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Immunotherapy for asthma, meta analysis of clinical trial

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Asthma, immunotherapy, meta analysis

Asthma, immunotherapy, meta analysis


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  • 1. Immunotherapy for Asthma: A meta analysis of clinical trial Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K)
  • 2. Background Allergen specific immunotherapy has long been a controversial treatment for asthma. Although beneficial effects upon clinically relevant outcomes have been demonstrated in randomized controlled trials, there remains a risk of severe and sometimes fatal anaphylaxis. The recommendations of professional bodies have ranged from cautious acceptance to outright dismissal. With increasing interest in new allergen preparations and new methods of delivery, it was time to conduct another systematic review of allergen specific immunotherapy for asthma. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 2
  • 3. The World Health Organization and various allergy, asthma, and immunology societies throughout the world met on January 27 through 29, 1997, in Geneva, Switzerland to write guidelines for allergen immunotherapy. Over the ensuing year, the editors and panel members reached a consensus about the information to include in the WHO position paper “Allergen immunotherapy: Therapeutic vaccines for allergic diseases.” Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 3
  • 4. GINA Asthma guideline
  • 5. Component 4: Asthma Management and Prevention Program Allergen-specific Immunotherapy  Greatest benefit of specific immunotherapy using allergen extracts has been obtained in the treatment of allergic rhinitis  The role of specific immunotherapy in asthma is limited  Specific immunotherapy should be considered only after strict environmental avoidance and pharmacologic intervention, including inhaled glucocorticosteroids, have failed to control asthma  Perform only by trained physician Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K)
  • 6. Weight of Scientific Scrutiny Hierarchy of Evidence Rec Meta Analysis of RCT Level 1 A Large RCT Level 2 Small RCT Non Randomized Trials Observational Studies B Level 3 Case series/reports Anecdotes, experts, consensus Prof DR Dr Ariyanto Harsono SpA(K) C Level 4 6
  • 7. Objectives The objective of this review was to assess the effects of allergen specific immunotherapy for asthma. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 7
  • 8. Search strategy Selection criteria Search the Cochrane Airways Group trials register up to date, MEDLINE, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Contents and reference lists of articles Randomized controlled trials using various forms of allergen specific immunotherapy to treat asthma and reporting at least one clinical outcome. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 8
  • 9. Statistical Considerations The planned comparisons were: 1. Allergen immunotherapy versus placebo 2. Allergen immunotherapy versus antigenically inactive control 3. House dust versus placebo 4. Allergen immunotherapy versus untreated control 5. Allergen immunotherapy versus inhaled steroid Performance of these comparisons separately for each outcome, namely asthma symptoms, medication, lung function, non-specific BHR and allergen specific BHR, whenever the results were reported. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 9
  • 10. Results Allergen immunotherapy significantly reduced allergen specific BHR. Stratifying the metaanalysis for the allergen administered and expressing the results as Log PD20 achieved homogeneity. It would be desirable for future studies to use a standardized protocol for bronchial allergen challenges and to report the results in a more consistent fashion. Not surprisingly it would appear that allergen immunotherapy has a greater effect upon allergen specific BHR than upon nonspecific BHR. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 10
  • 11. Bronchial hyper reactivity (BHR) Indices of nonspecific BHR were reported by 12 studies. There were significant improvements in PD20 FEV1 to methacholine challenge (SMD ±0.30, 95% CI ±0.54 to 0.05) and in PC35 s Gaw to acetylcholine after immunotherapy with allergen ± antibody complexes. The improvement in PC20 FEV1 to histamine challenge failed to achieve statistical significance in a random effects model. Although there was significant heterogeneity between the results of these studies (x2=22.7, P,0.025), there was an overall reduction in nonspecific BHR after immunotherapy (SMD ±0.48, 95% CI ±0.81 to ±0.14) (Fig. 7). Nonspecific BHR was simply reported as increased, unchanged, or reduced in five small studies. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 11
  • 12. There was homogeneity between these studies, and the combined OR of 0.22 (95% CI 0.10±0.48) indicated that patients randomized to immunotherapy were significantly less likely to develop increased nonspecific BHR than those randomized to placebo (Fig. 8). Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. Indices of allergen-specific BHR (such as PD20 FEV1 to allergen challenge) were reported by 14 studies. There was homogeneity between these studies with an overall SMD of ±0.70 (95% CI ±0.91 to ±0.48), indicating a significant reduction in allergen-specific BHR after immunotherapy (Fig. 9).The effect was most marked for mite immunotherapy (SMD ±1.14, 95% CI ±1.62 to ±0.65), and similar for pollen (SMD±0.69,95%CI ±1.09 to ±0.30) and animal dander(SMD±0.71, 95% CI ±1.08 to ±0.34), but not significant for other allergens. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 14
  • 15. Allergen-specific BHR was simply reported as increased, unchanged, or reduced by 16 studies. There was homogeneity between studies, and the combined OR of 0.28 (95% CI 0.19±0.41) indicated that patients randomized to immunotherapy were significantly less likely to develop increased allergen-specific BHR (Fig. 10). Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. Asthma symptoms The results of the individual placebo-controlled trials and combined effects for each outcome are presented in Figs. 1±10. Symptom scores were reported by 22 studies, although neither Dreborg et al. nor Olsen et al. published the standard deviations (SDs), thus preventing the calculation of the standardized ean difference (SMD) for these studies. The combined SMD for symptom scores after mite immunotherapy was ±0.71 with a 95% confidence interval of ±1.37 to ±0.05, which excluded 0, thus indicating a significant reduction in asthma symptoms (Fig. 1). The combined SMD after pollen immunotherapy was ±0.72 (95% CI ±1.14 to ±0.31) also indicating significant symptomatic provement. However, there was no significant improvement after immunotherapy with cat, dog, or multiple allergen extracts. For all allergens combined, the SMD was ±0.73 (95% CI ±1.07 to ±0.39), but there was significant heterogeneity between studies (x2=86.2, Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 17
  • 18. P,0.0005), with three studies not finding any reduction in symptoms. Symptoms were simply reported as worse, the same, or improved in another 22 studies. The combined odds ratio (OR) was 0.26, with a 95% CI from 0.17 to 0.41, which excluded 1, again indicating that patients randomized to immunotherapy were significantly less likely to report a deterioration in asthma symptoms than those randomized to placebo. There were significant homogeneous improvements after immunotherapy with extracts of pollen (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04±0.42), animal dander (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05±0.87), and other allergens (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09± 0.32). Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. Less improvement was seen after mite immunotherapy (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21±0.75), and there was significant heterogeneity between these studies (x2=21.3, P,0.05). Although the results of studies of children were relatively homogeneous (data not shown), there was significant heterogeneity between the results of adult studies (x2=40, P,0.001), two studies actually finding symptoms to be more likely in treated patients Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 20
  • 21. Symptoms were simply reported as worse, the same, or improved in another 22 studies. The combined odds ratio (OR) was 0.26, with a 95% CI from 0.17 to 0.41, which excluded 1, again indicating that patients randomized to immunotherapy were significantly less likely to report a deterioration in asthma symptoms than those randomized to placebo (Fig. 2). There were significant homogeneous improvements after immunotherapy with extracts of pollen (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.04±0.42), animal dander (OR 0.20, 95% I 0.05±0.87), and other allergens (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.09±0.32). Less improvement was seen after mite immunotherapy (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21±0.75), and there was significant heterogeneity between these studies (x2=21.3, P,0.05). Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. Although the results of studies of children were relatively homogeneous (data not shown), there was significant heterogeneity between the results of adult studies (x2=40,P,0.001), two studies actually finding symptoms to be more likely in treated patients. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 23
  • 24. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 24
  • 25. Lung Function Test Lung-function results were reported by 14 studies, with several studies failing to provide SDs for peak expiratory flow, FEV1, or thoracic gas volume. There was no overall improvement in lung-function parameters after immunotherapy (Fig. 5), and there was marked heterogeneity in peak expiratory flow between studies (x2=27.6, P,0.0005). Indeed, there was even a suggestion that FEV1 deteriorated after immunotherapy in a small study by Paranos & Petrovic, in which the baseline lung unction of patients randomized to mite immunotherapy and placebo was poorly matched. Lung function was simply reported as worse, the same, or improved in seven studies. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 25
  • 26. 26
  • 27. Typical Spirometric (FEV1) Tracings Volume FEV1 Normal Subject Asthmatic (After Bronchodilator) Asthmatic (Before Bronchodilator) 1 2 3 4 Time (sec) 5 Note: Each FEV1 curve represents the highest of three repeat measurements
  • 28. Asthma Medication Asthma medication scores were reported by 13 studies, with Cantani et al. (27), Dreborg et al. (32), and Olsen et al. failing to publish the SDs. The combined SMD was ±0.71 (95% CI ±1.09 to ±0.32), indicating a significant reduction in medication after immunotherapy (Fig. 3). There was a large reduction after mite immunotherapy, although this was accompanied by significant heterogeneity (x2=16.1,P,0.005). The reduction after pollen immunotherapy achieved statistical significance in a fixed effects model (SMD=±0.54,95%CI ±0.85 to ±0.23). Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 28
  • 29. Medication requirements were simply reported as increased, unchanged, or decreased in 16 studies. The combined OR was 0.32 (95% CI 0.22±0.46), indicating that patients randomized to immunotherapy were significantly less likely to require increased medication than those randomized to placebo (Fig. 4). Although there was significant heterogeneity between the studies reporting medication scores (x2=28.7,P,0.001), there was substantial homogeneity between the latter 15 studies. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. Allergen Exposure Immunotherapy Allergen avoidance Corticosteroid Mucosal barriers Immune response Cells Monoclonal anti mediators antibody Cromones/Ketotifen Mediators Antileukotriens Second Gen H1 Antihistamine Respiratory symptoms Beta2 Agonist Xanthine Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 31
  • 32. Prof DR Dr Ariyanto Harsono SpA(K) 32
  • 33.  Retrieval of 1111 publications of which 51 satisfied our inclusion criteria. In total there were 2871 participants (1645 active, 1226 placebo), each receiving on average 18 injections. Duration of immunotherapy varied from three days to three years. Symptom score data from 15 trials were suitable for meta-analysis and showed an overall reduction in the immunotherapy group (SMD -0.73 (95% CI -0.97 to -0.50, P < 0.00001)). Medication score data from 13 trials showed an overall reduction in the immunotherapy group (SMD of 0.57 (95% CI -0.82 to -0.33, p<0.00001)). Clinical interpretation of the effect size is difficult. Adrenaline was given in 0.13% (19 of 14085 injections) of those on active treatment and in 0.01% (1 of 8278 injections) of the placebo group for treatment of adverse events. There were no fatalities.  Injection immunotherapy has a known and relatively low risk of severe adverse events. We found no long-term consequences from adverse events. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD001936 Prof DR Dr Ariyanto Harsono SpA(K) 33
  • 34. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 34
  • 35. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 35
  • 36. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 36
  • 37. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. Conclusion This report confirms the efficacy of immunotherapy; in particular, we emphasize the clinically useful outcomes of decreased medication requirements and improved allergen specific BHR. Not only did these two outcomes show statistically significant improvement, but also the results were homogeneous. We believe that a reduction in medication and decreased allergenspecific BHR are clinically important findings and can lead to improved asthma control. These results give no direct guidance concerning the clinical application of allergen immunotherapy. We have previously stated the well-accepted principles that we follow in using immunotherapy in asthma. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 39
  • 40. The evidence provides support for the efficacy of both SCIT and SLIT for treatment of asthma in children. The evidence base is stronger for SLIT than for SCIT, which may reflect the fact that there are fewer studies evaluating SCIT exclusively in children and few head-to-head comparisons of SCIT and SLIT. SLIT has been thought to be a favorable alternative to SCIT, especially for children, based on convenience and ease of administration at home without multiple injections, whereas SCIT requires administration by an experienced provider Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 40
  • 41. These issues are discussed more fully in a joint position statement of the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and the Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy and the WHO position paper. These results would fully endorse these position papers and recommend that interested readers refer to them. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 41
  • 42. Thank You 42

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