Africa New


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Africa New

  1. 1. Abhishek, Aditya, Arjun, Kranti
  2. 3. <ul><li>Land area: 11,609,00 sq mi </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 800, 245,000 </li></ul><ul><li>53 countries </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd largest continent in the world ( makes up 20% of the Earth’s land area) </li></ul><ul><li>Holds the world’s longest river, Nile R. </li></ul><ul><li>Many different African languages and dialects </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Economic Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant in Natural Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Businessmen wanted to expand their markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Political/ Military Interests </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ships needed bases around the world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prestige of winning colonies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Humanitarian and Religious Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People wanted to spread the “blessings” of the western world to Africa, such as religion and medicine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People believed that western nations were superior and rest were weaker </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>King Leopold II took over the Congo River Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Conference of 1884: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed Leopold to keep Congo </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free trade on Congo and Niger Rivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Countries first had to set up a government office before claiming right to a colony </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>Impact of World War II </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The West was no longer considered an unbeatable force </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most Western powers didn’t want to spend any more money or fight to hold onto their colonies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pressure from outside grew </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The two superpowers, Soviet Union and United States, rejected colonialism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>India already won independence from Britain in 1947 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><li>First country to win freedom south of Sahara was the Gold Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Kwame Nkrumah led many strikes and boycotts in the 1940’s for freedom, and was imprisoned several times </li></ul><ul><li>In March 6, 1957, the Gold Coast won its independence and Nkrumah became the prime minister </li></ul><ul><li>He renamed it Ghana (Why?) </li></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>White settlers took over the fertile land which belonged to the Kikuyu </li></ul><ul><li>Jomo Kenyatta protested against this and turned to nonviolent methods to end unfair laws </li></ul><ul><li>Other radicals, referred to as the Mau Mau, burned farms and killed livestock </li></ul><ul><li>British arrested Kenyatta and sent Kikuyu to concentration camps </li></ul><ul><li>However on December 12,1963, Kenya became independent and Kenyatta was the first prime minister </li></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>France invaded Algeria in the 1830’s </li></ul><ul><li>France was determined to keep Algeria after losing Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>NLF (National Liberation Front) was set up by Muslim Algerian Nationalists </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands from each side died in the war </li></ul><ul><li>France’s president, Charles de Gaulle, granted independence to Algeria on July 5, 1962 </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>15 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tutsis (minority) had more land, power, & wealth than Hutus (majority) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1962 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rwanda gains independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy worsened; led to dissent towards government. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>April 6, 1994 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>800,000 Tutsis murdered for next hundred days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government provided Hutus with machetes to kill Tutsis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families torn apart. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 15. <ul><li>Apartheid (1948-1994): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal segregation against Blacks in South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asians & other colors also denied basic rights </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nelson Mandela led many strikes & demonstrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Released from jail in 1990. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobel Peace Prize in 1993. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became S.A.’s 1 st Black President in 1994. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>Africa is poorest continent in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Economy has grown backwards </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty increasing </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Africa is richest part of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Economies of countries drastically vary from rich to poor </li></ul>
  13. 17. <ul><li>South Africa is Africa’s most wealthiest nation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Facts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDP: $467.6 billion dollars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater than many European Countries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDP per Capita: $10,600 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation Rate: 6.8% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rate: 24.2% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population Below Poverty Line: 47% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>Zimbabwe is one of Africa’s poorest nations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Facts: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDP: $6.186 billion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the worlds poorest countries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GDP per capita: $500 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment Rate:80% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation Rate: 26,470% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Population Below Poverty Line:68% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Natural Disasters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul></ul> People affected by Natural Disasters(1971-2000)
  16. 21. <ul><li>Economy dependant on exports of Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coffee, Cocoa, Peanuts, palm oil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minerals- Gold, Platinum, gemstones, diamonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Metals- Chromite, Manganese. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing is limited </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is mainly Agriculture driven </li></ul>
  17. 23. <ul><li>The United Nations has created several programs to help Africa such as the UNSIA (United Nations System-wide Special Initiative on Africa) and the NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa's Development) </li></ul><ul><li>President Bush has pushed for many programs like the $15 billion President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief and the $700 million Millennium Challenge Account contract with Tanzania </li></ul><ul><li>Not many successful programs to aid Darfur. </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>In Eastern Africa you can buy beer brewed from bananas. </li></ul><ul><li>The only dog in the world that does not bark is an African dog, Basenji. </li></ul><ul><li>In Kenya a child's middle name is given based on the time during the day the child is born. </li></ul><ul><li>Soweto, South Africa is the only place to have two Nobel Prize winners on the same street. The two were Nelson Mandela and Archbishop Desmond Tutu who both lived on Vilakazi Street. </li></ul><ul><li>The shortest war in history was fought between Zanzibar and England in 1896, lasting only 38 minutes. </li></ul>