Criteria for Curriculum Assessment Defined


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Criteria for Curriculum Assessment Defined

  1. 1.  To provide the students’ the best possible education and describe the students’ level of performance.  To monitor the progress of students based on the goals set.  To motivate students to learn and the teachers to be able to feel a sense of competence when goals are attained.
  2. 2. CHECKLIST FOR GOALS AND OBJECTIVES YES NO 1. Do the goals and/or objectives represent an important learning outcome that is a priority for this student? 2. Is there a goal written for each area of need stated in the present level of performance? 3. Are the goals realistic in the sense that they can be accomplished in one year? 4. Are the goals and objectives easily measured? 5. Are there multiple objectives representing intermediate steps to each goal? 6. Are the goals and instructional objectives appropriately calibrated? 7. Are the goals and instructional objectives useful for
  3. 3. Instruction refers to the implementation of the objectives. It is concerned with the methodologies of the strategies of teaching. APPROACHES TO INSTRUCTION 1. Supplantive Approach 2. Generative Approach
  4. 4. Supplantive Approach  Referred to as “direct” instruction (Adams & Englemann, 1996).  The teacher attempts to promote learning by providing explicit directions and explanations regarding how to do a task.  The teacher assumes primary responsibility for linking new information with the students’ prior knowledge and ultimately whatever the students learn.
  5. 5.  With this approach, information is presented in an ordered sequence in which component subskills are taught directly or a foundation of later tasks.  This approach to instruction is highly teacher-directed.
  6. 6. Generative Approach  referred to as “constructivist” or “developmental”.  The teacher functions as a facilitator who takes a less central role in a learning process that is student directed (Ensminger & Dangel, 1992).  The teacher provides opportunities for the students to make own linkages to prior knowledge and to devise her own strategies for work.
  7. 7.  Its emphasis is on helping students to construct their own educational goals and experiences as well as the knowledge that results.  With this approach, information is presented on a schedule determined by the students’ interests and goals.  Pre-requisites for more complex information are expected to be learned as a consequence of the larger understanding students would be guided to construct.
  8. 8.  Learning is assumed to be socially constructed out of the interaction between the students’ innate tendencies and predisposition (following the student’s timeline) and the social context in which the student lives (Stone, 1996).  Advocates of this approach do not seem to view teachers and classrooms as part of the social context.
  9. 9. COMPARISON OF TEACHING APPROACHES ATTRIBUTE GENERATIVE APPROACH SUPPLANTIVE APPROACH Buzz words used by proponent  Constructivist  Developmental  Top Down  Holistic  Authentic  Meaning-based  Direct Instruction  Teacher-directed  Mastery Learning  Task analytic  Competency based  Effective teaching What proponents call the other  Romantics  Fuzzy  Postmodernist  Unrealistic  Reductionist  Drill-and-kill  Dogmatic  Unauthentic Underlying beliefs about what is taught  Students construct their own understanding  When learning is contextualized, students will identify what they are ready to learn.  The skills that students need to learn can be derived from an analysis of the social demands placed on them
  10. 10. Underlying beliefs about how learning occurs  Learning is “socially constructed”, students link new information to prior knowledge when provided opportunities to observe or experiences  Learning can be induced through instruction that builds explicit links between new information and prior knowledge Underlying beliefs about how to teach  Learning is developmental and occurs much the way early language is acquired  Teachers take a “hands off” approach and seek to provide a meaningful context in which learning will occur naturally  When learning does not occur, it can be facilitated by building it from the “bottom up” through teaching of prerequisite subskills.  Teachers take a “hands on” approach by structuring lessons and providing explicit direction
  11. 11. Common error made by proponent  Creating interesting classroom activities but failure to link these activities to learning outcomes  Too much emphasis on larger ideas, not enough emphasis on the components  By focusing on specific learning outcomes, they may fail to attend to other equally important interests and topics.  Too much emphasis on the components, not emphasis on larger ideas
  12. 12. GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING AN INSTRUCTIONAL APPROACH Select the Generative Approach when: Select the Supplantive Approach when: The Student The Task The Setting  Has considerable prior knowledge  Has adaptive motivational patterns  Experiences consistent successes on the task  Is simple for the student  Is well defined  Can be completed using a general problem-solving strategy  Is to understand, but not necessarily apply  Allows plenty of time to accomplish outcomes  Places priority on experiences and activities  Has little prior knowledge of the task  Has non-adaptive motivational patterns  Experiences repeated failure on the task  Is complex  Is ill defined  Has missing information  Requires the use of a task- specific strategy  Is pivotal to the learning of subsequent tasks  Must be used with a high level of proficiency  Time allowed to accomplish outcomes is limited  Places priority on task mastery