Immune deficiency, diagnostic approach

1,274
-1

Published on

Primary Immune deficiency, secondary immune deficiency, clinical warning, diagnosis

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
3 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,274
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
152
Comments
0
Likes
3
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Immune deficiency, diagnostic approach

  1. 1. Immune Deficiency: Diagnostic Approach Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K)
  2. 2. Introduction Immune disorders are oftentimes categorized as either congenital or acquired. When baby born with a disorder, it’s called a congenital or primary disorder. Acquired disorders are called secondary disorders. Secondary disorders are more common than primary The immune system is made up of several organs including spleen, tonsils, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. These organs make and release lymphocytes, which are white blood cells classified as B cells and T cells. B and T cells fight invaders called antigens.. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 2
  3. 3. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 3
  4. 4. Function of Major Immune Component Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 4
  5. 5. Immune Deficiency Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 5
  6. 6. Primary disorders can be controlled and treated, but not prevented. Secondary disorders can be prevented in a number of ways. For example, it is possible to avoid AIDS by not having unprotected sex with someone who carries the virus. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 6
  7. 7. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 7
  8. 8. Diagnosis steps Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 8
  9. 9. Recognizing the Signs of an Immunodeficiency Disorder Each disorder has unique symptoms. The first indicator that something is wrong with your immune system is becoming repeatedly and chronically sick, even with minor illnesses, including pinkeye, sinus infections, or diarrhea. If these problems don’t respond to treatment or don’t completely get better over time, doctor might test for a disorder. Recurrent pneumonia and yeast infections could also suggest you have a disorder. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 9
  10. 10. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 10
  11. 11. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 11
  12. 12. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 12
  13. 13. Recurrent oral thrush Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 13
  14. 14. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 14
  15. 15. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 15
  16. 16. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 16
  17. 17. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 17
  18. 18. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 18
  19. 19. Advance Laboratory Examination Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 19
  20. 20. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 20
  21. 21. Alternative Algorythm 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 23
  24. 24. Specific Condition Hyper IgE Syndrome Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 24
  25. 25. Primary Immunodeficiency Disease According to the leading experts in immunology, when part of the immune system is either absent or not functioning properly, it can result in an immune deficiency disease. When the cause of this deficiency is hereditary or genetic, it is called a primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). Researchers have identified more than 150 different kinds of PIDD. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 25
  26. 26. Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) is a rare, inherited condition resulting in a weak immune system that is unable to fight off even mild infections. It is considered to be the most serious primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 26
  27. 27. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  28. 28. X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inherited immunodeficiency in which the body is unable to produce the antibodies needed to defend against bacteria and viruses. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 28
  29. 29. Selective IgA Deficiency Selective IgA Deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). People with this disorder have absent levels of a blood protein called immunoglobulin A (IgA). IgA protects against infections of the mucous membranes lining the mouth, airways and digestive tract. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 29
  30. 30. DiGeorge Syndrome DiGeorge Syndrome (DGS) is a primary immunodeficiency disease(PIDD) associated with susceptibility to infections due to poor T cell production and function. DGS is caused by abnormal cell and tissue development during fetal growth. In addition to possible immune system problems, this abnormal development can result in altered facial characteristics, abnormal gland development or defects in organs such as the heart. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 30
  31. 31. DiGeorge Syndrome….. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 31
  32. 32. Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is an X-linked recessive immunodeficiency disorder characterized in one third of patients by the triad of recurrent bacterial sinopulmonary infections, eczema (atopic like dermatitis), and a bleeding diathesis caused by thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 32
  33. 33. Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome… Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 33
  34. 34. Ataxia-telangiectasia Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is an autosomal recessive, complex, multisystem disorder characterized by progressive neurologic impairment, cerebellar ataxia, variable immunodeficiency with susceptibility to sinopulmonary infections, impaired organ maturation, x-ray hypersensitivity, ocular and cutaneous telangiectasia (see image below), and a predisposition to malignancy. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 34
  35. 35. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 35
  36. 36. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 36
  37. 37. Secondary Immunodeficiency Syndrome Also called Acquired immunodeficiency may be a complication of diseases such as HIV infection and malnutrition. Many cancers may also cause immunodeficiency. People who have had their spleen removed have an acquired immunodeficiency, and are at higher risk for infection by certain bacteria that the spleen would normally help fight. Patients with diabetes are also at higher risk for certain infections. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 37
  38. 38. Clinical Features of secondary immune deficiency • • • • • • • • Syndromes Failure to Thrive Bacterial infection Viral Infection Opportunistic infection Chronic diarrhea Blood abnormality Skin lesions Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  39. 39. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  40. 40. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  41. 41. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  42. 42. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  43. 43. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  44. 44. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  45. 45. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  46. 46. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  47. 47. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  48. 48. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  49. 49. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  50. 50. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  51. 51. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  52. 52. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 52
  53. 53. Prof DR.dr. Ariyanto Harsono SpAK
  54. 54. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 54
  55. 55. Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 55
  56. 56. Thank you Prof Ariyanto Harsono MD PhD SpA(K) 56
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×