIT AIRCONDITIONING
  66. 66. DUCTED TYPEAIR CONDITIONING
  67. 67. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Can Save Energy and Money in ExistingBuildingsRetrofit to save energyInsulate and plug leaksUse energy efficient windowStop other heating or cooling losesHeat house more efficientlyHeat water more efficientlyUse energy efficient appliances for lighting, etc.
  68. 68. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Can Use Renewable Energy and PlantNonrenewable EnergySun, moving water, wind, biomass
  69. 69. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?
  70. 70. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAPENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?
  71. 71. OUR CHOICE…
  72. 72. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?We Can Cool Buildings NaturallyWe can Use Sunlight to Produce HeatWe Can Heat Water With Solar EnergyWe Can Use Solar Cells to Produce ElectricityWe Can Convert Plant and Plant Waste to LiquidBiofuels.
  73. 73. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA ConclusionKnowledge and education is important in preserving ourenvironment. Young generation should be educated with thisunderstanding in order to have environmental-awarenesscommunity.Awareness and encouragement from government and authoritiesis utmost and the only way to materialized this mission towardssustainable earth.Thank you.

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