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  • I have always been extremely interested in America History throughout high school and Valley Forge’s close proximity to us and the tremendous amounts of history that lies in that area is what made this the perfect topic for my Senior Graduation Project. I am not only interested in the area for its history but also for the great things that are taking place to help preserve the park.
  • So, why should you care about Valley Forge? Valley Forge is easily the most historic place around this area. Though most of us probably know the simple facts about Valley Forge, like its importance in the Revolutionary War there is still a lot to learn about this area. From its scenic beauty to its roots in America history Valley Forge truly has something for everyone.

  • The Revolutionary War lasted from 1775 to 1783.

    It is known as the American Revolutionary War and also as the American War of Independence
    It was a war.

    Was fought between Great Britain and the 13 colonies in North America, Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Massachusetts, South Carolina, New Hampshire, Virginia, New York, North Carolina, and Rhode Island.

    Started when those colonists rejected the legitimacy of the Parliament of Great Britain to rule over them without representation. Claiming that this went against their given rights.

  • Colonists living in British North America were divided over which side to supports in the war. About 40 - 45% of the population supported the struggle for independence. These people were known as the Patriots.
    15-20% of the colonists supported the British during the war known as the Loyalists

    British army consisted of roughly 36,000 men

    European Nations helped both sides. Britain hired 30,000 German mercenaries, this made up a third of their entire army in North America. By 1779 their army grew to 60,000 strong

    France, the Netherlands and Spain entered against the British. In order to dilute Britain’s “super power” status.

    African Americans, both slaves and freed, served on both sides of the war. British recruited slaves because of man power shortages.
  • The complete history of the British Army spans over three and a half centuries.

    In the revolutionary war British involment had its origins in the military occupation of Boston in 1768.

    Tensions between the British army and the local contributed to the Boston Massacre of 1770. Warfare however did not start until 1775.
  • Formed May 10th 1775 by the colonies to combat British Rule. Local militias supplemented the Continental Army. Throughout its existence the army was troubled by inadequate training, short term enlistments, interstate rivalries, and Congress’ inability to compel states to provide food, money, and supplies.

    Non-unified colonies made it hard to be efficient. Able to increase effectiveness in later years, often at human cost. Instrumental leaders played a key part in preserving unity, learning and adapting, and ensuring discipline throughout the eight years of the war.

    Disbanded in 1783 after the Treaty of Paris ended the war. Remaining soldiers formed the start of the United States Army.

  • George Washington was one of those instrumental leaders throughout the war.

    He was able to keep the morale of the badly ill and injured in the army up.

    Washington was later rewarded for all his efforts in the war, becoming the first president of the United States of America.

    The Electoral College Elected Washington unanimously in 1789 and again in the 1792 election. He remains the only president to capture 100% of all the electoral votes.

  • Born in Germany, Steuben entered the Seven Years War as a military staff member of Fredrick the Great.

    Von Stuben went to Paris to meet America’s foreign commissioner, Benjamin Franklin, and offered him his military services.

    The Continental Congress, much impressed by Von Steuben’s title and his refusal to accept any salary while in service, immediately sent him to George Washington at Valley Forge. Though he spoke no English, Von Stueben systematically trained the amateur American troops in military discipline and battle-readiness.
  • Most of the battles between the British and Continental Army was for Philadelphia. The capital city for the Colonists.
  • After the battle of White Marsh, Washington moved his troops from White Marsh to a more secure area.

    Though Several areas were proposed Washington selected Valley Forge. As the Continental Army would later realize, it was an excellent choice.

    Named after an Iron forge located on Valley Creek.

    Valley Forge was close enough to the British to keep their raiding parties out of interior Pennsylvania, but far enough away to halt the threat of a surprise attack.

    The high grounds of both Mount Joy and Mount Misery along with the Schuylkill River made the area easily defendable.

    On December 11th, the Continental Army left White Marsh for Valley Forge. It took the soldiers eight days to make the 13 mile journey.

  • On December 19, 1777, Washington and his 12,000 poorly fed, ill-equipped army arrived in Valley Forge.

    Camp grounds were selected, and defensive lines were being planned and constructed. Construction of more than a thousand huts provided shelter for the soldiers, but is did little to offset the critical shortages that plagued the army.

  • Supplies of meat and bread were irregular. A lot of soldiers relied on “fire cake” for their only nourishment. Fire cake is a tasteless mixture of flour and water.

    Conditions sometimes were so severe that the army had to starve some of the weaker soldiers in order to maintain food throughout the whole winter.

    An estimated 35,000 pounds of meat and 168 barrels of flour were needed per day to feed the army

    Animal fared no better, hundreds of horses starved or died of exhaustion and the cold winter weather did not help either.

    Clothing was also inadequate. The long marches soldiers took destroyed their shoes. Blankets and garments were scarce and hardly ever replaced. At one point in the winter almost 4,000 men were listed as unfit for duty.
  • Undernourished and poorly clothed, living in crowded, damp quarters, the army was ravaged by sickness and disease. Jaundice, dysentery, and pneumonia were among the top killing diseases that plagued as many as 2,000 men that winter in Valley Forge.
  • Dysentery is an inflammatory disorder of the intestine, in particular the colon.

    Result in severe diarrhea with fever and abdominal pain.

    Spread through raw/uncooked food and poor hygiene.

  • Pneumonia is an inflammatory disorder of the lungs.

    In Valley Forge pneumonia was an ongoing problem.

    It is caused by Bacteria, Viruses, Fungus.

    Symptoms include chest pains, chills, vomiting, nausea

  • Jaundice occurs when their is a blockage in the intestines.

    Causes discoloration of skin and eyes.

    Very prevalent in Valley Forge because of the bad food that was given

  • transmitted by the ingestion of food or water contaminated with the feces of an infected person.

    Symptoms include Diarrhea, Rose Spots, Sweating

    Rose spots are red bumps that form around the upper chest area

    More severe symptoms include intestinal bleeding, and the inflammation of the Gall Bladder
  • Word spread around the Valley Forge camp of a British Departure, that brought a frenzy of activity from the higher ranks of the Continental Army. On June 19, 1778, six months after their arrival, the army marched out of Valley Forge in pursuit of the British, who were advancing towards New York.

  • The war would last another five years, but for Washington, his men, and the nation to which they sought to give birth, a decisive victory had been won. Not a battle of weapons but a battle of will. The Continental Army struggled through the rough weather of the winter but were able to come away from it stronger.
  • Has been very well preserved hundreds of years after the war.

    Became a National Park July 4th 1976

    Park features historical and recreated buildings, structures, and memorials.

    Other park amenities include biking trails, walking trails, theatre.

    1000’s of deer
  • “Naked and starving as they are, we cannot enough admire the incomparable patience and fidelity of the soldiery”

  • September 24 2004

    85 White supremacists and neo-Nazis chanted racist slogans between hate speeches at a 90 minute rally in valley forge.

    Aryan Nations, KKK, and members of the national socialist movement (NSM) gathered

    10 members of the new black panther party, a racist and anti semitic black militant group also came.

    Counter protesters also came such as the Anti Racist Action Organization,

    Despite heavy police presence and the distance between the hate groups and counter protesters a few confrontations occured at the entrance to the park.
  • In 1999 plans were made to build a museum at Valley Forge, highlighting its significance in the American Revolutionary War.

    In 2008, ARC (American Revolution Center), took over the development process,

    Under this group, the complex would contain not just a museum but also a hotel, tavern, restaurant, campground, and a convention center.

    All of this being built on top of the historic site of Washington's Encampment.

    Park Service retirees called on top Interior Department and Park Service officials to
    speak out against the project, which has taken on commercial overtones after being promoted as
    "the first museum dedicated to interpreting, honoring and celebrating the complete story of the entire
    American Revolution."

  • This is one of the major problems that is effecting the park and the area as a whole.

    These plants are generally introduced by accident, with the person bringing the plant not aware of the effects that the plant might have in a foreign environment.

    Include Flowers, shrubs, grasses, vines, trees

    PA alone has one of the highest populations of invasive plants
    This area especially

  • This is one of the major problems that is effecting the park and the area as a whole.

    Invasive plants are plants which grow quickly and aggressively, spreading and displacing other plants. Invasives are usually introduced by people accidently, into a region far from their native habitat.
  • Introduced into Tennessee around 1919, stilt grass may have accidentally escaped as a result of its use as a packing material for porcelain.

    Individual plants may produce 100 to 1,000 seeds that fall close to the parent plant.

    Seed may be carried further by water currents during heavy rains or moved in contaminated hay, soil, or potted plants, and on footwear.

    Stilt grass appears to prefer moist, acidic to neutral soils that are high in nitrogen.

    Stilt grass spreads to form extensive patches, displacing native species that are not able to compete with it.

  • Loosestrife plants grow from four to ten feet high

    Native Area: Japan, Manchuria China, southeast Asia and northern India

    Flowers have five to seven petals.

    Mature plants can have from 30 to 50 stems arising from a single rootstock.

    outcompetes and replaces native grasses

    Introduced for medicinal uses

  • Native Area: China and the Islands from Japan

    Also known as Devil’s tail tear thumb because of the shape of the leaf

    Grows rapidly over shrubs and other vegetation

    Large infestations of mile-a-minute weed eventually reduce native plant species in natural areas.

    First found in Maryland in 1973

    During storm events the potential spread of this plant is greatly increased throughout watersheds.
  • Native Area: Japan and Europe

    Grow 2 to 8 ft high

    Introduce in New England in 1875

    Barberry produces large numbers of seeds

    Transported to new locations with the help of birds and small mammals which eat it.

  • Rapid growth of white-tailed deer herd threatens many other species such as birds and native plants

    Greater than 18-20 deer per square mile

    14 times greater than the state’s recommended deer density to maintain forest regeneration.

    Average of 100 vehicle accidents occur at the park per year

    Valley Forge is currently reviewing a Deer Management Plan. The plan has 4 options.

    A. No action
    B. A combination of non-lethal actions, including fencing and reproductive control to gradually reduce the heard.
    C. Professional Hunters, skilled in sharpshooting
    D. Combination of 2 and 3 (NPS preferred way)

    Idea that has been abandoned:
    -Giving birth control
    -Birth control not effective on free ranging deer
  • displace native crayfish

    reduce the amount and kinds of aquatic plants

    Decrease the variety of invertebrates

    reduce some fish populations

    Found in alsos
  • Park Management is currently reviewing a Environmental plan to protect the parks natural resources and maintain a high level of safety for visitors.

    Promoting a mix of native plants and reducing the competitive advantage of invasive non-native plant species.

    Reducing the deer herd to allow for the restoration of habitat for nesting birds.

    Chemical Bleach that eliminates Rusty Crayfish populations.
  • For my application component I visited Valley Forge 3 times to help with an organized trail clean-up.
  • I attended 3 trips this year to Valley Forge National Park to help with trail clean up

  • 9-12 AM

    Things done:
    - Removing invasive plants, so of which were covered early in the presentation
    - Trash Removal
    - Clearing draining features
    - Cutting back overgrown brush
  • Whole park cleanup ran by Steve Mulligan

    Helped me a great deal with a lot of the information about the invasive species in the Valley Forge Area.

  • 77666

    1. 1. VALLEY FORGE NATIONAL PARK Arjun Madhavan
    2. 2. OVERVIEW • Power Point • Relevance • My Experience • Revolutionary War • Class Activity • History of Valley Forge • Conclusion • Valley Forge Today • Park and Conservation
    3. 3. THESIS Valley Forge National Park serves as a peaceful reminder of freedom won by sacrifices long ago. Its 3,600 acres of picturesque, rolling hills serve as an example of the importance of environment conservation.
    4. 4. PERSONAL RELEVANCE History Biology Proximity Conservation
    5. 5. RELEVANCE OF VALLEY FORGE Most historic place around our area Scenic beauty Importance in Revolutionary War Education (false information) http://interfacelift.com/wallpaper_beta/D35ebee6/01773_valleyforge_1280x800.jpg
    6. 6. THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR 1775-1783 “The American Revolutionary War” or “American War of Independence” War between Great Britain and 13 former British Colonies Colonists Rebel http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/United_States_Northern_Command_emblem.png
    7. 7. COMBATANTS Colonists divided on support Patriots & Loyalists British European Nations African Americans http://www.thecaptainsmemos.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/Revolutionary-War.jpg Native Americans
    8. 8. BRITISH ARMY http://www.navycs.com/gallery2/d/9417-2/british-army-flag.jpg Spans over three and a half centuries Occupies Boston in 1786 Boston Massacre of 1770
    9. 9. AMERICAN CONTINENTAL ARMY http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~njobtdar/images/ValleyForge.gif Formed May 10th, 1775 Local Militias http://files.myopera.com/SiBrunk/albums/691571/revolutionary-war-soldiers.jpg Disbanded in 1783
    10. 10. GEORGE WASHINGTON http://www.wicknet.org/history/jvanatta/gallery/General%20George%20Washington%20Resigning%20his%20Commission%20%28John%20Trumbull,%201824%29.jpg Commander-in-Chief Morale Booster Becomes First President http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2009/04/george-washington-gilbert-stuart.jpg
    11. 11. BARON VON STEUBEN Born in Germany Meets with Ben Franklin Washington sends him to Valley Forge Spoke no English Systematically trained American Soldiers teachers.ewrsd.k12.nj.us/gray/Von_Steuben.jpg http://www.steubencony.org/hallfame/Steuben,%20Baren%20Von.jpg
    12. 12. BATTLES AROUND THE AREA Philadelphia Paoli, Brandywine, Germantown, Morristown, White Marsh
    13. 13. WHY VALLEY FORGE Rest over the Winter of ’77 Close but not too close Mount Joy Mount Misery http://www.arago.si.edu/media/000/027/882/27882_lg.jpg
    14. 14. DECEMBER 19, 1777 http://www.freespiritart.com/images/winter-valley-forge.jpg 12,000 arrive Camp grounds selected Construction of 2,000 of huts
    15. 15. FOOD AND CLOTHING SHORTAGES Irregular meat and bread supplies Fire Cake http://www.valley.forge.national-park.com/images/winterartillerqy.jpeg Starvation Animal Clothing http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/17/Revolutionary_War_Cemetery,_Salem,_NY.jpg/300px-Revolutionary_War_Cemetery,
    16. 16. DISEASE Very Rampant Poor sanitary conditions Dysentery Pneumonia Jaundice Typhoid www.solarnavigator.net/history/explorers_hist
    17. 17. DYSENTERY Intestine Uncooked food Poor Hygiene http://www.marriedtothesea.com/032607/dysentery.gif
    18. 18. PNEUMONIA Lung Bacteria Viruses Fungus http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_7wkLDqkdHt0/SU2nQi5P5KI/AAAAAAAAEfQ/ToGJuj3uTcE/s400/Pneumonia_anatomy.jpg
    19. 19. JAUNDICE Blockage of Intestine Discoloration of eyes Discoloration of skin www.mdconsult.com/.../0/0/10041/19512_en.jpg
    20. 20. TYPHOID http://www.vivaxim.ca/Images/vivaxim_cons_risk_map_en.gif Contaminated Food & Water Diarrhea, Rose Spots, Sweating Intestinal Bleeding Inflammation of Gall Bladder
    21. 21. THE DEPARTURE June 19, 1778 British advance to NY http://oathkeepers.org/oath/wp-content/uploads/Washington-at-Valley-Forge.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_QGqu4ZDNdHw/ShG3MC2vnfI/AAAAAAAAAAk/IttbYwz-w1s/s320/revolutionary-war-007.jpg
    22. 22. AFTER VALLEY FORGE 5 Years of Battle Treaty of Paris British leave New York US Constitution http://oathkeepers.org/oath/wp-content/uploads/Washington-at-Valley-Forg2e.jpg
    23. 23. TODAY
    26. 26. NEO-NAZI RALLY http://fusco.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/untitled-34.jpg http://expatbrian.files.wordpress.com/2007/12/swastika1.png
    27. 27. COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3151/2752519669_e5ff3be2c3.jpg
    28. 28. INVASIVE PLANTS http://www.jkinjectiontools.com/images/plantpics/hogweed_1.gif
    29. 29. INVASIVE PLANTS Disrupt environments Introduced by accident Grow quickly http://www.aldertreegarden.com/images/DSCN0508.jpg
    32. 32. MILE-A-MINUTE WEED
    33. 33. JAPANESE BARBERRY http://pics.davesgarden.com/pics/2005/05/04/Kachinagirl/dd64d9.jpg http://www.burncoose.co.uk/site/img/products/large/berberis_thunbergii_golden_ring.jpg
    34. 34. WHITE TAILED DEER http://www.dupageforest.com/media/images/cms/District_News/Multimedia_Gallery/Photo_Galleries/White-Tailed-Deer-Fawn.jpg http://www.theanimalfiles.com/images/white_tailed_deer_s2.jpg
    35. 35. RUSTY CRAYFISH http://www.wisconline.com/feature/crayfish.jpg http://www.learninghowtofish.com/media/AIS/rustycrawfish.jpg
    36. 36. ENVIRONMENTAL PLAN http://bayareacomre.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/epa.jpg http://news.stanford.edu/news/2007/may2/gifs/plants_swordfern.jpg http://depts.washington.edu/natmap/photos/mammals/white-tailed_deer_5924np.jpg
    37. 37. APPLICATION
    38. 38. DATES Saturday March 6th, 2010 Saturday April 3rd, 2010 Saturday May 1st, 2010
    40. 40. STEVE MULLIGAN
    42. 42. CLASS ACTIVITY
    43. 43. WORK CITED EyeWitness to History. "The Continental Army at Valley Forge, 1777."      EyeWitness History. N.p., 2006. Web. 10 May 2010.      <http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/valleyforge.htm> Hillclimb Media. "Valley Forge National Historical Park." National Parks. Media Bodyle, Wayne K. The Valley Forge Winter: Civilians and Soldiers in War.      Knowledge, 2007. Web. 18 May 2010.      University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2002. Print.      <http://www.valley.forge.national-park.com/>. Kaufman, Wallace, and Sylvan Ramsey Kaufman. Invasive Plants: A Guide to Multieducator. "Revolutinary War." History Centeral. Multieducator, 1998. Web.      Identification, Impacts, and Control of Common North American Species.      18 May 2010. <http://www.historycentral.com/Revolt/>.      Mechanicsburgh PA: Stackpole Books, 2007. Print. Cunneen, Parker. "Revolutionary War." 42 Explore 2. 42 Explore 2, 2010. Web. 16 NPCA. "Valley Forge National Historical Park." NPCA. National Parks Conservation      May 2010. <http://www.42explore2.com/revolt.htm>.      Association, 2010. Web. 10 May 2010. <http://www.npca.org/mid_atlantic/      valley-forge.html>. Hayes Weston. “Invasive Plants.” Ecology and Managment of Invasive Species. EMIS , 2007. Web. 16      May 2010. <http://www.invasiveplants.net/>. Ostrander, Stephen J. Great Natural Areas in Eastern Pennsylvania.      Mechanicsburgh PA: Stackpole Books, 1996. Print. NPCA. "Valley Forge National Historical Park." NPCA. National Parks Conservation      Association, 2010. Web. 10 May 2010. <http://www.npca.org/mid_atlantic/ Radosevich, Steven R., Jodie S. Holt, and Claudio M. Ghersa. Ecology of weeds      valley-forge.html>.      and invasive plants. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007. Print. Mealin, Andrew. "Plant Biology Index." North Carolina State University. NCSU, Reese, Lorett. Valley Forge: Making and Remaking a National Symbol. University      2010. Web. 18 May 2010. <http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/plantbiology/>.      Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995. Print. Emerson. "Valley Forge Convention & Visitor Center." Valley Forge. N.p., 2010.      Web. 15 May 2010. <http://www.valleyforge.org/nationalpark/>.
    44. 44. CONCLUSION