Understanding the Bright and Dark Side of one’s Work Life: The Critical Role of Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Maar...
<ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>The Energetic Basis of Growth: Basic Psychological Need  Satisfaction </li></ul>3.  How...
<ul><li>PART I </li></ul><ul><li>The Energetic Basis of Growth:  </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction <...
Motivating Employees
Legend / Parabel <ul><li>“ A jewish tailor   opened a store in the main shopping street in a small town. A local clan was ...
Task of motivation psychologist <ul><li>Motivation < movere = to move </li></ul><ul><li>Which things make people moving?  ...
<ul><li>Identification of … </li></ul><ul><li>weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>illness  </li></ul><ul><li>pathology </li></ul>...
Self-Determination Theory Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (in press). Self-determination theory and the expl...
Self-determination Theory: Meta-theoretical assumptions <ul><ul><li>Pro-active organism that acts upon his environment </l...
Psychological need satisfaction Well-being Burn-out Productivity Social environment Turn-over Which processes underly grow...
<ul><li>Wich needs do meet the following criteria?  </li></ul>Psychological Innate Fundamental Universal Vansteenkiste, M....
Basic needs Need for autonomy A <ul><li>Being the initiator of  </li></ul><ul><li>one’s own actions </li></ul><ul><li>Psyc...
Psychologisal need satisfaction Self-worth Psychological insecurity Hedonic pursuit of happiness Autonomy Belongingness Co...
Demographic Characteristics of the Participants in the Calibration and Validation Sample Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste...
Utilitarian roots Hedonic Well-being Eudaimonic Well-being Aristotelian roots Fromm (1981) Optimal well-being requires dis...
Hedonic Well-being Eudaimonic Well-being <ul><li>Maximization of happiness & pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of pa...
Engagement Burn-out Actual  turn-over Need satisfaction among employees (correlates) A B C .66*** .44*** .27*** -.49*** -....
Autonomy in non-western countries: Separating autonomy from independence
<ul><li>1) Autonomy within SDT </li></ul><ul><li>= degree of self-endorsement of one’s actions </li></ul><ul><li>= standin...
<ul><li>4 combinations are possible! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor visit </li></ul><ul><li>Help with...
Psychological Well-being Depression Vitality Need satisfaction among Chinese students (regressions)  A B C .26*** .28*** ....
<ul><li>PART II </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Motivation Matters </li></ul>
Psychological need satisfaction Quality &  quantity of  motivation Autonomy Belongingness Competence
<ul><li>Exercise : Try to … </li></ul><ul><li>…  indicate which items would measure the same type of motivation </li></ul>...
I’m putting effort in my job … <ul><li>…  because that is what others (e.g., manager, colleagues) expect me to be doing  <...
Items Naam Motivation type  1 Motivation type 2 Motivation type 3 Motivation type 4
Items Naam Motivation type  1 1, 6 External pressure Motivation type 2 3, 8 Internal pressure Motivation type 3 2, 5 Perso...
Intrinsic Motivation :  Doing an activity because it is interesting and provides its own reward by satisfying people’s bas...
Autonomous Motivation Controlled Motivation Pressure, obligation, stress Choiceful, psychological freedom Unneccessary Ple...
Motivational profiles: Distinguishing between types of employees
Variable-centered approach Autonomous Motivation (AM) Controlled Motivation (CM) Person-centered approach Types of  employ...
<ul><li>Sample characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Belgian sample of employees: N = 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Poor quality Low quantity High  quantity Good quality Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in...
Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles...
Is  being  more strongly motivated a Is being motivated always adaptive?  <ul><li>Two relevant comparisons : </li></ul><ul...
Need satisfaction as a function of motivational profile Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (...
Organisational Commitment as a function of motivational profile Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coill...
Productivity as a function of motivational profile Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in pr...
<ul><li>PART III </li></ul><ul><li>How to create a motivating environment?  </li></ul>
Psychological need satisfaction Job design Leadership style Renumeration policy
<ul><li>Job Design: </li></ul><ul><li>Need enhancing & need frustrating job characteristics </li></ul>
Resourceful job characteristics = stimulate growth & play buffering role Demanding job characteristics = Tax employees’ ca...
? Resourceful job characteristics (e.g., task autonomy, skill utilization etc.)  Demanding job characteristics (e.g., emot...
Psychological need satisfaction Resourceful job characteristics (e.g., task autonomy, skill utilization etc.)  Demanding j...
Psychological need satisfaction Resourceful job characteristics Demanding job characteristics Engagement Burn-out Van den ...
<ul><li>Leadership style: </li></ul><ul><li>Need enhancing & need frustrating job leadership styles </li></ul>
Need frustrating leadership style Need satisfying  leadership style Leadership style that facilitates employees’ need sati...
A utonomy B eloningness C ompetence Autonomy- supportive vs.  controlling environment Warm vs. cold environment Structured...
Autonomy support External control <ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental design:  2X1-design </li><...
<ul><li>Autonomy-supportive instructions </li></ul><ul><li>On your desk you can find a text that is used in the context of...
<ul><li>Controlling instructions </li></ul><ul><li>On your desk you can find a text that is used in the context of an expe...
Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persi...
Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persi...
Conclusion  <ul><li>Need satisfaction   </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial theoretical mechanism to explain both bright & dark side...
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Maarten Vansteenkiste 2008

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  • Maarten Vansteenkiste 2008

    1. 1. Understanding the Bright and Dark Side of one’s Work Life: The Critical Role of Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction Maarten Vansteenkiste Universiteit Gent Contactadres: [email_address] www.vopspsy.ugent.be www.psych.rochester.edu/SDT
    2. 2. <ul><li>Overview </li></ul><ul><li>The Energetic Basis of Growth: Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction </li></ul>3. How to Create an Optimally Motivating Environment? 2. Quality of Motivation Matters
    3. 3. <ul><li>PART I </li></ul><ul><li>The Energetic Basis of Growth: </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction </li></ul>Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (in press). Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being. In L. Bruni, F. Comim, & M. Pugno (Eds.), Capabilities and happiness . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    4. 4. Motivating Employees
    5. 5. Legend / Parabel <ul><li>“ A jewish tailor opened a store in the main shopping street in a small town. A local clan was not very happy with this. A lot of people didn’t visit the main shopping street any longer, because a group of youngsters was shouting each day in front of the store: “Jew, Jew, Jew” </li></ul><ul><li>The tailor didn’t sleep very well during the first night, but then decided to do something about the problem the next day. He went to the youngsters and promised them that they would get one dollar each day in case they would shout “Jew, Jew, Jew”. The young boys started to shout at him and, as a result, he paid each of them one dollar. Because the youngsters were quite satisfied with the reward, they came back the next day to shout at him. The store keeper came outside and paid them again: “I can only pay you half a dollar. One dollar is too much.” Although they only got half a dollar, the boys were satisfied with the reward and left the shopping street. After all, half a dollar is half a dollar. </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, the youngsters came back to shout at the store keeper the next day. This time, they were paid one dollar cent. “This is not fair”, argued the youngsters, “two days ago, we still got one dollar and yesterday we got half a dollar, but today we only get one cent”. “Take it or go away”, replied the store keeper, “this is all what you can get”. “Don’t think we will any longer shout at you for one stupid dollar cent”, said the youngsters, and they didn’t come back any longer to shout at the store keeper. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Task of motivation psychologist <ul><li>Motivation < movere = to move </li></ul><ul><li>Which things make people moving? </li></ul><ul><li>Question concerning the reason , motive or goal behind one’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Does this motive matter in terms of predicting … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity? Quality and quantity of performance? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burn-out & engagement? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doing ‘overhours’ = Free persistence at the activity? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-over? </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. <ul><li>Identification of … </li></ul><ul><li>weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>illness </li></ul><ul><li>pathology </li></ul>Disease models Positive Psychology movement <ul><li>Identification of … </li></ul><ul><li>strengths </li></ul><ul><li>virtues </li></ul><ul><li>positive development </li></ul>Remedial action = fixing what is wrong Preventive action = by stimulating growth avoiding illness <ul><li>Criticism : A strong meta-theoretical foundations is lacking in both </li></ul><ul><li>perspectives; Self-determination Theory can fill this gap </li></ul>Deci, E. L., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2004). Self-determination theory and basic need satisfaction: Understanding human development in positive psychology. Ricerche di Psichologia, 27 , 17-34.
    8. 8. Self-Determination Theory Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (in press). Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being. In L. Bruni, F. Comim, & M. Pugno (Eds.), Capabilities and happiness . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Prof. Dr. Edward L. Deci Prof. Dr. Richard M. Ryan
    9. 9. Self-determination Theory: Meta-theoretical assumptions <ul><ul><li>Pro-active organism that acts upon his environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oriented towards growth & self-organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social environment facilitates & supports development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Passive / reactive entities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No inherent growth-oriented nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social environment programs & controls people’s behavior </li></ul></ul>Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (in press). Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being. In L. Bruni, F. Comim, & M. Pugno (Eds.), Capabilities and happiness . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    10. 10. Psychological need satisfaction Well-being Burn-out Productivity Social environment Turn-over Which processes underly growth vs. alienation?
    11. 11. <ul><li>Wich needs do meet the following criteria? </li></ul>Psychological Innate Fundamental Universal Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (in press). Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being. In L. Bruni, F. Comim, & M. Pugno (Eds.), Capabilities and happiness . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
    12. 12. Basic needs Need for autonomy A <ul><li>Being the initiator of </li></ul><ul><li>one’s own actions </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Volition </li></ul>Vansteenkiste, M., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (in press). Self-determination theory and the explanatory role of psychological needs in human well-being. In L. Bruni, F. Comim, & M. Pugno (Eds.), Capabilities and happiness . Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Need for competence C <ul><li>Being able to </li></ul><ul><li>achieve desired </li></ul><ul><li>outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Having control over </li></ul><ul><li>the result of one’s </li></ul><ul><li>actions </li></ul>Need for belongingness B <ul><li>Being loved by </li></ul><ul><li>others </li></ul><ul><li>Having close and </li></ul><ul><li>intimate relations </li></ul>
    13. 13. Psychologisal need satisfaction Self-worth Psychological insecurity Hedonic pursuit of happiness Autonomy Belongingness Competence Money & Financial success BASIC COMPENSATORY / DERIVATIVE
    14. 14. Demographic Characteristics of the Participants in the Calibration and Validation Sample Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., De Witte, H., & Soenens, B. (in progress). Capturing autonomy, belongingness and competence at work. Manuscript in preparation. Calibration Sample Validation Sample Sample 1 Sample 2 N 297 202 192 Gender Male 49 51 50 Female 59 48 50 Age Range 21 – 63 years 20 – 61 years 24 – 59 years Mean 38.45 years 41.60 years SD 11.54 years 10.26 years Education Primary education 2% 3% 1% Secundary education 45% 60% 13% College level 45% 31% 51% University 12% 7% 35% Type of contract Full-time 74% Part-time 26%
    15. 15. Utilitarian roots Hedonic Well-being Eudaimonic Well-being Aristotelian roots Fromm (1981) Optimal well-being requires distinguishing ‘between those desires that are only subjectively felt and whose satisfaction leads to momentary pleasure, and those needs that are rooted in human nature and whose realization is conducive to human growth and produces eudaimonia, i.e., ‘well-being’. (Italics added; as cited in Ryan & Deci, 2001)
    16. 16. Hedonic Well-being Eudaimonic Well-being <ul><li>Maximization of happiness & pleasure </li></ul><ul><li>Minimization of pain </li></ul><ul><li>Fullfilling one’s ‘daimon’ or true nature </li></ul><ul><li>Fully functioning person </li></ul>Bentham Kahneman et al. (1999) Diener & Lucas (1999) Waterman (1993); Ryff (1995) Fromm (1981); Ryan & Deci (2001); Ryan, Huta, & Deci (2008) <ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Positive affect </li></ul><ul><li>Negative affect </li></ul><ul><li>Life satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Vitality </li></ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Personal expressiveness </li></ul>
    17. 17. Engagement Burn-out Actual turn-over Need satisfaction among employees (correlates) A B C .66*** .44*** .27*** -.49*** -.38*** -.28** -.07 -.13* -.27*** Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., De Witte, H., & Soenens, B. (in progress). Capturing autonomy, belongingness and competence at work. Manuscript in preparation.
    18. 18. Autonomy in non-western countries: Separating autonomy from independence
    19. 19. <ul><li>1) Autonomy within SDT </li></ul><ul><li>= degree of self-endorsement of one’s actions </li></ul><ul><li>= standing fully behind one’s activities </li></ul><ul><li>= reflective valuation of one’s behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite = control = feeling pressured or seduced to partake in an activity </li></ul><ul><li>2) Autonomy within developmental (Steinberg, 1990), cross-cultural (Markus & Kitayama, 1991, 2003) and health and occupational psychology </li></ul><ul><li>= self-direction, individualism </li></ul><ul><li>= being independent </li></ul><ul><li>= culture-bounded (i.e., western cultures), age-bounded (i.e., adolescents) </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite = dependency = relying on others </li></ul><ul><li>BUT: autonomy and independence are orthogonal dimensions! </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>4 combinations are possible! </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Doctor visit </li></ul><ul><li>Help with carrying out a project at work </li></ul>Controlled or imposed Autonomous of self-chosen Dependence Independence
    21. 21. Psychological Well-being Depression Vitality Need satisfaction among Chinese students (regressions) A B C .26*** .28*** .26*** -.31*** -.43*** .03 .25* .31** .19* Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Luyckx, K. (2006). Autonomy and relatedness among Chinese Sojourners and Applicants: Conflictual or independent predictors of well-being and adjustment? Motivation and Emotion, 30 ¸ 273-282
    22. 22. <ul><li>PART II </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of Motivation Matters </li></ul>
    23. 23. Psychological need satisfaction Quality & quantity of motivation Autonomy Belongingness Competence
    24. 24. <ul><li>Exercise : Try to … </li></ul><ul><li>… indicate which items would measure the same type of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>… come up with a label for each type of motivation </li></ul>
    25. 25. I’m putting effort in my job … <ul><li>… because that is what others (e.g., manager, colleagues) expect me to be doing </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>… because this job allows me to reach my life goals </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>… because I would feel guilty if I wouldn’t do so </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>… because I like this job very much </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>… because this job has personal relevance to me </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 <ul><li>… because others (e.g., manager, colleagues) will reward me only if do so </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 7) … because I find this job highly interesting and challenging 1 2 3 4 5 8) … because I can only be proud of myself if I do so 1 2 3 4 5
    26. 26. Items Naam Motivation type 1 Motivation type 2 Motivation type 3 Motivation type 4
    27. 27. Items Naam Motivation type 1 1, 6 External pressure Motivation type 2 3, 8 Internal pressure Motivation type 3 2, 5 Personal values, convictions Motivation type 4 4, 7 Pleasure, passion, enjoyment
    28. 28. Intrinsic Motivation : Doing an activity because it is interesting and provides its own reward by satisfying people’s basic needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Extrinsic Motivation : Doing an activity because it is instrumental to an operationally separable consequence.
    29. 29. Autonomous Motivation Controlled Motivation Pressure, obligation, stress Choiceful, psychological freedom Unneccessary Pleasure, passion, interest Personal relevance, meaningful Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation Punishment rewards expectation Shame, guilt, self-worth Partial internalisation No internalisation Full internalisation
    30. 30. Motivational profiles: Distinguishing between types of employees
    31. 31. Variable-centered approach Autonomous Motivation (AM) Controlled Motivation (CM) Person-centered approach Types of employees?
    32. 32. <ul><li>Sample characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Belgian sample of employees: N = 1793 </li></ul><ul><li>Gender: 52.4% male </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 30 year: 24.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30-39 year: 25.6% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>40-49 year: 28.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 50 year: 21.4% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary education: 5.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secundary education: 55% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College level: 24.8% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University level: 14.7% </li></ul></ul>Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles: Does quality or quantity of motivation matter? Manuscript in preparation.
    33. 33. Poor quality Low quantity High quantity Good quality Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles: Does quality or quantity of motivation matter? Manuscript in preparation.
    34. 34. Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles: Does quality or quantity of motivation matter? Manuscript in preparation. Low quality (21%) Low quantity (11%) High quantity (27%) High quality (41%)
    35. 35. Is being more strongly motivated a Is being motivated always adaptive? <ul><li>Two relevant comparisons : </li></ul><ul><li>Good quality vs. poor quality group = equal in amount but different in quality of motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Good quality vs. high quantity motivation group = different in amount and in quality of motivation </li></ul>Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles: Does quality or quantity of motivation matter? Manuscript in preparation.
    36. 36. Need satisfaction as a function of motivational profile Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles: Does quality or quantity of motivation matter? Manuscript in preparation. Comparison 2
    37. 37. Organisational Commitment as a function of motivational profile Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles: Does quality or quantity of motivation matter? Manuscript in preparation. Comparison 2
    38. 38. Productivity as a function of motivational profile Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., Van Coillie, H. (in progress). Examining employees’ motivational profiles: Does quality or quantity of motivation matter? Manuscript in preparation. Comparison 2 Comparison 1
    39. 39. <ul><li>PART III </li></ul><ul><li>How to create a motivating environment? </li></ul>
    40. 40. Psychological need satisfaction Job design Leadership style Renumeration policy
    41. 41. <ul><li>Job Design: </li></ul><ul><li>Need enhancing & need frustrating job characteristics </li></ul>
    42. 42. Resourceful job characteristics = stimulate growth & play buffering role Demanding job characteristics = Tax employees’ capacities Engagement Burn-out Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & De Witte, H. (2008). The role of basic need satisfaction in explaining the relation between demands, resources, well-being and engagement. Work and Stress, 22 , 277-294 . + + -
    43. 43. ? Resourceful job characteristics (e.g., task autonomy, skill utilization etc.) Demanding job characteristics (e.g., emotional & physical demands, workload etc.) Engagement Burn-out Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & De Witte, H. (2008). The role of basic need satisfaction in explaining the relation between demands, resources, well-being and engagement. Work and Stress, 22 , 277-294 .
    44. 44. Psychological need satisfaction Resourceful job characteristics (e.g., task autonomy, skill utilization etc.) Demanding job characteristics (e.g., emotional & physical demands, workload etc.) Engagement Burn-out Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & De Witte, H. (2008). The role of basic need satisfaction in explaining the relation between demands, resources, well-being and engagement. Work and Stress, 22 , 277-294 . + + - -
    45. 45. Psychological need satisfaction Resourceful job characteristics Demanding job characteristics Engagement Burn-out Van den Broeck, A., Vansteenkiste, M., Lens, W., & De Witte, H. (2008). The role of basic need satisfaction in explaining the relation between demands, resources, well-being and engagement. Work and Stress, 22 , 277-294 . .34*** .86*** -.15** .62*** Fit: SBS-chi² (196) = 738.94, p < .001; RMSEA = .06; SRMR = .08, CFI = .93 and NNFI = .92
    46. 46. <ul><li>Leadership style: </li></ul><ul><li>Need enhancing & need frustrating job leadership styles </li></ul>
    47. 47. Need frustrating leadership style Need satisfying leadership style Leadership style that facilitates employees’ need satisfaction Leadership style that thwarts employees’ need satisfaction Leadership style
    48. 48. A utonomy B eloningness C ompetence Autonomy- supportive vs. controlling environment Warm vs. cold environment Structured vs. chaotic environment
    49. 49. Autonomy support External control <ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experimental design: 2X1-design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants : 376 first year business students (19-20 years old) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Task : Reading a text on “how to learn to communicate?” (30 min.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outcomes : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Performance = conceptual learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Persistence = visiting the library to get additional information </li></ul></ul></ul>Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 , 246-260
    50. 50. <ul><li>Autonomy-supportive instructions </li></ul><ul><li>On your desk you can find a text that is used in the context of an experiment. The text aims to indicate how you can learn to communicate in a good way. Different communication styles are discussed within the text and the content of this text might provide you useful information that you might need on your future job. You are invited to read the text attentively, because the text can contribute to your personal development and growth on your future job. After you will have read the text, you will be asked to answer a few questions (which are not part of an exam). </li></ul>Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 , 246-260
    51. 51. <ul><li>Controlling instructions </li></ul><ul><li>On your desk you can find a text that is used in the context of an experiment. The text indicates how you should communicate in a good way. Different communication styles are discussed within the text and the content of this text should provide you useful information that you should use on your future job. You might better read the text very attentively, because the text should contribute to your personal development and growth on your future job. After you will have read the text, you must answer a few questions (which are not part of an exam). </li></ul>Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 , 246-260
    52. 52. Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 , 246-260
    53. 53. Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic role of intrinsic goals and autonomy-support. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87 , 246-260
    54. 54. Conclusion <ul><li>Need satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Crucial theoretical mechanism to explain both bright & dark side </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete practically relevant process by which the environment might enhance people’s growth & development </li></ul>
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