Importance : Mountain Environment
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steep, sloping sides and sharp or slightly rounded ridges
-3500 m (SNOWY) – 600 m -1500m -2500m
-About 1/5 world's landscape,
-homes at least 1/10 world's people.
-Tallest known mountain -solar system is
Olympus Mons, located on Mars.
-mountains under the surface of the sea
-Highest Mountain Range: Himalayan
-Longest : Andes of Mountain
-Himalaya = Andes = Rockies = Alps =
Elevation : 60 - 8848 m
Geographical Division :
3 geographical zones-
Mountainous & Hilly (75%), Plain.
Immense Altitudinal Changes
Climatic Great Variations
Diversity of Ecosystems: Rich
many high altitude plants medicinal
economic value of
mountain people (Yarsa Gumba)
How Mountain Formed?
Mountain Importance: Cultural
• Unique Indigenous Culture, life-style
125 languages spoken in Nepal (Summer Institute of Linguistics)
Mountain Importance: Tourism
• Tourism- Development: local income
(BHTMC- tell tourists the indepth of indigenous culture, knowledge, tradition)
• "The expansion of tourism to villages will contribute more to the economic
development.” (Ninth Plan of HMG pg 64)
• Over 80 percent of all visitors come for holiday / pleasure or trekking /
• Major contributor to Nepal's economy: US$170 million annually 463,646 -
in the year 2000 (MoCTCA 2001)
• Provides direct and indirect employment for over 300,00015% of total
export earning. (Nepal Tourism Board 2001) people
• Major earner of foreign exchange dollars and represents
• One of Asia’s most rich biodiversity. No biodiversity: No life-Food
• wide range of altitude has contributed to abundant and diverse
ecosystem, species and genetic resources.
• home of 2% of world’s flowering plants.
• 4% of the world’s mammals (the largest population of one horned
rhino is found in Royal Chitwan National Park).
• 8% of the world’s bird populations, among which the Spiny
Babbler is found only in Nepal.
• Out of an estimated 1,000 species of indigenous medicinal plants
approximately 700 species have been identified.
OTHER UNIQUE FEATURES:
• Eight of the world’s 14 highest mountains found in Nepal
• The world’s deepest gorges—the Kali Gandaki named after the
ferocious goddess Kali, which is also Nepal’s very best river for white
• Tilicho Lake (at 5,099m) north of Annapurna is one of the highest lakes
in the world.
• In terms of hydroelectric power, Nepal has the world’s second largest
hydroelectric power potential
• Nepal has two natural and eight cultural sites listed as World Heritage
Sites by UNESCO
• Two Natural Heritage Sites are: Sagarmatha National Park and Chitwan
• The eight Cultural Heritage Sites are: Kathmandu Durbar Square, Patan
Durbar Square, Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Swoyambu Nath, Pashupati
Nath, Baudha Nath ,Changunarayan and Lumbini.
• Nepal—the largest figure declared for conservation in any country.
• 16 Protected Areas in Nepal, i.e 18% of the total area
• There are currently nine National Parks, three Wildlife Reserves, three
Conservation Areas and one Hunting Reserve.
• Climbers and tourists visit them for the
• Farmers graze their animals on them.
• Water authorities make reservoirs and pump
the water to towns and cities.
• Forestry companies grow coniferous forests
and harvest wood on them.
Mountain Importance: Water
• Water-power for life:
Water Towers of Asia,
• One of the World’s richest
• Nepal Major economy -cultivation.
• Third Pole
• Fresh water
Locals Dump Waste in
Dumping Site at Dhunche
GOOD ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICE
WASTE GENERATION AND DISPOSAL
Protection of waterways
• In Dhunche, the drainage doesn’t reach
• Syabru Besi, few hotels at the Bank of
the river discharge their waste water
into the river system
• But in Syarbu Besi, though they dump
their waste on the river bank they are
planning to build a incinerator,
• In Gosainkunda during high season, the
waste water seeps into the lake.
• In Phedi, the toilet is directly flushed
into the stream
Dumping Site Under
Construction in Syabru Besi
Beer Bottles at Lauribina
Mountain Environment: Threats
• Mountain systems are sensitive to climate change
• Small change has large scale effects,
• Unpredicted river flows, frequent floods, droughts and crop failures
• Others include, landslides, land degradation, desertification, GLOF (
Glacial Lake Outburst Flooding)
• Five GLOF events are known to have occurred in Nepal between
1977 and 1998. In August 1985 a GLOF from the Dig Tsho
(Langmoche) glacial lake destroyed 14 bridges and caused about
US$ 1.5 million worth of damage to the nearby completed Namche
small hydropower plant.
GLOF (Glacial Lake Outburst Flood)
Mountain Environment Threats:
At HIGH ALTITUDE NOTHING decomposes
Batteries contain very pollutant toxic
products and cannot be RECYCLED in Nepal
REDUCE canned food products
Mountain Environment: Opportunity
Develop mountain by preserving its environment.
Leave nothing but footprints
ake nothing but photographs." old phrase
Leave nothing but Memories
ake nothing but local products." new
-arjun June 112010
Case Study: Khumbu region
• Annual Visitors: Approx 50,000
• Average waste disposal of 50-60kg/km2
• On Average, a lodge in Namche Bazaar produces 15,000
empty beer bottles per year.
• Heavy forest cover damage
• Alteration in traditional cultural practices
• Deterioration on traditional values
• Despite the availability of kerosene and LPG, there is a high
dependence on forest resources for energy supply. It is
estimated that in Langtang, locals consume 20-40 kgs of
firewood per day while an average lodges use around 30-40
kgs per day (Banskota et.al, 1998).
Distributing Tourism Benefits
Mountain Environment: Conservation
ENERGY SOURCE CONSUMPTION
Actions to minimize energy consumption
• Firewood major source of energy in upper
• Hotels in the area have installed Improved
Cooking Stoves (ICS) and brought energy
• Solar Energy for lighting purposes at Higher
• Travelers usually have torch lights and head
Mountain Environment: Conservation
• ECO- TECHNIQUES
• Solar energy
• Rain water
• Collection and utilization
• Bio-climatic design
• Local materials
– LOCAL MATERIALS AND PEOCEDURES WILL DEVELOP LOCAL CRAFT AND UNIQUENESS
– RECYCLING OF WASTE WILL HELP REDUCE SOLID WASTE PROBLEMS IN THE FPREST OR THE RIVERS
• Issues in Eco-tourism Development
• (National Parks, ACAP, Sirubari)
• Avoiding negative impacts
• Ensure economic benefits to local communities
• Revenue for conservation
• Carrying capacity
• Ownership and empowerment
• Education (Local ECO/GREEN CLUBS)- Life skills equip : leadership, management
• Planning and management
• Harmonious development
• Capacity building
• BUILD AWARENESS AND INCULCATE A FEELING THEREBY THAT CONSERVATION IS BY CHOICE RATHER THAN COMPULSION
– External intervention to get the community through the initial stages
– User pays concept for the visitor
• “Leave No Trace Principle”
• Zero Waste: Challenges in the Mountains
• Use of Cotton Bag than Plastics
• Higher prices of land and food
• Pollution from traffic
• More crowded
• Trees felled to supply timber and fuel wood
• Lost of cultural identity among the mountain people
• A Trekker can consumes 72
plastic bottles is left behind as
• 1 IODINE tablets = 1 liters of
• CARRY your waste and don’t
LITTER on the TRAILS
• Suggestion to Guests.
What can we do to address these issues?
Is there anyway ‘Leave no trace’/ ‘Zero waste’?
In your experience, Tourists what they say n do?
What are the locations needed Environment prob?