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Principles of learning in training

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  • 1. Principles of Learning in Training Ari Sudan Tiwari Ph. D.
  • 2. LearningChange in behaviour: Adaptive or maladaptiveOccurs through practice and experienceDoes not occur through maturation, fatigue or species-specificbehaviourRelatively permanent
  • 3. Products of LearningLearning of ideas and conceptsLearning of behaviours and skillsLearning of attitudes and values
  • 4. Theory of classical conditioning: Ivan P. Pavlov When a neutral stimulus (conditioned stimulus, CS) ispaired with a natural stimulus (unconditioned stimulus,UCS), neutral stimulus alone acquires the ability to elicitthe response (conditioned response, CR) which naturally occurs (unconditioned response, UCR) after natural stimulus
  • 5. Paradigm of classical conditioning Stimulus ResponseNeutral/Conditioned Stimulus No response Natural/Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned response Continuous pairing of the two stimuliNeutral/Conditioned Stimulus (alone) Conditioned response Behavioural implication: Learning of negative emotional responses
  • 6. Theory of instrumental conditioning: B. F. Skinner Increases the likelihood of Desirable behaviour Change in theBehaviour environment Decreases the likelihood of Undesirable behaviour
  • 7. Paradigm of instrumental conditioning Nature of the event following a response Appetitive Aversive Positive reinforcement PunishmentConsequence of a Onset of (Increases the likelihood (Decreases the event response of behaviour) likelihood of behaviour) Omission of Negative reinforcement Termination reinforcement (Increases the likelihood of event (Decreases the of behaviour) likelihood of behaviour)
  • 8. Conditioning theories and training processApplying concepts of generalization and discriminationShaping of complex behaviours: Method of SuccessiveApproximationProgrammed learningPersonalized system of instruction (PSI)Personalized application of learning paradigm
  • 9. Using punishment in training processMild punishment with explanationConsistent punishmentCloser in time and place of behaviour being punishedStrengthening desired behaviour while punishing theundesired one
  • 10. Cognitive learningLearning without being involved in any active process Selection of information from the environment Making alterations in the selected information Associating the items of information with each other Elaborating information in thought Storage of information Retrieval of information when needed
  • 11. Observational learning: Albert Bandura Attention process Retention process Latent Learning Motivational process Behavioural production
  • 12. Transfer of learningDependency of human learning or performance on prior experience Types of transfer of learning The effect-perspective: Positive vs. Negative transfer The situation perspective: Specific vs. General, Near vs. Far transfer The process perspective: Reproductive vs. Productive
  • 13. Memory Sensory Register Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Vision: Up to 1 second; Up to 30 Seconds Days, months, years or Duration Auditory: Up to 5 Seconds lifetime Relatively large: Up to 16 Relatively small: Up to Unlimited Capacity items 7±2 chunks Attention and recognition: Rehearsal: Rehearsed Transfer Attended and recognized items transfer into LTM - Process items transfer into STM Type of Copy of input Sounds, visual images, Semantics, life eventsInformation words, sentences Decay of trace Displacement of old No real forgetting; FaultyProcess of information by new one organization of information,Forgetting Inappropriate retrieval cue, Interference
  • 14. Types of long term memorySemantic memory: Words and meanings; relations amongwords; rules of use in language and thinking Storage in highly organized and associative manner Stable in natureProcedural memory: Associations between situations, eventsand actionsEpisodic memory: Memory of events in our lives in relation tothe time and place of their occurrences
  • 15. ForgettingLoss of information from the memory store Process of forgetting Decay of trace Displacement of information Retrieval problems Forgetting B (Proactive interference) Interference Learning A Learning B Forgetting A (Retroactive interference)
  • 16. Improving memoryMnemonics: AcronymsThe Method of LociDeeper level of analysis: Association and elaboration ofinformationChunkingMaking story by relating items
  • 17. Learning: Theory to practiceLearning is an experience which occurs inside the trainee and isactivated by the trainer Trainer is a facilitator Create an atmosphere where trainees are free to explore ideas Very little learning takes place without personal involvement and meaning on the part of the trainee
  • 18. Learning: Theory to practiceLearning is the discovery of the personal meaning and relevance ofideas Trainers should relate the lessons to the needs, interests and problems of the traineesLearning is an evolutionary process Results cannot take place overnight Trainers should be patient with trainees
  • 19. Learning: Theory to practiceLearning is sometimes a painful process Behavioral change often calls for giving up the old and comfortable ways of believing, thinking and valuingThe process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual Learning is affected by the total state of the individual
  • 20. Learning: Theory to practiceThe process of problem solving and learning are highly unique andindividual Trainees have unique learning styles Make trainees aware of their learning and problem solving styles: help them improve
  • 21. Learning: Theory to practicePrior knowledge can help or hinder learning Prior knowledge is the lens through which we view all new information Connect new information to accurate information they already possess
  • 22. Learning: Theory to practiceMotivation generates, directs and sustains learning behavior Motivation influences the amount of time and effort trainees devote to learning and supports their continued engagement when difficulties ariseThe way trainees organize knowledge determines how they use it We need to help trainees learn to organize knowledge
  • 23. Learning: Theory to practiceMeaningful engagement is necessary for deeper learning Posing and answering meaningful questions about concepts, making analogies or attempting to apply the concepts or theories to solve problems Leads to more elaborate, longer lasting and stronger representations of the knowledge
  • 24. Learning: Theory to practiceMastery requires developing component skills and knowledge,synthesizing and applying them appropriately Many activities actually involve a synthesis of many component skills To master these complex skills, trainees must practice and gain proficiency in the discrete component skills Give opportunities to practice the skills
  • 25. Learning: Theory to practiceGoal-directed practice and targeted feedback are critical to learning Involves working toward a specific level of performance and continually monitoring performance relative to clearly define goals
  • 26. Learning: Theory to practiceTrainees must learn to monitor, evaluate and adjust theirapproaches to learning to become self-directed learners Trainees must become conscious of their thinking processes Require them to explicitly monitor, evaluate and reflect on their own performance and provide them with feedback on these processes
  • 27. Learning: Theory to practice Since trainees develop holistically, their learning is affected by the social, emotional and intellectual climate of training situationFeeling of support and respect Intellectual and creative risksRidicule and persecution Disengagement and poor performance
  • 28. Steps of effective training process1. Gain attention: stimulate the learners interest in the subject2. Inform the objectives of training: Let the trainees know what they will be learning, stimulates the internal process of expectancy and helps motivate the trainee to complete the lesson3. Recall Prior Knowledge: Get the trainees to think about what they already know and associating new information with prior knowledge which can facilitate the learning process
  • 29. Steps of effective training process4. Present Content: Content should be chunked and organized meaningfully and variety of media should be used if possible5. Provide Guided Learning: Guidance strategies should include the use of examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics and analogies6. Elicit Performance: Facilitate the learner to practice the new skill or behavior
  • 30. Steps of effective training process7. Provide Feedback: Inform learners of their performance and provide specific and immediate feedback of their performance8. Assess Performance: Evaluate learners on their knowledge, behaviour and skills9. Enhance Retention and Transfer: Aid learners in remembering and applying the new skill
  • 31. The only kind of learning which significantly influencesbehaviour is self-discovered or self-appropriated learning, truth that has been assimilated in experience. -Carl Rogers Thank You