Amazonian Vernacular Architecture

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Some interesting facts about Amazonia. Informations about two tribes who inhabit in the amazonian forests, their life style and architecture.

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Amazonian Vernacular Architecture

  1. 1. CONTENTS AMAZONIA YANOMAMI YUCUNAS MISCELLANEOUS FLOTTING VILLAGE GUARANI HOUSES BANDEIRISTA
  2. 2. 0⁰ Equator
  3. 3. Amazonian Rainforest
  4. 4. Amazonia as delineated by the WWF
  5. 5. Brazil Peru Colombia Venezuela Ecuador Bolivia Guyana Suriname French Guiana
  6. 6. MASSIVE!!! How does 2,123,562 sq miles sound?!?!? That’s the equivalent of 140 keralas- pretty big, eh? SIZ EIf the Amazon was a country it would be the 9th largest country on the planet (1.2 billion acres or 48 million football fields).
  7. 7. R.Amazon is the second longest river in the world and by far the largest by waterflow with an average discharge greater than the next seven largest rivers combined the Amazonia is made up of a mosaic of ecosystems and vegetation types including rainforests, seasonal forests, deciduous forests, flooded forests, and savannas
  8. 8. CLIMATOLOGY
  9. 9. hot and humid throughout the year, with an average annual temperature of 27°C (80.7°F) rains almost the whole year 60-180 inches to 30-100 inches
  10. 10. Amazon rainforest is home to many strangest looking, largest and smallest, loudest and quietest, more dangerous and least frightening animals on Earth. AMAZING A M A Z O N I A
  11. 11. MAMMELS AVIANS INSECTS X 2.5 million X 1294 X 427 many more remaining to be discovered
  12. 12. X 2,200FISHES REPTILES AMPHIBIANS X 428 X 378 many more remaining to be discovered
  13. 13. moreover 438,000 plant species many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued
  14. 14. Dendrobates auratus Hyla rhodopeplaDendrobates galactonotus Cruziohyla craspedopus Agalychnis calidryas
  15. 15. Ocelot Tapir Two Toed Sloth Capybara Armadillo
  16. 16. Many rare birds inhabit the Amazon Scarlet macaw (Ara macao), River Xingu, Amazonia
  17. 17. And also some dangerous animals.
  18. 18. Indigenous People • There were an estimated ten million Indians living in the Amazonian Rainforest five centuries ago. Today there are less than 200,000. • In Brazil alone, European colonists have destroyed more than 90 indigenous tribes since the 1900’s. • With them have gone centuries of accumulated knowledge of the medicinal value of rainforest species.
  19. 19. Indigenous people * mother tongue Residence yanomami Yanomaman languages Yanos/shabono Yucuna yucuna Yukana Malocas * This list is incomplete
  20. 20. YANOMAMI
  21. 21. The Yanomami are one of the largest relatively isolated tribes in South America. They live in the rainforests and mountains of northern Brazil and southern Venezuela.
  22. 22. 0⁰ equator
  23. 23. The Yanomami believe strongly in equality among people. Each community is independent from others and they do not recognize ‘chiefs’. Decisions are made by consensus, frequently after long debates where everybody has a say.
  24. 24. Like most Amazonian tribes, tasks are divided between the sexes. Men hunt for game like peccary, tapir, deer and monkey, and often use curare (a plant extract) to poison their prey. Although hunting accounts for only 10% of Yanomami food, amongst men it is considered the most prestigious of skills and meat is greatly valued by everyone. No hunter ever eats the meat that he has killed. Instead he shares it out among friends and family. In return, he will be given meat by another hunter. LIFE STYLE
  25. 25. The Yanomami have a huge botanical knowledge and use about 500 plants for food, medicine, house building and other artefacts. They provide for themselves partly by hunting, gathering and fishing, but crops are also grown in large gardens cleared from the forest.
  26. 26. The Yanomami local groups are generally made up of a multifamily house in the shape of a cone or truncated cone called yanos
  27. 27. Some yanos can house up to 400 people. The central area is used for activities such as rituals, feasts and games.
  28. 28. Interior of the Yanomami maloca at night, Tootobi, Brazil
  29. 29. Yanos are built from raw materials from the jungle, such as leaves, vines, plums and tree trunks. -They get heavy damage from rains, winds, and insects, so Yanos are usually rebuilt every 1 to 2 years.
  30. 30. After each family builds its own house, a common roof is built connecting all the individual houses together. Each family is responsible to build its own section of the common roof. This forms a circular donut-shaped village
  31. 31. To build the yanos the poles are put in place and secured in the ground and overhead. Then thousands of leaves are woven into the thatch. Permanent yanos are usually surrounded by palisades to protect themselves from possible attacks. The palisades are about 10 feet long and are made of logs from palm trees
  32. 32. The walls are held up with poles and the village roof is made of thatch (dry leaves and branches)
  33. 33. so after a few years yanos rots and fills with insects and rodents. Then the Yanomami build a new village, sometimes next to the old one. Yanomami move every five years or so to find new land to grow food in.
  34. 34. YUCUNAS An Amazonian Indian group who today number about one thousand people.
  35. 35. They live near Equator between 70°31’ and 71°31’ W and 0°45’ and 1° S, which is currently in the Comisaría Especial del Amazonas in Colombia 0⁰ equator
  36. 36. • They reside in a communal house called maloca • Maloca is a large structure which simultaneously serves as dwelling site, a temporary village for over one hundred people, a workplace, a temple, and a burial site. • Each maloca domestic community is an economically self sufficient unit with its own territories for shifting horticulture, hunting and fishing.
  37. 37. Exterior view of a maloca
  38. 38. Construction of maloca starts with autumn equinox Maloca headman selects the site The construction team starts clearing jungle and they do complete malocas in 2 months
  39. 39. weaving palm leaves onto one of the laths that forms the framework of the roof and holds the thatch.
  40. 40. Structure •The plan of the maloca starts with the placing of the 4 central posts/poles 4m from each other •Once installed four beams are wedged on top, upon which a clearstory opening will be based. FLOOR ZONING OF MALOCA
  41. 41. MALOCA PROPORTION
  42. 42. The pattern and breadth of its path within each ,Maloca portray in a different manner the size, constitution, capacity of resource use.
  43. 43. •The astronomical orientation of the maloca is determined by the preferences for an east west axis for the openings on the gable roof which allows for a time keeping device within the malocas as the sun’s rays sweep its interior. •The positions of each post, beam and pinnacle and doors are determined by a ritual orientation of space which is culturally determined by the dominant yukana classsifactory system and its semantic fields. ASTRONOMICAL S Y M B O L I S M
  44. 44. Construction of maloca starts with autumn equinox
  45. 45. MALOCA AS A CALENDER The December dry season rituals take place in the maloca’s northern side, the equinoctial ones in its centre, and the June wet season ones in the southern side, precisely in the part of the house which the sun illuminates at that time of the year. The sun’s shafts in the yearly sweep illuminate not only the floor but different parts of the roof’s interior and posts and beams.
  46. 46. MALOCA AS A SYMBOL BUILDING ELEMENT REPRESENTS ROOF Male worlds of the ancestors, of music, of shamanism, of stars, and of high-flying birds FLOORS Female forces of fertility, regeneration and death SOUTHERN PART OF MALOCA For close kin(jaguar side) NORTHERN PART OF MALOCA For allies (anaconda side)
  47. 47. AMAZONIA N FLOATING VILLAGE
  48. 48. • The Amazon Basin, the largest in the world, covers about 30% of South America. • Amazonia is very sparsely populated. • There are scattered settlements inland, but most of the population lives in a few larger cities on the banks of the Amazon River. • Due to large variation in the water level of the river houses are built on the rafts along the river. • The houses rise and fall with the water levels that change from seasonal flooding. • Many houses are built together and they all together known as Floating village.
  49. 49. Amazonia Floating Village • Houses are almost made of materials gathered from the rainforest. • Roofs are made up of woven palms. • Walls of these houses are built from wood taken right from the Rainforest. • The walls are only a few feet tall to let the breeze flow through.
  50. 50. Guarani Houses • Sub tropical forest of Brazil & Nort East Argentina • In Hot region with High humidity • Scattered settlement,Villages • Slender staffs,bamboo, plalm leaves, boards. Clay • Walls build on stave frame inserted at corners & doorway • 4 to 6 bamboo along the corners & 3 along central line • Palm ribs & wiven mats for doors
  51. 51. Bandeirista (Sao Paulo) • Located in the high Tiete river basin around the cities of Sao Paulo. • They have white walls, very few openings and hipped roofs. • Foundation – stone, • Plastered with clay mixed with cow dung ( 10 – 15 cm) • Structure – Beams supported by walls • Roof – Clay tiles • Windows – blinds inside , shutters outside • Floor – Beaten Earth, Wood on top • Furniture's-undecorated & odd scale • Walls became Limestone's by 18th century • Appropriate to Landscape
  52. 52. http://www.survivalinternational.org/tribes/yanomami/wayoflife#actnow http://www.wausau.k12.wi.us/east/Student%20Files/Anthropology/Template%202/soci al.html http://www.unique-southamerica-travel-experience.com/amazon-rainforest- climate.html Encyclopaedia Of Vernacular Architecture Of The World Volume3 CAMBRIDGE – USA Publisher ISBN 0521564220, 9780521564229 REFERENCES

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