Diseases that solely affect the kidneys & cause AGN include:
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgA nephropathy, Berger’s
Membranoproliferative nephritis (type of kidney
Postinfectious GN (GN that results after an infection)
Acute Renal Failure (ARF)
ARF is the rapid breakdown of renal (kidney)
This disease occurs when high levels of uremic
toxins (waste products of the body's
metabolism) accumulate in the blood and the
kidneys are unable to excrete the daily load of
the toxins in the urine.
There are three types of ARF:
- Prerenal ARF
- Postrenal ARF
- Intrinsic renal ARF
Pre renal ARF: inadequate blood circulation (perfusion) to the kidneys, which leaves them unable to clean the blood properly . ARF causes a patient to experience shock (very low blood pressure) and may lead to multiple organ failure due to poor perfusion within many organs.
Some Causes of Pre renal ARF include: dehydration, heart failure, sepsis (severe infection), and severe blood loss.
Post renal ARF is caused by an acute obstruction that affects the normal flow of urine out of both kidneys. It is seen most often in elderly men with enlarged prostate glands that obstruct the normal flow of urine.
The blockage causes pressure to build in all of the renal nephrons which causes the nephrons to shut down as a result of the excessive fluid pressure.
- Causes of Post renal ARF include: Bladder outlet obstruction due to an enlarged prostate gland or bladder stone, kidney stones in both ureters or in patients with one kidney , neurogenic bladder, tubule obstruction, renal injury or retroperitoneal fibrosis
Intrinsic renal ARF : Intrinsic ARF accounts for approximately 40% of the cases of acute renal failure. This type involves damage or injury within both kidneys and is any ARF that is not categorized by the above.
- Causes may include: Vascular diseases, Diseases of tubules and interstitium, and Acute tubular necrosis
Catheterization: (CATH) Insertion of a tube through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for the purpose of withdrawing urine or inserting dye
Catheterization is frequently used for patients who find it difficult to get
up and use the bathroom, due to circumstances such as severe illness,
injury or recent surgery. It is also used as a way to measure the output of
a patients urine. This can be used as an indicator for many medical
- Catheterization can be used for patients who have weak bladder muscles, it is used to allow the patient to fully drain the bladder.
(C & S) Culture and Sensitivity:
A laboratory test that grows a colony of bacteria removed from
an infected area in order to identify the specific infecting
bacteria and then determine its sensitivity to a variety of
A culture is done to find out what kind of organism (usually a bacteria) is causing an illness or infection
A sensitivity test checks to see what kind of medicine, such as an antibiotic, will work best to treat the illness or infection.
A C & S test may be done on many different body fluids, such as urine, mucus, blood, pus, saliva, breast milk, spinal fluid, or discharge from the vagina or penis.
A test used to look at the inside of the bladder and the urethra using a thin, lighted instrument called a cystoscope. It allows your doctor to look at areas of your bladder and urethra that are usually not visible in X-rays.
Small bladder stones and some small growths can be removed during cystoscopy eliminating the need for more extensive surgery.
Cystoscopy may be used for various reasons some which include:
- Treat urinary tract problems such as blockage in the urethra
caused by an enlarged prostate, kidney stones, or tumors.
- Find the cause of symptoms such as blood in the urine (hematuria),
painful urination (dysuria), urinary incontinence, urinary frequency or
hesitancy, an inability to pass urine (retention), or a sudden and
overwhelming need to urinate (urgency).
- Place ureteral catheters (stents) to help urine flow from the kidneys to
the bladder or in the ureter for an X-ray test called retrograde