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EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
EAT 443 Built Environment
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EAT 443 Built Environment

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Lecture notes for EAT 443 UniMAP.

Lecture notes for EAT 443 UniMAP.

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  • 1. EAT 443BUILT ENVIRONMENTDegree In Environmental EngineeringPrepared By:Ir. Muhammad Arkam Bin Che Munaaim, PEng, IntPEMSc. B Tech (Energy) (USM), B. Elec. Eng. (Hons) (UTM), Dip. Elec. Eng (Power) (UTM).MIEM, MIET, MIEEE, ASEAN Eng, APEC Eng, EMF IntPE, Chartered Eng (ASEAN), SPAN QP.School of Environmental EngineeringUniversity Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)Tel: 04 979 8988Email: arkam@unimap.edu.my arkam@engineer.com
  • 2. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPAl Quran, Al Baqarah, 2: “And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed):Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower. (127)”
  • 3. EAT 151 INTRODUCTION TO BUILDING ENGINEERING UniMAP BUILDING ENGINEERING
  • 4. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPBuilding?Building is an assembly of construction materials that arefastened to one another, as well as the ground itself, in such away as to provide shelter for livingthings, machinery, possessions or other elements. (TheStructural Engineering’s Professional Training Manual)Building is a fixed structure for human occupancy and use.(Dictionary of Engineering, McGraw Hill)
  • 5. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPEngineering?Engineering is the branch of science and technologyconcerned with the design, building and use ofengines, machines and structures (Oxford Compact English )Engineering is creative design and analysis that usesenergy, materials, motion, and information to serve humanneeds in innovative ways (An Introduction to Engineering andDesign – 2nd Edition – Philip Kosky , George Wise, RobertBalmer, William Keat)
  • 6. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPEngineering? (Cont…)Engineering is defined as the profession in which a knowledgeof the mathematical and natural sciences gained bystudy, experience and practice is applied with judgement todevelop ways to utilize economically the materials and forcesof nature for the benefit of mankind by the AccreditationBoard for Engineering Technology (ABET).Engineering encompasses science and art, mathematics andcreativity, models and approximations. (John HopkinsUniversity)
  • 7. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPBuilding Engineering?Building services engineering, technical buildingservices, architectural engineering, or buildingengineering is the engineering of the internalenvironment and environmental impact of a building.It essentially brings buildings and structures to life.
  • 8. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPBuilding Engineering?Building engineers are responsible for thedesign, installation, operation and maintaining of themechanical, electrical and public health systemsrequired for the safe, comfortable andenvironmentally friendly operation of modernbuildings.
  • 9. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPModern buildings are built to createbetter, consistent, and productiveenvironments in which to work andto live.
  • 10. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPBUILT ENVIRONMENT?
  • 11. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP• The term built environment refers to the human- made surroundings that provide the setting for human activity, ranging in scale from personal shelter and buildings to neighbourhoods and cities that can often include their supporting infrastructure, such as water supply or energy networks. The built environment is a material, spatial and cultural product of human labour that combines physical elements and energy in forms for living, working and playing.
  • 12. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP• In practice, the term is typically used to describe the interdisciplinary field which addresses the design, construction, management and use of these man-made surroundings as an interrelated whole as well as their relationship to human activities over time (rather than a particular element in isolation or at a single moment in time).
  • 13. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP
  • 14. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP
  • 15. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP
  • 16. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPBuildings must be designed withfeatures to provide:Better lightingComfortable space temperature,Comfortable humidity and air qualityConvenient power and communication capabilityHigh quality sanitation; andReliable systems for the protection of life and property.
  • 17. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPWhat does a modern building need to do?Control rain and ground waterControl heat flow, airflow and water vapor flowControl light and solar radiationControl noise and vibrationControl contaminants, environmental hazards, odors, etc.Control fireProvide strength and rigidityBe durableBe aesthetically pleasingBe economical
  • 18. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPWhat Happens When Building Failed?:We waste energyWe waste materialsPeople are uncomfortableCondition are unsafeConditions are unhealthyComponents or systems fails
  • 19. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPStrategies To Keep Indoor Condition CoolDehumidificationCoolingNatural VentilationShadingStrategies to reduce thermal stress caused by hot & humid climate.In ASEAN, building consumes 1/3 of all electricity produced.Alarming because Malaysia is among fastest developing countries inthe world.(A Zain Ahmed, 2008)
  • 20. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPMalaysia’s Typical Climate:Small variation in monthly temperatures (less than 8°C)Hottest month (36°C), Coolest (25.9°C)Relative Humidity (55-70%)Wind speed are quite low mean value 1.2m/sRainfall exceeds 200mm/month for 8 month of the year (A Zain Ahmed, 2008)
  • 21. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP1-Encourage design of new and existingbuilding: Constructed, operated andmaintained in a manner that reduces theuse of energy.2-Provide minimum criteria and standardfor energy efficiency3-Provide guidance for EE thatdemonstrate good professional judgmentand minimum exceed minimum criteria4-Encourage the application of RE in newand existing building and minimize non-renewable energy sources.
  • 22. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPObjective Statement:“To encourage the application ofrenewable energy in new and existingbuildings to minimize non renewableenergy sources, pollution and energyconsumption whist maintainingcomfort, health and safety of theoccupants”
  • 23. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPSustainable Design Approach:A combined architectural, engineering, site planning andlandscaping (multidisciplinary) approach to design and energyconscious building should optimize the energy efficiency of abuilding especially in employing combined passive and activedevices.
  • 24. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?MS 1525:2007: 4.2 Passive design strategyThe design and construction of a building which takes optimaladvantage of its environment need not impose any significant extracost as compared to a more highly serviced building. All buildingshave a primary function to provide an internal environment suitablefor the purpose of the building. The architectural consideration indesigning a building is influenced by its responsiveness to theimmediate environment. The important factors that should beconsidered include the following:
  • 25. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?Passive Design Factors Affecting Energy Use In BuildingsThe building layout, planning, design, shape, fabric and constructioncover a wide number of variables that affect building energyrequirements.1) Size and Shape2) Building Orientation3) Planning & Layout4) Thermo Physical Properties5) Window System6) Construction Details
  • 26. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?MS 1525:2007: 4.2 Passive design strategy:a) Building orientation;b) Building configuration (geometry and layout);c) Effective room depth;d) Floor to ceiling height;e) Location of cores;f) Building façade;g) Internal layout;h) Fenestrations;i) Building materials;j) Roof design and colour; andk) Landscaping and shading.
  • 27. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?DAYLIGHTING
  • 28. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?How to daylight:Daylighting is a systems approach.The Considerations:Orientation and footprint , Climate, region and general availability of natural light, How Buildings Use Energy, Urban vs. suburban , Floor to floor/floor to ceilingheights , Window to wall ratios , Placement of glazing , Toplighting, sidelighting orboth , Glazing performance (visible light transmittance, etc.) , Exterior shading andsolar control , Interior shading and solar control , Integration with electric lightingsystems (lighting power densities, controls and electric lighting design) , Reducedcooling loads (note: discuss cool daylighting) , Interior design(color, reflectance, furniture selection) , Floor plan (how far will daylightpenetrate?)
  • 29. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?The Basics: Toplighting and SidelightingToplighting brings daylight into the building from above throughclerestories, skylights, tubular skylights, sawtooth designs, etc.Daylight that enters the building above 10 feet, even if its through avertical opening, is referred to as toplighting.Sidelighting brings daylight into the building from the side throughwindows, curtainwalls, etc.
  • 30. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?
  • 31. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?How to daylight:General Daylighting Principles:1) Avoid direct sunlight on critical task and excessive brightness.2) Bring the daylight at high location3) Filter the daylight4) Bounce daylight off of surrounding surfaces5) Integrated daylight with other building systems and strategies
  • 32. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?How to daylight:Light Distribution Strategies:1) Use sloped or curved ceiling planes2) Optimize overhangs based on window height and latitude3) Incorporate light shelves with windows where appropriate4) Employ baffles, louvers and reflectors as appropriate.5) Integrate daylighting with luminious ceiling systems
  • 33. EAT 446 ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIETY Degree In Environmental Engineering UniMAP ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS-MALAYSIA What Can We Do?Daylight: Do and Don’t:Dont do daylighting without controls to manage the electriclighting levels.Do understand basic lighting design elements before starts.Do understand that daylighting is a systems approach.Dont underestimate yourself or your team.Do get some basic software and training to help give you basicdaylighting design rules and strategies.Dont believe there is only one way to daylight a building.
  • 34. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?Air Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesA Survey Of Energy Efficient Strategies ForEffective Air Conditioning (2003)
  • 35. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPStrategies To Keep Indoor Condition CoolDehumidificationCoolingNatural VentilationShadingStrategies to reduce thermal stress caused by hot & humid climate.In ASEAN, building consumes 1/3 of all electricity produced.Alarming because Malaysia is among fastest developing countries inthe world.(A Zain Ahmed, 2008)
  • 36. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP What Can We Do?Air Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesConserve air conditioning energy is to properly maintain thebuildings such that the cooled air is not vented into the atmosphere.Develop, frequently update and enforce daily, weekly and monthlyoccupation schedules for each air conditioned space so that coolingis provided only when it is requiredAwareness campaign: People need to be educated about and madeconscious of saving A/C related to energy. (Omar M Al-Rabghi, 2003)
  • 37. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPAir Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesMaintain The Air Conditioning As Recommended:1. Follow manufacturer recommendations for maintenance, partreplacement and operation.2. Periodically visually inspect the system for leakage, noise, vibrationand follow up normal operation and take corrective measures.
  • 38. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPAir Conditioning: Efficiency Strategies3. Monitor the outputs from available measuring devices, comparethem with manufacturers’ recommendations and take necessarycorrective action.5. Periodically replace filters, both fresh air filters and fan coil filters.6. Draw up occupancy schedules and update these frequently. Runthe A/C equipment in accordance with occupancy schedules in orderto satisfy the occupants while at the same time saving energy.
  • 39. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPAir Conditioning: Efficiency StrategiesUse The Correct Air ConditioningType For Correct Purposes...!Then use it Correctly…!
  • 40. WINDOW TYPEAIR CONDITIONING
  • 41. SPLIT UNIT AIRCONDITIONING
  • 42. DUCTED TYPEAIR CONDITIONING
  • 43. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPWe Can Save Energy and Money in ExistingBuildingsRetrofit to save energyInsulate and plug leaksUse energy efficient windowStop other heating or cooling losesHeat house more efficientlyHeat water more efficientlyUse energy efficient appliances for lighting, etc.
  • 44. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP Superintending Officer/Behalf Project ArchitectCivil & Structure Quantity Surveyor Mechanical & Electrical Engineer Engineer Main Contractor Subcontractors/Suppliers
  • 45. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP
  • 46. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP01: Site Possession 06: M&E Services02: Earthworks 07: Finishing Works03: Sub Structures 08: Testing & Commissioning04: Superstructures 09: Handover05: Roof, Wall, Floors 10: Defect & Warranty
  • 47. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP EARTHWORKS Construction Phase
  • 48. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP SUBSTRUCTURES WORKS Construction Phase
  • 49. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP SUPERSTRUCTURES WORKS Construction Phase
  • 50. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP ROOFING WORKS Construction Phase
  • 51. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP WALL WORKS Construction Phase
  • 52. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP BUILDING SERVICES Construction Phase
  • 53. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP BUILDING SERVICES Construction Phase
  • 54. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP BUILDING SERVICES Construction Phase
  • 55. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP BUILDING SERVICES Construction Phase
  • 56. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP BUILDING SERVICES Construction Phase
  • 57. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP BUILDING SERVICES Construction Phase
  • 58. EAT 151 INTRODUCTION TO BUILDING ENGINEERING UniMAP BUILDING ENGINEERING Construction Phase FINISHING WORKS Construction Phase
  • 59. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP FINISHING WORKS Construction Phase
  • 60. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP FINISHING WORKS Construction Phase
  • 61. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP FINISHING WORKS Construction Phase
  • 62. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP FINISHING WORKS Construction Phase
  • 63. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP TESTING & COMMISSIONING Construction Phase
  • 64. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP TESTING & COMMISSIONING Construction Phase
  • 65. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPTHIS IS ACTUAL TESTING & COMMISSIONING DISCHARGE! Construction Phase
  • 66. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP TESTING & COMMISSIONING Construction Phase
  • 67. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP PROJECT HANDOVER Construction Phase
  • 68. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP
  • 69. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAP
  • 70. EAT 443 BUILT ENVIRONMENT UniMAPKnowledge and education is important in preserving ourenvironment. Young generation should be educated with thisunderstanding in order to have environmental-awarenesscommunity.Awareness and encouragement from government and authoritiesis utmost and the only way to materialized this mission towardssustainable earth.Thank you.

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