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  1. 1. BAMBOO A Vernacular material
  2. 2. Vernacular architecture is the most widespread form of building in India, constructed through traditional building methods by local builders without using the services of a professional architect.  It has been built by different civilizations in their own styles based on the local conditions.  In India they comprise different categories – from mud-plastered to reed-thatched to timber-framed – in accordance with the availability of local material.  Skilful craftsmanship of the local people has helped vernacular architecture in India evolve organically over time. Some houses are built to withstand earthquakes, while others can be rebuilt quickly if washed away by heavy monsoon rains. Vernacular Architecture FACTORS INFLUENCING VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE-:  CLIMATIC & GEOLOGICAL  LOCAL MATERIALS USED  TECHNOLOGY ADAPTED
  3. 3. Materials In areas where there are limitations of building material, natural materials such a mud, grass, bamboo, thatch or sticks are used for semi-permanent structures which require constant maintenance and replacement.  The advantages of such architecture are the construction materials are cheap and easily available and relatively little labour is required. Most of the bamboo structures are based on existing local technology, which doesn't require high-tech to construct.  As the needs and resources of the people change, vernacular architecture evolve to include more durable materials such as stones, clay tiles, metals etc.  Though they are more expensive to build, they are very durable structures.
  4. 4. Properties of Bamboo Bamboo is one of the most amazingly, versatile and sustainable building materials available. It grows remarkably fast and in a wide range of climates.  It is exceedingly strong for its weight and can be used both structurally and as a finish material.  They are extremely resistant to traction and torsion, have similar elastic properties  Due to its size, lightness and resistance, bamboo is an exceptional product of nature.  The physical characteristics are ideal for creating light but strong structure. Over the years, this marvelous grass lost its reputation as a noble building material for basically two reasons: The relatively short life span of the bamboo constructions The association of poverty created by the widespread use of this material as it was so cheap compared to the cost of other materials. Even today bamboo is considered to be a poor-man’s building material.
  5. 5. Uses of Bamboo  Bamboo, also known as green gold because of its immense use, has been used in the region for building materials, agricultural implements, furniture, musical instruments, food items, handicrafts, large bamboo-based industries.  The canes are beautiful when exposed and they can be cut in such a way as to be re-combined into useful products such as flooring, wall cladding & roof covering also.  There is a long vernacular tradition to the use of bamboo in structures in many parts of the world, especially in more tropical climates, where it grows into larger diameter canes.  One tricky aspect to the use of bamboo is in the joinery; since its strength comes from its integral structure, it cannot be joined with many of the traditional techniques used with wood. This is where the old ways of building with bamboo can be especially informative.
  6. 6. Bamboo used as a supporting columns Bamboo used as a beam in roof Bamboo used as a wall cladding material
  7. 7. Availability Bamboo is a woody evergreen plant traditionally grown in South-East Asia, and now grown across India and the Himalayas, North-East Australia, and South-West America.  It grows in diverse climate zones, and can spread rapidly, unless prevented or deliberately cultivated.  Bamboo can withstand heat and humid climates – the traditional climates of Asia, and suppliers boast that bamboo houses can withstand hurricanes if well constructed. However, it would not be well-suited to the weather of much of Europe, particularly heavy and consistent rainfall and periods of snow. There are many houses in Thailand and Vietnam made completely from bamboo, and in many other buildings and dwellings across Asia it is at least a component of the house construction.  However, it is not native to the UK, and the environmental cost of importing bamboo is high. This prohibits its widespread use in the UK as an environmental and sustainable building material source, and efforts to grow it for this purpose are scarce.
  8. 8.  It is a sustainable material, and when grown and harvested locally to the construction site, could be said to be the most ecologically friendly building material available. The traditional vernacular architecture in China, Latin America and in South-East Asia consists bamboo structures. Japan also has a long building tradition with bamboo. Introduction of cement and steel during the last 50 years has virtually killed the Artisans working with Bamboo.
  9. 9. WALLS  The method commonly used for making walls is to lash bamboo strips or bamboo culms, horizontally and at close intervals to both sides of hardwood or bamboo uprights or main posts which are erected at all corners, spaced at about 1.2m. The spaces between the strips or culms are filled with mud alone or with mud and stones. In another method, flexible bamboo strips are woven together and plastered on one or both the sides Construction Techniques
  10. 10. Roofing Sheets 1.Bamboos are split 2. Slivers are woven into thin slivers into mats 4. Mats are allowed 5. Mats are pressed together 6. Sheets are to drain and dry under high temperature trimmed to and pressure to form shape and may roofing sheets then be painted 3.Mats are soaked in adhesive
  11. 11. ROOFING Corrugated bamboo roofing sheets are plywood-like roofing materials made from layers of woven bamboo mats that have been coated with glue and then pressed firmly together. The corrugations are formed by pressing the mats between corrugated pressing plates.  These are an excellent alternative to asbestos, iron, zinc or plastic roofing sheets. They are attractive, durable and highly resistant to adverse weather conditions and pest attacks.  These sheets can be produced in a variety of sizes and used to roof a wide range of buildings. CORRUGATED BAMBOO ROOFING SHEETS
  12. 12. The simplest form of bamboo roof covering is made of halved bamboo culms running full length from the eaves to the ridge. Large diameter culms are split into two halves and the cross section at the nodes removed. The first layer of culms is laid side by side with the concave face upwards. The second is placed over the first with the convex face upwards. In this way the bamboo overlaps as in a tile roof and can be made completely watertight. Bamboo roof covering: Fixing of bamboo corrugated sheet :
  13. 13. The roof should be ideally as light as possible. This would not only reduce lateral seismic loads, but would also reduce the risk of casualties in the event of roof collapse or partial collapse. Simple couple roof is adopted with bamboo trusses for rafters. The rafters are fixed to the timber top beam by means of steel clamps. Bamboo mat board (BMB) gussets, in combination with mild steel bolts, are used for the truss rafter joints. For purlins are used smaller diameter canes. Bamboo mat corrugated sheets (BMCS) are used for roof cladding. Bamboo roofing-truss STAGE-1
  14. 14. STAGE-2 STAGE-3
  15. 15. Bamboo Construction Traditional/ Vernacular Modernized Conventional Conventional Substitutive Bamboo Pole Bamboo Split Bamboo Woven Bamboo Rope Bamboo Pole Bamboo Split Bamboo + Plaster Bamboo Pole Bamboo + Concrete Bamboo + Polymer Bamboo + Plaster Bamboo + Polymer + Timber Laminated Bamboo Bamboo-based Building Material Bamboo Split Classification of Bamboo Construction
  16. 16. Conventional Bamboo Construction: Traditional or Vernacular • Modernized or Engineered Conventional structures made by empirical builders further development using scientific approach
  17. 17. Conventional: Traditional/ Vernacular Bamboo Poles Construction • mostly consist of planar frames (two dimensional frame) • mostly in one layer • bamboo poles under compressive or bending stresses • using fish-mouth, rope, plug-in, and positive- fitting connection
  18. 18. Bamboo Splits/Woven Construction Plastered Bamboo Construction • relatively simple form • plastered/ rendered with mud, lime or cow dung
  19. 19. Conventional: Modernized/ Engineered  Bamboo Poles Construction • two or three dimensional frames • mostly in more than one layer • poles under compressive or bending stresses • using nut-bolts connector and fish-mouth connection
  20. 20.  Bamboo Splits/Woven Construction • relatively complicated form • mostly in experimental building  Plastered Bamboo Construction • plastered/ rendered with mortar • with or without additional chicken wire • combined with poles structure
  21. 21. Bamboo in India Despite the severe degradation of the resource in the past, India still has a considerable growing stock of bamboo.  Comparative annual harvest figures still place India at the top of the global league.  India ranks second in the world in bamboo diversity with 136 species, while China with 300 species is leading in genetic diversity of bamboo  Two-third of the growing stock of the bamboo in India is in the seven North-Eastern States.  The states having major growing stocks of bamboo are Assam – 16 per cent, Manipur and Mizoram 14 per cent each, Madhya Pradesh and Arunachal Pradesh 12 per cent each.
  22. 22. Bamboo construction In Assam In the villages of Assam, bamboo building is common even today.  The houses are detailed out to combat the heavy monsoons.  The floor of the house is a bamboo weave that allows the water of a flood to flow in, rather than keep it out. This is an important principle of sustainable development.  During this time, the inhabitants of the houses get into the canoe that every house stores in the stilt area below the bamboo floor. When the flood waters recede, the assamese people occupy their house again. The belongings are protected by putting them up on the bamboo loft. The roof of the house is built with local grass and can last upto 10 years before it is replaced again.
  23. 23.  The bamboo weave makes both walls and floors breathe allowing a cross-ventilation all over. There is natural light that comes in from this weave as well.  The woven bamboo loft allows the clay pots and pans to be held easily.
  24. 24.  An earth plastering is often done over a close-knit bamboo wall for further protection  There are several innovative details to learn from in the assamese house.
  25. 25. Bamboo Construction In Nepal  Bamboo is suitable for building house because it is easy to use, environment friendly and durable.  Use of bamboo pillars support the roof and walls providing added resistance to earthquakes.  Sloping roofs and use of bamboo as a wall helps in cross ventilation of air and natural light.  Bamboo can be easily replaced and maintained in case of damage.