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ICRA Rating Feature                                                                  RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationKey H...
ICRA Rating Feature                                                                       RBI Guidelines on Securitisation...
ICRA Rating Feature                                                                                    RBI Guidelines on S...
ICRA Rating Feature                                                                                   RBI Guidelines on Se...
ICRA Rating Feature                                                                           RBI Guidelines on Securitisa...
ICRA Rating Feature                                                                     RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationTa...
ICRA Rating Feature                                                                      RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationS...
ICRA Rating Feature                                                                     RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationAn...
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Rbi securitisation guidelines may 2012 icra


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Rbi securitisation guidelines may 2012 icra

  1. 1. 7 ICRA RATING FEATURE May 2012 STRUCTURED FINANCERBI FINAL GUIDELINES ON SECURITISATION AND DIRECTASSIGNMENT TRANSACTIONS TO ADVERSELY IMPACT VOLUMESIN THE NEAR TERMContacts BackgroundStructured Finance The RBI, on 7 May 2012, has put out the final guidelines on securitisation and directRatings Group assignment of loan receivables. This is the first time the RBI has issued separate guidelines for Direct Assignment transactions. These guidelines are largely similar toKalpesh Gada the draft guidelines released in September 2011, other than some differences – theHead—Structured Finance key ones pertain to Minimum Holding Period (MHP) requirement and credit(91) 22-3047 0013 enhancement reset.kalpesh@icraindia.com Impact SummaryVibha BatraCo-head—Financial Sector The biggest impact of the Guidelines is expected to be on Direct Assignment(91) 124-4545 302 transactions that formed about 75% of the market in FY2012 (as per ICRA’svibha@icraindia.com estimates)). Under the Guidelines, no credit enhancement is permitted for these transactions. Given the prohibition on credit enhancement, the investing banks willRemika Agarwal be exposed to the entire credit risk on the assigned portfolio, which most banks mayAssistant Vice President not be comfortable with. Hence the volume of such assignment transactions is(91) 80-4332 6418 expected to be severely affected.remikaa@icraindia.com One of the key objectives of the banks to acquire loan pools was to meet their Priority Sector Lending (PSL) targets, particularly post RBI’s Master Circular of July 2011 on Priority Sector Lending as per which loans by banks to NBFCs no longer qualify as PSL. Given that the need to meet PSL targets would continue to be there, banks could shift—at least partly—to the securitisation route to meet these targets. However, the deterrents to such a shift to securitisation are two-fold—high capital charge for Originators1 and impact of mark-to-market for the Investing Banks. Further, the unresolved issue of the Income Tax authorities’ claim of taxing the Special Purpose Rating Feature Vehicle (SPV) involved in securitisation transactions as a separate entity is another factor likely to constrain a wide-spread move towards securitisation. Other key provisions of the Guidelines pertain to Minimum Holding Period (MHP) and Minimum Retention Requirement (MRR). These requirements are not expected to have any major impact on the securitisation or assignment of any underlying asset class, as these are relatively easy to comply with. Investing banks are expected to stress test their securitisation investments / acquired portfolio and continuously monitor the same. Further, banks acquiring loan poolsWebsite directly are expected to meet strict own due diligence requirements and have skilledwww.icra.in manpower and systems to carry out the process. However, some banks may not have adequate systems or processes in place to comply with these requirements. 1 Credit enhancement offered is to be reduced from capital as per Feb 2006 guidelines
  2. 2. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationKey Highlights of the Guidelines and their impactMHP and MRR Requirement– more standardised pool compositions likelyThe final guidelines of May 2012 have essentially reviewed the Minimum Holding Period (MHP) and Minimum RetentionRequirement (MRR) prescribed in April 2010 and subsequently in September 2011; while the MHP requirement has been reducedto an extent, the MRR remains largely unchanged. These guidelines are aimed at ensuring Originators do not compromise on duediligence of the assets generated for the purpose of securitisation or Assignment, curbing the “originate-to-securitise” businessmodel, and bringing in greater alignment of interest between the Issuers of and Investors in securitised paper. The present MHPrequirements and MRR are discussed below.Table 1: Minimum Holding Period (MHP) Requirement for Securitisation and Direct Assignment by banks Repayment FrequencyType of Loan Weekly Fortnightly Monthly Quarterly More than quarterly Original Maturity of less than 2 years 12 6 3 2 2 Original Maturity of 2-5 years 18 9 6 3 2 Original Maturity of more than 5 years - - 12 4 2In the final guidelines, MHP has been defined as minimum number of instalments to be paid prior to securitisation rather thanminimum number of months on book of the Originator. For instance, for a loan with a monthly repayment frequency and anoriginal maturity between 2-5 years, the MHP prescribed is 6 months. The MHP requirement will be a credit positive; a minimumpayment track record establishes both ability and willingness to pay.If we were to hypothetically apply the MHP criterion on all ABS pools rated by ICRA in FY2012, about 57% of the underlying loansin the transactions would conform to the requirement. An asset wise analysis of the same is presented in the table below.Table 2: Portion of ICRA-rated pools of FY2012 meeting the MHP requirementAsset Class Share of compliant pool %Mortgage Loans 47%CV 50%Tractor 12%Microfinance 29%TWL/ SME 74%Although the extent of compliant portion of the pools is not found to be very high; by and large, Originators should be able tomeet the MHP comfortably. Nevertheless, some of them might take time to build up compliant portfolio.May 2012 www.icra.in Page 2
  3. 3. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on Securitisation Table 3: Minimum Retention Requirement (MRR) for SecuritisationType of Loan MRR Description of MRR Original 5% of book For transactions with no credit enhancement and no tranching, the MRR would be met by way of Maturity of value of loans investing in 5% of the securities issued. 24 months securitised For transactions with no credit enhancement, the MRR would be met by way of investing in 5% of the or less equity tranche. For transactions with credit enhancement, the MRR would be met by way of investing in 5% of any of the first-loss credit enhancements. For other transactions, the MRR would be met through Originator taking an exposure to equity stake, first-loss credit enhancements and pari passu tranche of 5% all taken together. Original 10% of book For transactions with no credit enhancement and no tranching, the MRR would be met by way of Maturity of value of loans investing in 10% of the securities issued. more than securitised For transactions with credit enhancement, the MRR would be met by way of investing in 10% of the 24 months first-loss credit enhancements. For transactions having no credit enhancement, the MRR would be met by taking up exposure to equity stake or to the extent of 5%, and the balance 5% in the form of pari passu investment in all the tranches of the securities For other transactions, the MRR would be met through Originator taking up a minimum equity stake or any of the first-loss credit enhancements of 5%, and the balance in the form of pari passu investment in all the tranches of the securities. Bullet 10% of book Similar to loans with Original Maturity of more than 24 months for transactions with no credit Repayment value of loans enhancement and no tranching and for transactions with credit enhancement. Loans/ securitised For transactions having no credit enhancement, the MRR would be met by taking up exposure to equity Receivables stake or to the extent of 10% For other transactions, the MRR would be met through Originator taking an exposure to equity stake, first-loss credit enhancements and pari passu tranche of 10% all taken together. The MRR continues to be largely in line with the draft guidelines. Importantly, from RBI guidelines’ perspective, Originator’s share in the transaction, through MRR, is envisaged to be pari passu and not subordinated; although in the case of securitisation transactions where credit enhancement is provided by Originator, the same would qualify as MRR, and to the extent the credit enhancement in lower than the MRR, the balance would need to me met by investing in all the tranches issued. In the case of Direct Assignment transactions, the amount to be retained is in line with those laid down for securitisation transactions for 24 month or less and more than 24 months maturity loans; however, the same can be retained on a pari- passu basis with the assigned cashflows only. Overall, the MRR is not likely to be a big constraint for the Originators. In addition to this, the total exposure of banks to loans securitised should not exceed more than 20% of total securitised instruments issued that includes meeting MRR, all cash collateral and over-collateralisation but excludes EIS. Any excess exposure initially will attract higher risk weight of 1111%. Higher recognition of cash profits – positive for securitisation transactions As per RBI guidelines of February-2006, the originators (Banks/FIs/NBFCs) in a securitisation transaction were required to amortise any profit/premium arising on securitisation transaction over the life of the securities issued. While these guidelines were applicable to securitisation transactions, there were no specific guidelines for income arising on direct assignment transactions. As a result many NBFCs were up-fronting the income on premium direct assignment transactions. RBI, in its final guidelines on securitisation and direct assignment of May-2012 has for the first time introduced a specific formula for amortization of cash profits for both types of transactions- securitisation as well as assignment. The new guidelines allow higher recognition of cash profits vis-à-vis February-2006 guidelines. According to the new guidelines, unrecognised cash profits of securitisation/assignment transactions can be drawn down to cover up marked to market losses and any specific provision/ write-off to the transaction during a year. Further, higher profit can also be recognised in case of higher than expected amortization of principal during the year. Release of residual EIS a positive but final view on reset of credit enhancement critical The guidelines clarify that periodic release of residual unutilised Excess Interest Spread (EIS) to the Originator is permissible, which is a positive. However, the issue of reset of credit enhancement for securitisation transactions is expected to be covered through a separate circular subsequently. The draft guidelines had provided for reset of credit enhancement subject to various conditions. The RBI’s final position on this issue would also be one of the important factors determining Originator’s motivation to securitise its assets. The credit enhancement provided by the Originator for securitisation transactions needs to be reduced from May 2012 www.icra.in Page 3
  4. 4. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on Securitisationits capital. Over the tenure of the pool, the underlying pool would amortise, and in the absence of downward reset, the creditenhancement, in % terms, would keep increasing. Thus, the annual cost of capital associated with the transaction would risesignificantly in the subsequent years, which is one of the deterrents to securitisation.Direct Assignment transactions likely to be severely affectedWhile the MHP requirement and the broad stipulation under MRR and monitoring by investing banks is similar for DirectAssignment and securitisation transactions, some key areas of difference from the provisions for ‘securitisation’ are summarisedbelow- The guidelines prohibit any credit enhancement for direct assignment transactions, based on the premise that the investors in such cases are generally institutional investors who should have the necessary expertise to appraise and assume the exposure based on their own due diligence. Thus, although the commercial nature of both transaction structures is similar—barring the fact that tradable instruments are issued in ‘securitisation’, but not in the case of bilateral assignment—the RBI guidelines view the two differently. o In the absence of credit enhancement, in bilateral assignment transactions, the acquiring bank will be exposed to an open-ended credit risk on the Originator’s portfolio. In such a case, either the yield expected by the Assignee would be higher (this would affect one of the key motives from Originator’s perspective, viz. finer funding cost relative to normal borrowing) or the Originator may have to sell the pool at a discount (this would mean booking a loss up-front which again Originators may not be too keen to do). o Typically credit enhancement is sized such as to protect the acquirer from collections shortfalls even under significantly stressed assumptions. In the absence of credit enhancement, bilateral assignment transactions would require a precise valuation or an accurate estimation of the cashflows actually likely to materialise would be required. Given the nature of the underlying loan pools, such a precise valuation would be a huge challenge. There may be no meeting ground between the buyer and seller on the expected losses in the pool. o However, in case such transactions happen, it would improve the capitalization as well as the income profile of the Originator as the Originator would earn some servicing fee on the assigned pool while restricting its exposure to MRR (that too pari passu with the Purchaser). At the same time, lack of any credit enhancement by the originator would reduce the penalty for poor asset quality for the Originator vis-a-vis the earlier position whereby the Originators were providing the first loss piece. The capital adequacy treatment for direct purchase of retail loans, will be as per the rules applicable to retail portfolios directly originated by banks2. No benefit in terms of reduced risk weights will be available to purchased retail loans portfolios based on rating. Nevertheless, in the absence of credit enhancements, the rating of a typical retail loan pools is anyway expected to reflect’s the pool’s own inherent credit quality, thus the prospect of reduced risk weight is minimal. Moreover, the Originators in the case of Assignment transactions are also prohibited from re-purchasing any assets through exercise of clean-up call options.These regulations are expected to significantly reduce the volume of direct assignment transactions—that formed about 75% ofthe market in FY2012 (as per ICRA’s estimates)—going forward. Albeit, some portion of the issuances could be expected to berouted through the conventional securitisation—or PTC issuance—route. However, the deterrents to a widespread shift tosecuritisation are two-fold— Impact of mark-to-market for the Investing Banks: PTCs—which are tradable instruments—would be classified under ‘investments’ book of the investing banks, and thus attract mark-to-market provisions; unlike the loan pools acquired bilaterally which get classified under ‘loans and advances’. Traditionally, the mark-to-market requirement was one of the reasons why investors (read banks) were not keen on this route. Incrementally, for reasons discussed above, issuance is likely to shift to the PTC route, thus exposing the banks to a potential provisioning requirement. Nevertheless, the alternative—of not meeting PSL targets—would have bigger financial consequence (the shortfall would have to be met through lower-yielding avenues like contribution to Rural Infrastructure development Fund of NABARD and such other Funds specified by RBI 3). We expect that the banks would weigh mark-to-market provisioning requirement in case of PTC investments against the potential yield loss arising from investment in the alternative avenues. Further, given relatively short duration of Asset-Backed Securities (typically 2-3 years) market to market (MTM)2 except in cases where the individual accounts have been classified as NPA, in which case usual capital adequacy norms as applicable to retail NPAs willapply3 The prevailing yield on these deposits is between Bank Rate minus 2% to Bank Rate minus 5%, depending on the extent of shortfall in meeting the PSLtargetMay 2012 www.icra.in Page 4
  5. 5. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on Securitisation losses may not be very high.. In the case of Mortgage-Backed Securities, the tenure is much longer, but the PTC yield is usually floating and typically linked to either the pool interest rate or to an external benchmark rate, reducing the MTM losses. High capital charge for Originators and potential rise in role of third-party credit enhancement providers 4 : In the past, given that there was no prescribed regulatory requirement regarding treatment of credit enhancement for direct assignment transactions, the most common treatment among Originators was to treat the credit enhancement at par with other risk-weighted asset, which resulted in significant capital relief post such transactions. However, for securitisation transactions, 50% of the credit enhancement is to be reduced from Tier I Capital and another 50% from Tier II Capital. Thus, the capital relief under ‘securitisation transactions’ Box 1: Capital relief : securitization & pre-guidelines bilateral assignments compared will be significantly lower than that Direct assignment (pre-May 2012 guidelines) Securitisation under ‘bilateral transactions’. We Pool size 100 100 also expect a potential rise in third- Credit enhancement (assumption) 12 12 party credit enhancement providers. Impact on RWA -100 -100 In the case of home loans, mortgage Capital required for the cr. enh.# 1.8 12 Capital relief on pool securitised -15 -15 guarantee on the underlying loans Net capital relief -13.2 -3 may get used by Originators as a # 100% risk weight and 15% capital requirement in the case of pre-guidelines direct proxy for third party credit assignment; for securitisation, cr. enh. reduced from capital enhancement5. Please see box 1. However, notwithstanding the higher capital charge—relative to that under the erstwhile bilateral assignment transactions— the Originators could benefit from potentially lower investor yield, since in the case of securitisation—unlike term loan or assignment transactions—the yield need not be linked to the base rate of the investing/ lending banks but could be even lower.Given the provision of the May 2012 guidelines as discussed above, we may expect some shift in preference from DirectAssignment transactions to securitisation transactions. Hence, we have compared the benefits under Direct Assignmenttransactions before the May 2012 Guidelines and the provisions for securitisation transactions under these Guidelines to evaluatethe out effect of such a shift on Originators and investors. The same has been summarised in the table below.Table 4: Comparison between Direct Assignment transactions (pre-May 2012 guidelines) and current norms forsecuritisation transactionsKey Considerations Direct Assignment Securitisation (pre- May 2012 guidelines)Originator’s perspectiveCapital Adequacy No regulatory prescription; 100% risk Entire credit enhancement needs to be weightage on credit enhancement deducted from capital funds provided by OriginatorCredit Enhancement reset No regulatory prohibition on reset of Not permitted at present; final credit enhancement guidelines on the same expected to be issued separatelyPricing Benefit Restricted on account of base rate of the PTC pricing not linked with base rate of purchasing bank acting as a floor investing bank; fine pricing possibleInvestors’ perspectiveMark to Market concerns No such concerns Mark to Market provision needs to be madeFor an Originator, the key considerations would be capitalisation and pricing benefit. For Originators with very high stand-alonecredit quality, the bigger benefit could be capital relief (assuming that the credit enhancement requirement in their case will belower than the regulatory capital requirement, which is a likely scenario). However, as reset of credit enhancement is not allowedso far, there may not be a significant capital relief in securitization vis-a-vis conventional funding. On the other hand, Originatorswith low stand-alone credit quality, better pricing could be the bigger motive (PTC pricing likely to be much finer compared toOriginator’s on-balance sheet funding cost given the significant difference in credit quality between the two).An illustration of the additional cost for securitization, based on assumptions of pool interest rate, tenure, investor yield, intereston cash collateral etc, for a hypothetical pool, is presented in table 7 below.4 Credit enhancement offered is to be reduced from capital5 RBI guidelines on mortgage guarantee product have been issued, the first such company expected to be operational soonMay 2012 www.icra.in Page 5
  6. 6. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationTable 5: Additional costs for securitization at the beginning of transaction (negative carry6 + other costs) at variouslevels of credit enhancement Cost for on balance sheet funding for NBFC 10% 10.50% 11% 11.50% 12% 13% 13.00% 8% -0.41% -0.45% -0.49% -0.53% -0.57% -0.61% -0.65%Credit enhancement 10% -0.45% -0.50% -0.55% -0.60% -0.65% -0.70% -0.75% 12% -0.49% -0.55% -0.61% -0.67% -0.73% -0.79% -0.85% level 14% -0.53% -0.60% -0.67% -0.74% -0.81% -0.88% -0.95% 16% -0.57% -0.65% -0.73% -0.81% -0.89% -0.97% -1.05% 18% -0.61% -0.70% -0.79% -0.88% -0.97% -1.06% -1.15% 20% -0.65% -0.75% -0.85% -0.95% -1.05% -1.15% -1.25%As seen from the table, negative carry for securitization transaction increases with the cost of ‘on balance sheet funding’ as wellas the level of credit enhancements. Therefore, negative carry is likely to be the least for a better rated NBFC with lowest cost offunds. Overall, for securitization to make economic sense, NBFC should be able to place the securitized pool at significantly lowercoupon than its funding costs to cover the additional costs associated with securitization. For instance in case creditenhancement levels are 10% and cost of ‘on balance sheet funding’ for an NBFC is 11.5%, it would make economic sense tosecuritize only if the NBFC is able to place the securitized paper at coupon lower than 10.9%. As CC reset is not allowed, negativecarry is likely to increase as the pool amortizes.The following table illustrates the impact of securitization on PBT (for the pool) at various levels of cost differentials.Table 6: Impact on PBT at the beginning of the transaction Cost differential = Yield on PTC - on balance sheet cost of funds for NBFCs 0.50% 0.00% -0.50% -1.00% -1.50% -2.00% -2.50%Credit enhancement level 8% -0.91% -0.45% 0.01% 0.47% 0.93% 1.39% 1.85% 10% -0.95% -0.50% -0.05% 0.40% 0.85% 1.30% 1.75% 12% -0.99% -0.55% -0.11% 0.33% 0.77% 1.21% 1.65% 14% -1.03% -0.60% -0.17% 0.26% 0.69% 1.12% 1.55% 16% -1.07% -0.65% -0.23% 0.19% 0.61% 1.03% 1.45% 18% -1.11% -0.70% -0.29% 0.12% 0.53% 0.94% 1.35% 20% -1.15% -0.75% -0.35% 0.05% 0.45% 0.85% 1.25%As seen from the table, if the PTC are placed at significantly lower rate than the conventional funding, it could impact the PBTpositively. For instance, at a given level of credit enhancement ( say 12%) if PTC yields are lower ( than the cost of conventionalfunds) by 1.5%, there could be significant positive impact on PBT (0.77%) even after accounting for additional costs associatedwith securitization. Again the benefit is likely to reduce as the pool amortizes as the proportion of cash collateral( in relation tooutstanding pool) will go up as CC reset is not allowed.Given the present guidelines, the motives behind doing an off balance sheet transaction through the securitisation or assignmentroute when compared to on balance sheet funding is summarised below-6 Assuming interest on fixed deposits at 8%May 2012 www.icra.in Page 6
  7. 7. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationTable 7: Motive behind Securitisation transaction and Direct Assignment transactions under May-12 GuidelinesKey potential motives Securitisation transactions Direct Assignment transactionsProfit Booking Some recognition of cash profits allowed Some recognition of cash profits allowedCapital Relief Low, Entire credit enhancement needs to High, no capital to be maintained against the be deducted from capital assigned pool; since no risk retained. But if credit enhancement is provided, assets need to be treated as if they are on bookPricing Benefit vis-a-vis on- Likely; specially for Originators rated low Unlikely; in the absence of creditbalance sheet funding enhancement, pricing likely to be closely aligned with the yield on the underlying loans, i.e., higher than the on-balance sheet funding cost for most OriginatorsTenure matched funding Yes YesAlternate Source of Yes YesfundingAccess to alternative Yes, access to wider investor base – there Not very likely, investors who have noinvestor base vis-a-vis on could be a set of investors unwilling to relationship with the Originator unlikely tobalance sheet funding lend to low rated entities, but willing to take on open-ended credit risk on its loan invest in higher rated ABS issuances of pools that entityAsset class wise exposure Possible PossiblemanagementNevertheless, the most immediate and severe obstacle to a wide-spread move to securitization is the unresolved issue of theIncome Tax authorities’ claim of taxing the Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) involved in securitisation transactions as a separateentity. This is discussed in greater detail in a subsequent section.Guidelines negative for NBFCsThe likely dip in volumes of off-book funding is a negative for NBFCs, especially those for whom securitisation / bilateralassignments were an important funding source. As per ICRA’s analysis of the balance sheets of over 20 top NBFCs, with AssetsUnder Management (AUM) aggregating to over Rs. 2,00,000 crore, in the case of 3 NBFCs—with AUM of around Rs. 50,000crore—the share of off balance sheet funding exceeds 35%, while for most of the others, it is less than 15%. The Top 9 NBFC’swith high reliance on assignment/securitization have aggregated assets under management of Rs. 1,60,000 crore(approx)including assigned/securitised book of Rs 31,000 crore (approx) as on December 31, 2011, which are primarily in the form ofassignment transactions. In case we treat these as securitization transactions and apply the capital treatment as prescribed by therevised guidelines ICRA estimates the aggregate CRAR would drop by approximately 2.23% (0.93% in Tier 1 CRAR and 1.30% inTier 2 CRAR) from 19.49% to 17.26% (Tier 1 from 14.53% to 13.60%), which would be well above the RBI guidelines of 15% forTotal CRAR and 10% for Tier 1 CRAR. At an individual level as well, ICRA does not envisage capital adequacy to below theprescribed minimum regulatory requirement for these players. Further most of the NBFCs were amortizing the income onpremium assignment transactions, therefore ICRA does not envisage the change in income booking policy to have an impact onprofitability indicators and ROE of these players.Requirements to be met by investing banksBanks investing in securitisation transactions are expected to be able to demonstrate a comprehensive and thoroughunderstanding of the risk profile of their investments. They are expected to meet strict own due diligence requirements and haveskilled manpower and systems to carry out the process. Also they are expected to perform appropriate stress testing pertainingto their positions and monitor the performance of the underlying exposures on a regular basis.Though some banks have started conducting their own due diligence on the portfolio they are investing in, however, given thatmany banks may not have the adequate systems in place to comply with the stipulated requirements, they have been given atime frame till 30 September 2012 to put necessary systems and procedures in place to be able to comply with the requirementsof the guidelines (however, the guidelines leave scope for some subjectivity in this direction). Failure to meet the norms wouldattract a risk weight of 1111% to the securitisation exposures from 1 October 2012 onwards.May 2012 www.icra.in Page 7
  8. 8. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationSecuritisation Activities not permittedBanks are not permitted to undertake securitisation activities or assume securitisation exposures pertaining to re-securitisation ofassets, synthetic securitisation and securitisation with revolving structures. However, such transactions are not popular in theIndian market in any case.Nair Committee report on re-examining and suggesting revision with respect to Priority Sector classificationand related issues (February 2012)As discussed earlier, meeting the shortfall in PSL targets is one of the key motives—from investors’ perspective—that drivessecuritisation / loan pool assignment activity in India. In this regard, another develo0pment likely to shape the volumes goingforward is the extent to which the recommendations of the M.V. Nair Committee—set up by RBI to re-examine and suggestrevision with respect to Priority Sector classification and related issues—are adopted. The Committee, in its report submitted inFebruary 2012, recommended that bilateral assignment of loans and securitisation should continue to be allowed to be classifiedas priority sector provided the underlying asset is eligible for classification under priority sector advances. Also, it talks of cleardue diligence criteria for assets acquired through NBFCs, which is a positive. Moreover, increasing the priority sector targets forforeign banks from 32% to 40% would increase the funding avenues for various entities that want to avail priority sector benefits.Nevertheless, these benefits have to be seen in the light of— Overall cap of 5% of Adjusted net bank credit (ANBC) on priority sector bank lending through non bank financial intermediaries—which includes portfolio buy-outs and investment in securitization instruments o Given that several banks, particularly private sector banks have been investing in securitisation or Direct Assignment transactions to meet their PSL targets, this move would have an adverse impact on the buying appetite of banks that were exceeding the 5% cap. This is turn could adversely affect the ability of the Originating NBFCs to securitise their portfolios. Proposed interest spread cap of 6% for NBFC-AFCs and 3.5% for HFCs o This recommendation is likely to have an impact on securitisation of certain asset classes like Microfinance loans and SME Loans, where the interest spread has been observed to be higher than 6%. Barring a handful of transactions, most microfinance transactions have an interest spread greater than 6% and in some cases the spread has been observed to be higher than 10% also- this is primarily due to high interest rate on the underlying loans, which is typically in the range of 22%-26%. Capping of off-balance sheet exposure (of NBFCs) at 35% o This is likely to have an immediate bearing on the portfolio of 3-4 large NBFCs that have off balance sheet exposure exceeding 35%. Also, the committee’s recommendation is to continue to exclude loans against gold jewellery from priority sector advances o Hence the attractiveness of this asset class for securitisation is expected to remain low.May 2012 www.icra.in Page 8
  9. 9. ICRA Rating Feature RBI Guidelines on SecuritisationAnnexure: Asset class-wise impact of RBI guidelines and other legal issuesTable 8: Asset class-wise impact RBI guidelines and other legal issues # Criteria Mortgage Car/ CV/ CE Tractor Micro TW Loans SME/ Personal Loan Loans Loans Loans Loans MHP 1 2 2 3 2 2 RBI Guidelines MRR 2 2 2 1 2 2 20% cap on total retained exposure to 1 1 2 3 2 2 securitisation transactions by Originating Banks Stress Testing/Credit Monitoring/Due diligence 1 1 1 2 2 2 requirements Cap on Spread for PSL classification (as per 1 2 3 4 4 4 Committee Nair Committee report) Nair Cap on bank exposure at 5% of ANBC for PSL 4 4 4 4 4 4 classification (as per Nair Committee report) Taxation of Trust interest income 5 5 5 5 5 5 Others MTM requirement for PTCs 1 2 2 2 2 2# 1: Marginal/ No Impact; 2: Low Impact; 3: Medium Impact; 4: High Impact; 5: Very High ImpactAs can be seen from the table above, the greatest impact of the May 2012 Guidelines along with recommendations of the Nair committee if accepted, is likely to be on unsecured loans likeMicro Loans, SME/ Personal Loans and also on TW Loans- particularly on account of shorter tenure of the underlying loans, making the MHP criteria relatively difficult to comply with; highinterest rate on underlying loans, thus leading to greater than 6% interest spread (which is not permissible as per Nair Committee recommendations); and relatively lower ticket size thusincreasing the due diligence requirement by investing banks and making monitoring more cumbersome. Moreover, the credit enhancement by way of cash collateral and subordinationrequired for such transactions is also relatively higher, leading to possibility of breach of the20% cap on total retained exposure to securitisation transactions, if these asset classes wereoriginated by banks.The least impact is expected on Mortgage loans, which have a relatively long tenure (thus MHP requirement may not be difficult to comply with), credit enhancement requirement beingrelatively lower (thus possibility of breaching 20% exposure cap is low) and lower interest spread given that the PTC yield is usually floating and typically linked to either the pool interestrate or to an external benchmark rate. The 5% cap on bank exposure of ANBC (as per Nair Committee recommendation) for PSL classification and the unresolved stance on the taxation ofPTCs are both expected to have a significant impact on the securitisation of all asset classes equally.May 2012 www.icra.in Page 9
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