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Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

International Online eJournal

ISSN 0975 - 7929
Vol - II, Issue – 4
August 2010
Bi-annual

I...
International Online eJournal
ToC

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

Published & Edited by:
Chief Editor:
Dr. Bipin Parmar
Co-...
International Online eJournal
ToC

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

Foreword

“Time is the most undefinable yet paradoxical o...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

it is necessary to receive knowledge, to harmonize between in...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

the significance of folksongs (Lokgeet) in folklore (Loksahit...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

elaborates on the fragmentation of a family against the backd...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

ToC

Aims & Scope
Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN –...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

ToC

Our Patrons

Shri J. G. Bhuva

Director
Shri Shardagram
...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

ToC

Advisory Board

•

Dr. Jaydipsinh Dodiya : Reader, Dept....
International Online eJournal
ToC

•

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

Panel of Experts / Reviewers

Prof. Dr. Kamal Mehta : ...
International Online eJournal

•

Dr. Jiwan Bakhshi

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

: Ph.D. (English Literature) Critic,
Pl...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

ToC

Disclaimer
Dear Reader/s:
The articles in Spark Internat...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

Communication Links

ToC

spark.ejournal@gmail.com

Editors
C...
International Online eJournal
ToC

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

Letter to Editors

The Editor-in-Chief
Spark Int’l Online...
International Online eJournal

5.

6.

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

(read subtler) colour schemes, better page design and...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

Table of Content
Article Title

Page
No.

01

Higher Educatio...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-II, Issue-4
August 2010

Table of Content Contd…
Sr.
No.

Article Title

Page
No.

09
...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Article 01 : Higher Education and Business Vision

ToC
Dr. (...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

centered and student oriented without any gender-biasedness ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

cutting edge of innovation and discovery, an excellent syste...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

Inclusion

Objectives of this paper
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Mismanagement v/s management in the higher education system ...
International Online eJournal
Figure 1.

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Vital Stats

This is not enough to identify the de...
Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

International Online eJournal

text books, promotion of gender sensitization of teachers on...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

in such colleges on the basis of donations in comparison to ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

One of the experts comment that “the government must give di...
International Online eJournal
Figure 5.

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August 2010

Where the openings are

In India where the unemplo...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

the industry.
It is a debatable issue among the educationist...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

Figure 6. Declining Public Expenditure per Student
10000
909...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

Figure 8. Expected Growth of Students
 
35000
30000

29723

...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

These above drawn graphs present the grim picture of the fac...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

•

Action research on behalf of teachers to update their own...
International Online eJournal

•

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

There has to be industry-university collaborations in the...
International Online eJournal

•

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

It has to understood that the company not only requires f...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

•

The management of nationalized banks, cooperative banks a...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

be accessed to have relevance and excellence in the research...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

The academicians – They have to face internal quality assess...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

The Students – They need to build desired level of competiti...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Organizations intent on being at the top of their industries...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

measurable accreditation standards such as the European Unio...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

wise market decisions. Therefore, the economic value of huma...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

with bewildering rapidity. Yet it also feels the pressure fo...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

NEW DIMENSIONS IN BUSINESS
What is entrepreneurship? Traditi...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

spectacles that fitted them twenty or thirty years earlier."...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Although no attempt is made here to classify the various app...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

costs, and provide improved customer service. Among the driv...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

Technology and its products have revolutionized our environm...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

which will be intensely responsive to human need, and will s...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

college, university, technical or vocational colleges’ level...
International Online eJournal
10.
11.
12.

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Robert Aaron Gordon, James Edwin. Higher Educati...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

At present working on the post of Lecturer since July 2002 (...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Article 02 : Laser in Dentistry

ToC

Dr. Meera H. Gohil
P.G...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

type of atom can absorb photons of only certain wavelengths;...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

special way. The rod is set inside a cylinder with a mirror ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

1958. There is use of lasers in medical and dental field als...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

LASER PERIODONTAL PROCEDURES
• Flap surgery
• Laser soft tis...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

tissue treatment such as root surface debridement, as well a...
International Online eJournal

The pre-operative view
of the infected tooth.

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Using the YSG...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

SOFT TISSUE LASER
SCALING & ROOT PLANING:
Treatment to remov...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

FRENECTOMY:
Midline spacing in upper and tower anterior may ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

DIPIGMENTATION:
Melanin hyper-pigmentation, or "dark gums", ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

OSSEOUS RESECTION

Preoperative
view

Gingival contouring
by...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

MAJOR BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH LASER DENTISTRY
• Procedures ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

4. Jayawardena JA, Kato J, Moriya K, Takagi Y. Pulpal respon...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

12. Dederich DN, Pickard MA, Vaughn AS, Tulip J, Zakariasen ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

Article 03 : Creative Thinking of Secondary School Students
...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

The present study is intended to find out the level of creat...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

man differs from other animals, in that he is capable of thi...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

theory gave considerable impetus to recent research and theo...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

Moreover, where adolescence is concerned, the literature on ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

at analyzing the creative thinking of students of secondary ...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

secondary school girls and boys. 8. There is no significant ...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

The collected data was analyzed by employing statistical tec...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Sharma, M. (1977) found that males were superior in creativi...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Thamma Pradeep (1976), Dutt, Bountra and Sabhrawal (1977) fo...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

Passi (1971) observed that urban students were significantly...
International Online eJournal

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August 2010

4. There is a significant difference in the level of creativ...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

The private schools are popular for their infrastructural an...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

Both of the sub-samples, rural boys and girls, should strive...
International Online eJournal

Vol.-2, Issue - 4
August 2010

thinking between them. Boys are holding more creative thinki...
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  1. 1. Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 International Online eJournal ISSN 0975 - 7929 Vol - II, Issue – 4 August 2010 Bi-annual International Online eJournal Multi – disciplinary Multi – lingual Multi - media A Cutting-edge Initiative… “The illiterate are not those who CAN’T read and write, but those who DON’T read and write” Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal
  2. 2. International Online eJournal ToC Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 Published & Edited by: Chief Editor: Dr. Bipin Parmar Co-Editors: Dr. Firoz Shaikh Dr. Nayan Tank Sanjay Bhut In Collaboration with: Managed by: (Shri Bharat Sarasvati Mandir Sansad - Shardagram) Shri M.N.Kampani Arts & Shri A.K.Shah Commerce College- Mangrol, Gujarat - India (Affiliated to Saurashtra University- Rajkot) Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal i
  3. 3. International Online eJournal ToC Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 Foreword “Time is the most undefinable yet paradoxical of things; the past is gone, the future has not come, and the present becomes the past even while we attempt to define it, and, like the flash of the lightning, at once exists and expires.” Charles Colton’s this statement is perhaps the most significant if we apply it to “Learning” and “Education”. Learning is that house which requires a constant repair, whitewashing and watching. The Spark International Online eJournal is a wizardly brush to constantly clean and gloss over this huge house of learning. The Fourth Issue in front of your eyes (I wouldn’t say “placed in your hands” since it is Online Journal) sparks off variety of articles ranging from “Business vision in Higher Education” to “Laser in Dentistry”. Reading these articles is like meeting various people during the journey. Meeting diverse people along the way, we receive inspiration from others; we discover our true knowledge and together form sensibility, and we enjoy new and ongoing friendships. With a greater sense of freedom, we find the time to explore all the beauty that exists around us. Our exploration of science builds a better understanding of reality, of the world and the universe in which we live. Trailblazing as it is, the Spark is a cause in itself in bringing forth best minds in best multilingual expression. The commencing article “Higher Education and Business Vision” by Dr. (Mrs.) Jayshree Singh graphically and analytically proves how amidst global connectivity and sustainable development Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal ii
  4. 4. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 it is necessary to receive knowledge, to harmonize between inheriting tradition of higher values and the modern developments so that there may be the availability of rapid access to education and to meet instinct of competitive urge of excellence in the world. US writer Mark Twain once said “Adam and Eve had many advantages, but the principal one was that they escaped teething”. “Laser in Dentistry” by Dr. Sharmila J. Verma & Dr. Meera H. Gohil is something new to the content of the Spark as it, with copious illustrations and figures, discusses the role laser has to play in the surgery of teeth. On the pain of dental diseases Twain says, “The higher animals get their teeth without pain or inconvenience. Man gets his through months and months of cruel torture; he will never get a set which can really be depended on ’till a dentist makes him one”. Creative thinking is one of the key sources for the development of human civilization. And it is diligently and collaboratively showcased by Digumarti Bhaskara Rao & Sarvepalli Sivaram Prasad & Harshitha Digumarthi in “Creative Thinking of Secondary School Students”. “The White Tiger: A Journey from ‘Bharat’ to ‘India’” is again a collaborative article by Bhupendra Kesur & Gajanan Patil & Anil Patil on recently much-hyped Aravind Adiga with his creative limelight The White Tiger. The authors enlist some sensitive questions at the end of the article. Devang Rangani in “The Portrayal of Women as a Shakti— the Power by Anita Desai in Clear Light of the Day and Mohsin Hamid in Moth Smoke; A Comparative Study of Indian and Pakistani Women” explores how structure of Woman proves them as an Incarnation of Shakti. Haribhai Vala, a college teacher in the subject of Gujarati discusses Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal iii
  5. 5. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 the significance of folksongs (Lokgeet) in folklore (Loksahitya) in Gujarati Literature. He provides many melodious folksongs which are at the tip of every Gujarati tongue even today. Dilber Mehta’s “A Survey and Study of the Non-Use of Technology in ELT through Factor Analysis Method” not only excruciatingly analyzes the factors responsible for the non-use of technology in ELT in the South Gujarat region through Factor-Analysis method but also suggests useful tips with the help of which these drawbacks can be overcome. Dr. Anjali Jain from Jaipur, India has, in her article titled “ Delivery trends in a district of North India” touched up the issue of negligence of motherhood especially during her pregnancy. Her article urges us to take care of the pregnant woman’s diet and encourage activities that are dear to her and beneficial to the foetus or child growing in her body. “Histological Studies on Ovary of Otolithus Ruber” by Dr. S. K. Teraiya & Mr. S. S. Babaria points at the huge possibility of rearing Ovary of Otolithus Ruber species which be a good source of food for Human population in and outside the state. Mamta Kalia is not only a one of the fiercest Indian equivalent of Sylvia Plath but rather a more vehement and bolder in poetic expression than the latter. Mrs. Reetu Vashishth empathises to some of her boldest expressions by quoting and elucidating in her article “Mamta Kalia: A Strong Individualist Poetess of Modern India”. “Feminism in the Novels of Anita Desai & Shashi Despande” by Dr. Shivali Singh & Reema Srivastava is more than its common looking caption as it Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal iv
  6. 6. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 elaborates on the fragmentation of a family against the backdrop of a fracturing nation in the novels of Shashi Despande and Anita Desai. It records the woman’s plight in contemporary India struggling against the age old slavery, suffering and suppression. Dr. Seema Gida’s article on “Learning the English Language – The Digital Way” is one of the many urgent utterances on switching over to the digitized learning in this fast-rounding-off of a transitional era. Last but not the least, this Fourth Issue of the Spark ends with an article in Gujarati by Dr. Vipul Thakar on “VakyaKatha: Mari Vachana”. It is designed and presented in a new and rarely attempted manner of critical writing. Let us remember this famous say by Thoreau: Nothing goes by luck in composition. It allows of no tricks. The best you can write will be the best you are. Every sentence is the result of a long probation. The author’s character is read from title-page to end. Of this he never corrects the proofs. We hope that these articles and a brainstorming behind them will provide a pure infotainment to our beloved online readers. Your constructive suggestions are welcome. Dr. Dilip Bhatt Member, Advisory Board Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN: 0975-7929) ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal v
  7. 7. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 ToC Aims & Scope Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN – 0975 – 7929) is unique of its kind that provides a forum for the discussion on recent topics and issues in the various disciplines which have an immediate bearing upon thought and practice in human life. Articles drawn from the motley disciplines, well-documented and well-communicated addressing our present curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation in education, the challenges and opportunities around us will find their place in the Journal. It would certainly ‘spark’ interest and passion among the aspirants, researchers, explorers, critics and others desirous of research, invention and contributing something to their respective area and to self, societal and national development. Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal vi
  8. 8. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 ToC Our Patrons Shri J. G. Bhuva Director Shri Shardagram Mangrol (Guj.) India Dr. Hamirsinh Zankat Principal Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram), Guj. Acknowledgements The College Staff & Alumni of Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram), Guj - India Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal vii
  9. 9. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 ToC Advisory Board • Dr. Jaydipsinh Dodiya : Reader, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni.- Rajkot, Gujarat (India) • Dr. Dilip Bhatt : Head, Dept. of English, Shri V.D. Kanakia Arts and Shri M.R.Sanghavi Commerce College, Savarkundla, Guj. • Dr. Dilip Barad : Associate Prof. & Head, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar Uni., Bhavnagar, Gujarat • Dr. Farook Salat : Head, Dept. of English, M.S. Uni., Baroda, Gujarat Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal viii
  10. 10. International Online eJournal ToC • Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 Panel of Experts / Reviewers Prof. Dr. Kamal Mehta : Director – CDC & Head, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni. – Rajkot, Gujarat • Dr. Rajendrasinh Jadeja : Principal & Director, H.M. Patel Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat - India • Dr.Hemixaben Rao : Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan (Guj.) • Prof. Dr. Daxaben Gohil : Head & Prof., Dept. of Commerce, Sau. Uni. - Rajkot, Gujarat • Ms. Latha Krishnamurthy: Director, Bansilal Ramnath Agarwal Charitable Trusts’ Vishwakarma Institute of Languages (VIL) – PUNE, Maharashtra • Dr. Ramesh Mehta : Asso. Prof. & Head, Gujarati Dept., Shri M.N.Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College – Mangrol, Gujarat • Atul Patil : Coordinator & Faculty, English Language Teaching, Institute of Symbiosis (ELTIS) & Symbiosis Institute of Foreign and Indian Languages (SIFIL) – PUNE, Maharashtra Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal ix
  11. 11. International Online eJournal • Dr. Jiwan Bakhshi Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 : Ph.D. (English Literature) Critic, Playwright , Poet, State Punjabi Literature (Drama) Awardee, Govt. P.G. College, Jind, Haryana, India • Dr. H.S. Joshi : Asso. Prof, Dept. of Chemistry, Sau.Uni., Rajkot, Gujarat ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal x
  12. 12. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 ToC Disclaimer Dear Reader/s: The articles in Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN – 0975 – 7929) are edited and published by the permission of the concerned author/s. The editors/publishers do not agree/conform to the views, opinions, theories expressed in the articles in any way. Authors are required to seek relevant approvals for any copyright material they may use in their contributions to Spark eJournal. The eJournal will not be responsible in any way for copyright infringements. Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xi
  13. 13. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 Communication Links ToC spark.ejournal@gmail.com Editors Chief Editor: Dr. Bipin Parmar Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram), Gujarat – India E-mail: br_parmar444@yahoo.co.in Co-Editors: Dr. Firoz Shaikh Lt. Shri N. R. Boricha Edu.Trust Sanchalit Arts & Commerce College, Mendarda, Dist.-Junagadh, Gujarat – India E-mail: firozjunagadh@gmail.com Blog: http//firozmendarda.blogspot.com Sanjay Bhut Mahila Arts & Commerce College, Veraval (Somnath) Dist.-Junagadh, Gujarat – India E-mail: sanjay.bhut@gmail.com Dr. Nayan Tank Gurukul Mahila Arts & Commerce College,Jubilee Porbandar, Dist.-Porbandar, Gujarat – India E-mail: nayandtank@gmail.com Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xii
  14. 14. International Online eJournal ToC Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 Letter to Editors The Editor-in-Chief Spark Int’l Online eJournal (ISSN – 0975 – 7929) 1. I am really impressed that you thought of a multi-lingual, multi-cultural, multimedia journal. It reminds me of the first generation Comapratists like Hugo Metzl. As you know, work considered foundational to the discipline of Comparative Literature includes Transylvanian Hungarian Hugo Meltzl de Lomnitz's scholarship. He was the founding editor of the journal Acta Comparationis Litterarum Universarum (1877) which was a multi-lingual journal. More than one and a quarter centuries later, the e-journal 'Spark' convinces me of the relevance of the comparative cause. This is a happy occasion for all comapratists. 2. I am so glad that you have decided to make it an open journal on the web. It again reassures me of my aspiration as a Comparatist to be part of a world where knowledge is free and cutting edge. My congratulations. 3. I am awed by the editorial effort that has gone into the setting of more than 200 pages, and also the laisoning that must have contributed to the coming together of scholars from all disciplines. It really deserves a big salute. I am also deeply appreciative of the effective use of technology: the pages take no time to open, which contributes to the total reading experience. 4. I must register a couple of my reservations about the journal: the layout of Spark could be modelled on some international journals. It could use better Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xiii
  15. 15. International Online eJournal 5. 6. Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 (read subtler) colour schemes, better page design and better fonts. I suggest that Spark invest a bit more time and effort in pageset up and design. The journal could also do with some broad categories on the contents page which will orient the reader better. For instance, as in a broad-based newsmagazine, the contents page could have broad topics under which the papers can be placed. This will also help in planning the journal without repeating the topics. Again, the regional language section can be separate , so readers can go directly to that page. If you add links to the contents page, the reader could be taken directly to the article that he/she wants to read. You could also start a section for reviews on books, films etc. And rather than messages from eminent people, you could have a couple of pages for Letters to the Editor, to make the journal truly intercultural. So much for now. Looking forward to more issues of Spark All the Very Best Rizio Dr. Rizio Yohannan Raj Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature School of Languages & Comparative Literature Central University of Kerala, Kerala (India) ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xiv
  16. 16. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 Table of Content Article Title Page No. 01 Higher Education and Business Vision -- Dr. (Mrs.) Jayshree Singh 01-34 02 Laser in Dentistry -- Dr. Sharmila J. Verma & Dr. Meera H. Gohil 35-48 03 Creative Thinking of Secondary School Students -- Digumarti Bhaskara Rao & Sarvepalli Sivaram Prasad & Harshitha Digumarthi 49-72 04 The White Tiger: A Journey from ‘Bharat’ to ‘India’ -- Bhupendra Kesur & Gajanan Patil & Anil Patil 73-85 05 The Portrayal of Women as a Shakti- the Power by Anita Desai in Clear Light of the Day and Mohsin Hamid in Moth Smoke; A Comparative Study of Indian and Pakistani Women -- Devang Rangani 86-100 06 ,MS;FlCtIDF o ·,MSULTM→ -- 5|FP ClZEF. V[,P JF/F 101-106 07 A Survey and Study of the Non-Use of Technology in ELT through Factor Analysis Method -- Dilber S. Mehta 107-123 08 Delivery Trends in a District of North India -- Dr. Anjali Jain 124-133 Sr. No. Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xv
  17. 17. International Online eJournal Vol.-II, Issue-4 August 2010 Table of Content Contd… Sr. No. Article Title Page No. 09 Histological Studies on Ovary of Otolithus Ruber -- Dr. S. K. Teraiya & Mr. S. S. Babaria 134-141 10 Mamta Kalia: A Strong Individualist Poetess of Modern India -- Mrs. Reetu Vashishth 142-157 11 Feminism in the Novels of Anita Desai & Shashi Despande -- Dr. Shivali Singh & Reema Srivastava 158-168 12 Learning the English Language – The Digital Way -- Dr. Seema.R.Gida 169-175 13 JFSISYFo DFZL JFRGF -- 0F[P lJ5], 9FSZ 176-183 ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xvi
  18. 18. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Article 01 : Higher Education and Business Vision ToC Dr. (Mrs.) Jayshree Singh Lecturer in English B.N.P.G. Girls’ College, Udaipur (Raj.) India Dr. (Mrs.) Jayshree Singh Abstract: Academicians cum teachers have to ensure the importance of knowledge and understanding of the practice of quality assurance in higher education, in order to be competitive and competent global and local human resource. The components of value addition in higher education demands the code of conduct i.e. professional ethics to produce better output and efficient products for the effective and prospective development of the country. Annual performance appraisal needs constant improvement in terms of scoring 10 to 360 range/degrees to have mental, administrative, physical, social and intellectual perspectives, this is possible through evaluation from self, from peers, heads of the institutions/departments, students and others. It encourages accountability by fulfilling the regard to the number of teaching days, workload and professional (in place of personal) outlook towards oneself and for others. Teaching strategies and measures should be student Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 1
  19. 19. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 centered and student oriented without any gender-biasedness or discrimination. Social perception of the gender of the teacher must in no way be interference in imparting, in implementing or in inculcating values for higher education. This has to be followed in maintaining discipline, setting up example of personal traits, in the awarding of grades in evaluation process, in the formation of class size, in determining the age-factor for any particular gender, in formulating the course of studies and last but the least the manner of dressing/gestures is to be equally valued by the teacher/by the academicians to deliver instructions in class. There is urgent need to revise the syllabus and curriculum in order to make it relevant to the requirement of not only employees in colleges but also for the students and management of the institutions, because if it is not according to the changing trends of local and global governance, it will lead youths confused and teaching will be then underrated. Therefore an academician cum teacher has to become a researcher to update his practical knowledge and to make productive research, and then only he/she can be a recognized innovator and a demanding counsellor. For establishing global connectivity and sustainable development it is necessary to receive knowledge in technological economic power, to harmonize between inheriting tradition of higher values and the modern developments so that there may be the availability of rapid access to education and to meet instinct of competitive urge of excellence in the world. Sam Pitroda, the chairman, National Knowledge Commission says that in order to compete in the Global economy , Indian agenda of education needs “to be on the Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 2
  20. 20. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 cutting edge of innovation and discovery, an excellent system of higher education is critical. Reforms in higher education in India should address the three concerns of Expansion, Excellence and Inclusion.”1 Expansion Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 3
  21. 21. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Inclusion Objectives of this paper 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. To reorient enhance learning To pursue the national programmes related to the higher education in India To prevent national disaster of large scale unemployment and the abuse of knowledge. To re-educate the education system into becoming more relevant to employment. To work for national development To breed commitment, responsibility To locate new initiatives for jobs and careers To lay out fundamental laws for academician cum teachers. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 4
  22. 22. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Mismanagement v/s management in the higher education system of India The former Finance Minister, Dr. Manmohan Singh, (At present re-elected as Prime Minister of India) said in a speech in New Delhi on 24 April 1998: “I sincerely believe that money can be found if representatives of the public, that is, Members of Parliament and Members of State Legislature give sufficient importance to this quest for universalizing access to our education”.2 This statement poses challenge to the demography, democracy and development in the higher education that has been done so far in India. The following graphs given below illustrate the pathetic state of “government apathy, public cynicism, and corporate greed. Some individuals and institutions have let nothing come in the way of cutting edge solutions”.3 Below the statics illustrate the poor development that has taken place in education sector till date. {Figure is given on the next page} Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 5
  23. 23. International Online eJournal Figure 1. Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Vital Stats This is not enough to identify the developments in the education system of India. There are socially disadvantaged groups like economically poor, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes whose children exists at the periphery of the schooling system; there were socio-economic compulsions in families that forced parents not to send children to schools and colleges and that the relevant nature of curricula and lack of essential facilities are responsible for the slow progress. The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) targeted the elimination of gender discrimination in admissions, removal of gender bias and stereotypes in curricula, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 6
  24. 24. Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 International Online eJournal text books, promotion of gender sensitization of teachers on regular basis apart from strengthening other facilities and incentives mentioned in earlier plans. The graph below indicates the contrast data as regards gross enrolment ratio in education in India v/s USA. Figure 2. Enrolment how we compare Nigeria Pakistan India 11% Indoesia Egypt Series1 China Brazil France UK USA 83% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% On the analysis of the education agenda in India Prof. Yash Pal, Ex. Chairman, UGC, speaks, “Our University system has lost its primacy and is now beset by crass commercialization. Its autonomy has been eroded and undergraduate education is undermined.”4 The secret and corrupt privatization of corporate colleges has made technical education expensive to the poor students. They generally seek admission Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 7
  25. 25. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 in such colleges on the basis of donations in comparison to the government technical and management colleges due to their inability to score better in state and national level competitive exams organized for such courses. In government institutions and colleges the fee is very much affordable, but it is generally occupied by the talented students who are mostly from well-off background. The students from well-off background avail better facilities of being coached for such competitions. It is irony that poor seeks private institution, that is beyond his pocket to pay the fee while the economically affluent students study in government institutions. The graph shows the enrolment ratio of students in the private against the public share institutions: Figure 3. Surreptitious Privatization (in %) 120% 100% 100% 80% 80% 60% 60% 40% 40% 20% 20% 0% Bi-annual Ph yi so th er ap y M ed ic in e M B A M C A Te ac he rE du ca tio n Ar ch ite ct ur e M an ag em en t H ot el Ph ar m ac y En gi ne er in g 0% Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 8
  26. 26. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 One of the experts comment that “the government must give direction and set up a system to deal with dubious institutions that are fleecing students and parents of their money by offering bogus courses”5 It has been found that many of the private institutions established without the control of appropriate regulatory system have become second-rate institutes that turn out second-rate students. Moreover there is lack of equity, quality and excellence at all levels of education system of India. Another area of concern for educationists is that there is a significant shift in the employment patterns. “Usually the better students never really look at contact centers or food outlets as career options.”6 The graph below indicates their choice of subjects until now: Figure 4. What they are studying Agriculture 1% Medicine Engineering 3% 7% Medicine Commerce 17% Arts 42% Engineering Commerce Science Law Education Others Others 1% Education 9% Bi-annual Science 19% Arts Agriculture Law 1% Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 9
  27. 27. International Online eJournal Figure 5. Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Where the openings are In India where the unemployment is rampant, any job is welcome. But the question is, do we have sufficient skilled labourers, workers and technicians, job-hunters to compete the global market economy as well as the demands of the population explosion. And moreover are we prepared to switch over our youth to unlimitedly available opportunities of jobs in offbeat careers? Do these unconventional courses fulfill Indian notion of lifetime employment? These jobs prepare the youth for business environment and the new technology indeed but these are different careers and they do not give designations. While in the conventional jobs one gets promotion and job security if one performs well in Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 10
  28. 28. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 the industry. It is a debatable issue among the educationists, parents, students and teachers then what sort of curricula is to be designed? What pattern is now to be set up for the continuity of conventional courses? How to be ready for the future discontinuous shifts of offbeat courses and jobs? The curricula of both courses help in nation building as well as prepare for employment and take up new challenges in entrepreneurial opportunities. To keep this in view there is growth of institutions as per enrolment ratio. There is another serious crisis of the fact that Indian academicians cum teachers along with government are not ready for this sudden acceptance of the reforms, changes, investments as well for better regulatory bodies and research facilities. The four graphs below are presenting the state of education sector for which there is lack of initiative due to red-tapeism in bureaucracy. {to be contd…} Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 11
  29. 29. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Figure 6. Declining Public Expenditure per Student 10000 9097 9000 8963 8000 7501 7276 7000 7370 7117 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 Figure 7. Number of colleges need to meet demand   30000 E nrlom ent (000) 25000 20000 15000 10000 28000 17625 5000 0 2005 Year Bi-annual 2012 Year Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 12
  30. 30. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Figure 8. Expected Growth of Students   35000 30000 29723 25000 20000 15000 10480 10000 5000 0 2005 Year Figure 9. 2012 Year Investment needed (Rs. Cr.)* Total Exp. Total trend based State Exp. 2007-08 28108 13707 2008-09 36418 14588 2009-10 46175 15526 2010-11 54211 16525 2011-12 61497 17588 2,26,410 77,933 What is needed Bi-annual What Govt. is giving Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 13
  31. 31. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 These above drawn graphs present the grim picture of the facilities available at higher education level; the most important of all is that there is urgent need that the academician and the educationists need to be focused and has to have the reorientation in the enhanced learning and in the interpersonal skills. It is also necessary to promote teachers just like students of the education industry to pay attention to their career development and professional traits so that they may be updated not only with the new job opportunities themselves in theory but also they may be trained in the new unconventional spheres of education otherwise it is apt to quote that “outdated syllabi and out-of-sync teachers; can nothing be more lethal than that for university?”7 Only trained skilled teachers can envision and supervise better courses for the students. Practices for development and production in HEIs Higher education determines human development Index of the country as well as it decides the pace of country’s emergence as the global power. It develops fairness and impartiality in the working system; it adds value in the instruction, management and empowerment of human resource. Some of the measures can be followed for professional development besides self-career development: • Services of the senior students for the data collections and for preparing questionnaires and for collecting survey reports can be utilized. Seminar and workshops assistance, report writing on remuneration basis can be made voluntary for the regular students. Study support system for extending placements, career counseling services can be sought from alumni. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 14
  32. 32. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 • Action research on behalf of teachers to update their own teaching strategies, behavior and developments can be followed to get feedback for their own professional development. • Upgradation of the teachers of colleges and universities should be based on their accountability, self-development of their learning ability, and their self-assessment of his/her professional goals that annually improve their institution, the community and the instructional purpose. Evaluation of the teachers at every level for their aptitude and intelligence quotient may help to teach better graduate and post-graduate classes. • The admission of the student should be evaluated at intermediate level, then at graduate level and lastly at post-graduate level and according to that he/she may pursue vocational training or technical training or higher academic courses. • The Bureaucratic Maze has to be made simple, clear and strong as regards funding and recognition of institutions and degrees. UGC, NAAC, AICTE, MCI, COA, NCTE. BCI and PCI – all these need to ensure autonomy to higher education colleges so that they can decide policy on faculty and admissions of students. • Ministries need to come up with their strategy for higher education to meet the challenges of knowledge sector led growth whether it is Textiles, Mines, Fine Arts, International Business Relations, Women and Deprived section study areas or Human Rights or Defence. Research and Study is necessary in each sector and can induce multi-national to set up their R&D facilities in Indian, recruiting appropriately skilled manpower. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 15
  33. 33. International Online eJournal • Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 There has to be industry-university collaborations in the fields such as engineering, management and computer sciences, so that there can be corporate funds to train the students as well as new recruited teachers. This will help to restructure the curriculum with the changing needs of the industry. {to be contd…} Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 16
  34. 34. International Online eJournal • Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 It has to understood that the company not only requires front-end executives, but for every 18-20 front end jobs, there is first one back-end job. Retailing offers employment to all kinds of person. All one need is to be trained in softer skills instead of just being graduates. Besides software and hardware knowledge in IT sector, there are multimedia, animation and networking which are creating entrepreneurial opportunities. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 17
  35. 35. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 • The management of nationalized banks, cooperative banks and private banks should introduce institutions-specific education loan scheme for undertaking both graduate and post-graduate courses without an aura of uncertainty, avoidable delays and harassments. They should advertise their schemes through media. • CEC (Consortium for Educational Commission and INFLIBNET (Information Library Network) - both organizations have digital facilities and they help scholars and academicians to make intensive use of internet, Web and other communication technology to disseminate multimediabased learning resources and textual based information retrieval services through its union based and by facilitating access to full-text and bibliographic e-resources through consortium arrangements. So both can Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 18
  36. 36. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 be accessed to have relevance and excellence in the research product comparable to international standards. Open Access Archives and Open Access Institutional Repositories update a document with data in a scientific way with subject wise classified , well-built, indexes, the bibliographical control of the research done and the facilities for disseminating the results of research in order to avoid duplication, repetition and even plagiarism. • Special Education Zones to impart vocational education for sustainable development may be set up according to local and global market economical standards. The Role of Stakeholders The Management- The emergence of multilayer institutions in the country has made the duties of management more strenuous towards the governance, ownership, and degree granting powers. The management has to be get ready annually to have the institution scrutinized by the board of district Universities and by education directorate. The inspection need to be scheduled before the institution finishes off with its final examinations. The management that procures sponsorship of foreign universities should be offered tax concessions and fiscal incentives so that liberal funding for higher education may be arranged. The management of the institution should be penalized for the bad practices that it follows for not paying salaries according to the government rules to the teachers, who are also called as academicians, because this greatly affects the personal traits and professional development. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 19
  37. 37. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 The academicians – They have to face internal quality assessment cell as regards their teaching practices amongst students, and their IPR with their administration and with their staff. They also have to be well concerned for their personal development in softer skills, for their academic development especially for their research activities or any further studies undertaken by them. Their professional development is an appraisal of their accountability in performing co-curricular and extra-curricular activities and last but the least the teachers have to initiate innovation, or they have to organize seminar, conferences that helps them to discover their leadership qualities. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 20
  38. 38. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 The Students – They need to build desired level of competitiveness across different institutions. They have to practice ethics not on the basis of political ideologies based on history of the country but rather reading the traditional scriptures with a pious feeling. The students need to be well-versed with the contemporary development programmes and manufacturing skills. For this compulsorily the counseling services should be made available at school, college and university level. If they deserve scholarships they must be aware of it through their college counseling services or by surfing the internet. The students should volunteer themselves in every activity of the college and they should utilize their spare time in profitable ways such as participating in the hostel administration, mess management, canteen management, library administration, public department, health clinics, admission office, media and protocol etc. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 21
  39. 39. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Organizations intent on being at the top of their industries do so, in part, by “creating the markets of tomorrow.”8 They suggest that premier organizations engage in variants of the same six strategies: • Establish a competitive advantage. • Find the future. • Mobilize for the future. • Get to the future first. • Build gateways to the future. • Secure the future There are two ways to think about global education. One way is how historical and current trends in the global economy affect education. For instance, European colonialists spread models of schooling around the world. In reaction, countries such as Japan imported Western schooling, technology, and science. India too remained colonial as regards to the education. Human resource planning for the global economy in testing and curriculum designed to meet the needs of the local labor market. The second way to think about global education is according to future plans. From this viewpoint, the basic question is: What type of educational system will meet the needs of the present and future global economy? Education is supposed to solve the problems of environmental destruction, unemployment, increasing inequality in wealth, and the social and personal disruption caused by constant technological change. The proposed solutions are to: (a) create Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 22
  40. 40. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 measurable accreditation standards such as the European Union's Personal Skills Card, (b) teach people the value of technological developments, (c) prepare students for a lifetime of constant instruction in new skills, and (d) create unity in a multicultural workforce. With the spread of the educational doctrines of human capital, along with free markets and trade, the government intervention has become important to protect economic growth and free markets. Eventually this issue has led government officials to ask, what can our schools do to spark economic growth? Even the economists and accountants, they are called in when education is linked to economic growth to measure the outcomes of investment in education and to measure internal and external efficiency. They ask questions such as, how do we force students to make wise market choices? In trying to measure education, economists and accountants influence policymakers. This influence results in school policies that generate data that can be used by accounting methods. As a result, educational decisions are now guided by national standards and testing, accreditation, efficiency, and labor market needs. As human capital ideas reign supreme, there is concern for the social justice and personal enlightenment on one hand while on the other hand there is human capitalists concern about returns on social investment. The human capitalist economist gives a totalitarian edge to the human resource model. The human resource model practiced in Japan, Singapore, and other Western and Asian countries simply attempts to spur economic growth by matching school programs with labor market needs. The human resource model makes education and the curriculum an instrument of economic growth. According to free market theory, it is important that business receives accurate information so it can make Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 23
  41. 41. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 wise market decisions. Therefore, the economic value of humans must be measurable. To accomplish this measurement, learning outcomes must be accounted for in relationship to their economic value. One method is the European Union's Personal Skills Card. The result is the control of individual actions and choices in the labor market by government or private skill accreditation centers. India has to pace with the growing demand of global economy at one front and at other front She needs to develop such prospects and perspectives that may foresee and capture the global economy for its own cause and progress. To achieve vision of sustainability, stability and strength in the next decade, India has to get into deep-rooted cause and effects of the advancement of business education in the global economy. REASONS FOR THE BUSINESS EDUCATION The extraordinary advances in the application of science to modern life which have made possible the remarkable economic progress and vast improvement in human well-being during the present century have created a multitude of economic and social problems for the solution of which our business leaders must assume primary responsibility. Hence the task to which the collegiate schools of business have addressed themselves that of training young men for the heavy responsibilities of the business leadership of the future, constitutes an educational problem of paramount importance. 9 Business itself is pulled in two directions. It feels increasingly the need for educated men who have the breadth, perspective, and flexibility of mind to cope with a business environment that grows in complexity and changes Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 24
  42. 42. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 with bewildering rapidity. Yet it also feels the pressure for more and better trained specialists who can master the technical problems that have been spawned by the technological and organizational revolution of the twentieth century. Thus business looks to the colleges to give it generalists and specialists, if possible embodied in the same person. THE PROBLEM OF BUSINESS EDUCATION The problem of business education is one of both quantity and, much more important, of quality. Many deans and presidents concern themselves chiefly with the quantitative issues, which are serious enough. What is the best kind of education for business? One of them is the low level and narrow vocational character of much collegiate business education. Nearly as well documented is the failure of most business schools to develop in their students the qualities of mind and character and the kinds of professional-type skills for which business and society have the greatest need. What is the best kind of education for business? One of them is the low level and narrow vocational character of much collegiate business education. Nearly as well documented is the failure of most business schools to develop in their students the qualities of mind and character and the kinds of professional-type skills for which business and society have the greatest need. There are not too many businessmen, but there are too few well educated ones. While we have no doubt that the students in the worst of the business schools are to a considerable extent wasting their money and their time, we have not tried to appraise every school and department. In varying degrees, today's business schools are not providing the kind of education tomorrow's businessmen will need, and the record with respect to research is even less satisfactory. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 25
  43. 43. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 NEW DIMENSIONS IN BUSINESS What is entrepreneurship? Traditionally, it meant combining land, labor, and capital into new productive activities. This definition is too limited for today. Modern entrepreneurship is anticipating the future requirements of society, and successfully meeting these needs with new, creative, and imaginative combinations of resources. The classical resources of land, labor, and capital are relatively less important today. The critical resources are information, superior organization, talented and professionally trained people, and lastly, time itself. Organizations, as well as individuals with the entrepreneurial skills to foresee the future needs of society and to develop new and better ways of fulfilling the needs, must be developed. large organizations must increasingly provide the entrepreneurial stimulus. But it also means that systematic knowledge of the expected characteristics of future systems must be provided by those companies who intend to be successful in the high-technology areas of the future. DIRECTIONS IN PROFESSIONAL BUSINESS EDUCATION EVENTS AND IDEAS In discussing the inevitable gap between generations "The movement of events is almost always a great deal faster than the movement of our own minds."10 He observed, further, that "as men grow older and take charge of affairs, they must battle a persistent human tendency to see the world through Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 26
  44. 44. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 spectacles that fitted them twenty or thirty years earlier."11 Few would question the truth of these comments, particularly when applied to social, economic, and political events. My purpose is to apply them to some fundamental issues of higher education for business. Among the goals of the business schools, highest priorities must be accorded to the preparation of individuals, for productive involvement in business activities today and tomorrow. The spectacles fitted to the young by an older generation of teachers must, accordingly, be designed with the utmost concern for useful service extending a period of years into the future. Transmission of accumulated knowledge is not enough. The classrooms of the business schools should provide, continually, an experimental setting for testing traditional concepts against the movement of events so as to determine inadequacies and to make revisions. In these experiments, a premium is placed on empirical methods of research and on the study of business institutions and practices. Events take place in institutional settings, and if they are to stimulate accretions to organized knowledge, they should be studied on native grounds. Business schools are aware of, and constantly resist, man's tendency to see current events in former settings and to approach current problems with obsolete methods. During the past fifteen years, they have made vast revisions in courses of study, and they now stress techniques of analysis and the understanding of relevant disciplines. Descriptive studies of fragmented business practices no longer occupy central positions in curricula. ACTIVITIES OF BUSINESS AND CURRICULA Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 27
  45. 45. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Although no attempt is made here to classify the various approaches of business schools to academic work, there appears to be appreciation for grouping areas of business study in accord with three sets or classes of activity common to business units: (1) those involving the organization of real productive resources; (2) those involving the financial aspects of planning, control and management, and (3) those concerned with administration and environment. LINKING OF E – BUSINESS WITH BUSINESS EDUCATION Access to on-line information resources and the use of electronic transactions increasingly augment the operation of modern colleges and universities. These resources and functions are important both internally and in collaboration with external partners. The electronic information environment is that set of electronic information services, on-line resources, communications services, applications software, and workstations that enable us to teach and learn and work more effectively and without the constraints of time or place. Within this environment, we need directories and other finding aids, credentials that can establish identity and roles for both consumer and supplier, and a myriad of other supporting services. According to some, the adoption of such applications in higher education will become pervasive as students and prospective students look to these applications for convenience and institutions seek to expand markets, lower Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 28
  46. 46. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 costs, and provide improved customer service. Among the drivers for higher education institutions to develop an e-business strategy are these: • The rising popularity of the Internet • Increasingly demanding customers and unrelenting expectations for expedited services • Continuing cost constraints • Opportunities for new revenues EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT As the global economy expands, emerging nations are finding that focusing on universal primary education is not sufficient. They are increasingly coming to see the value of investing in early care and education as well. The National Policy on Education in India, adopted in 1992, establishes priorities for a holistic approach to early childhood development. A national standing committee for early childhood education seeks to improve coordination between the Department of Elementary Education and Literacy and the Ministry of Human Resources. There is no national early childhood curriculum, but all ICDS program staff members are trained in early stimulation, psychosocial development, physical growth, cognitive development, language development, and play. The ICDS has also created an innovative fourstate pilot program to provide "continuous links" between preschools, known as anganwadis, and primary schools EDUCATION FOR ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT- CHANGE, CONTRAST, INTERDEPENDENCE Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 29
  47. 47. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Technology and its products have revolutionized our environment -- our travel, our communication, our economy. We are in the process of a social, economic, and political reformation in which only the fittest of enterprises will survive. In this setting, the task of education for enterprise management will be to provide the climate in which men of rare imagination are nurtured and their full abilities are brought to bear creatively within the framework: of their organization and within the larger environment in which it operates. The need will be for men who have entrepreneurial spirit and energy; who are innovative; who have the capacity for translating ideas and discoveries into action; who are both receptive to change and initiators of change; who have a high tolerance for ambiguity and uncertainty; who have the will to risk. Our rapidly changing environment has encouraged a wide diversity of expectation and achievement. Technology is seen at once as our blessing and our bane, the wellspring of our aspirations and the threat to our well-being. It appears both as social benefactor and social calamity. It offers us nuclear power and holds the specter of thermonuclear destruction. It means both personal transportation and urban pollution, computation efficiency which multiplies our creative power and threatens our privacy; mass communication and mass propaganda; and an affluent but alienated youth. Technology offers the potential of the good life, but seems unable to relieve the poverty around us. There are rich nations and poor nations, and the gulf steadily widens. Clearly science, which forms the foundation for our technology, plays a critical role. But scientific knowledge alone is not enough. The effective approach lies in a partnership of technology and management -- both industrial and social -- Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 30
  48. 48. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 which will be intensely responsive to human need, and will so order the distribution of technology's products and our national priorities as to resolve the paradox. The holistic view of man's knowledge and problems has given rise to relationship and interdependence that determine the size and scope of our endeavor as well as our potential for progress. To a large degree, the challenge for business education in a systems world is to create a wide awareness on the part of those who should understand modern culture, and, beyond that, to provide a logical approach to the manager for the solution of existing problems and for the charting of new courses for the future. In sum, society in every country of the world is undergoing rapid transformation, and the business enterprise is at the center of this transformation. It is changing internally in products and processes, in organizational form, and in the employment of information technology to speed and refine its decisions. It is growing larger through merger and acquisition and expanding markets. Externally the firm is forced to be more responsive -- to government, to society, to its customers, as well as to its employees and their unions. These changes represent both challenges and opportunities for the Indian business enterprise in the next decade. Conclusion The stakeholders of the country have to check the gross enrolment ratio without any discrimination in the education system imparted at Community Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 31
  49. 49. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 college, university, technical or vocational colleges’ level and they have to invoke tremendous response from women and girls towards research activities. Voluntary agencies, factories, cooperatives etc. should be promoted to initiate partnerships, so that technology and its applications may help the rural people, migrant labourers, and hilly area –desert area inhabitants, nomadic tribes and urban poor. Social distances and discriminations in terms of caste, gender, and sex must be prevented. Works cited: 1 Pitroda Sam, “What India Needs- Agenda for the New Government”, India Today, May 11, 2009, p.32. 2 Bamzai Kavere, “From Preaching to Practice”, The Game Changer Essay, India Today, July 27, 2009, p.42. 3 The Probe Team, 1999:135 4 Pal Yash, “Higher Education-How to clean the Mess”, India Today, July 13, 2009, p. 22. 5 Dixit C. Vinod, “The Game Changers” India Today, July 27, 2009, p.11. 6 Patel Tulsi, “Opportunities Unlimited” Business World, Feb. 11, 2002, p. 26. 7 Jadhav Narendra, India Today, July 13, 2009, p. 25. 8 Mimi Wolverton, Larry Edward .Eds .Elite MBA Programs at Public Universities: How a Dozen Innovative Schools Are Redefining Business Education. Praeger: Westport, CT. 2004. Page Number: 215. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 32
  50. 50. International Online eJournal 10. 11. 12. Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Robert Aaron Gordon, James Edwin. Higher Education for Business: Columbia University Press: New York. 1959. Page Number: 3. Walter Lippmann . Harper, October, 1967 Walter Lippmann. Suggested Readings 1 Development of Education in India 1993-94, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development: New Delhi. 2 Public Report on Basic Education in India (1999), The Probe Team. Oxford University Press. 3 Human Rights and Human Development, India (2000), Centre For Women’s Development Studies: New Delhi. 4 University News. A Weekly Journal of Higher Education, Association of Indian Universities: New Delhi. 5 NAAC News, A Quarterly Journal of the National Assessment and Accreditation Council: Bangalore, India. 6 CEC Television News, A Monthly Newsletter on 24 Hour Higher Education Channel: New Delhi. Note on the Author (Dr.) Mrs. Jayshree Singh, born and brought up in Jaipur, Rajasthan, INDIA. Did schooling from St. Angela Sophia Hr. Sec. School, Jaipur. Cleared National Cadet Core, “C” Certificate. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 33
  51. 51. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 At present working on the post of Lecturer since July 2002 (although had an appointment in September 2001) in the English Dept. of Bhupal Nobles Post-Graduate Girls, College, affiliated to Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur. Before college, did service at two stations – Deoli and Udaipur for Kendriya Vidalaya Sangathan, New Delhi, as a permanent employee from August 1993 to May 2002. Completed Ph.D. in American Drama from Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur—October 2007 and M.Phil. (English Language Teaching) University if Rajasthan, Jaipur- March 1993. Granted the permission by the Post Graduate Research Studies Center of Mohanlal Sukhadia University, Udaipur to supervise and guide Master’s/Ph.D Candidates on 5TH AUGUST 2008. Post.Grad. Diploma Course in Human Rights, New Delhi, 2007. Contributed lot of Research Articles on interdisciplinary Subjects at local, regional, national and international level both within the country and outside the country India. Almost 24 papers are fully accepted for publication in reputed journals and books. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 34
  52. 52. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Article 02 : Laser in Dentistry ToC Dr. Meera H. Gohil P.G.Student Dept. Of Periodontics K.M.Shah Dental College & Hospital Vadodara, Gujarat Dr. Sharmila J. Verma Professor & HOD Dept. of Periodontics K.M.Shah Dental college & Hospital Vadodara, Gujarat The concept of lasers dates back to 1917 with Einstein’s theory of stimulated emission, but it was not until 1960 that the first working laser was created by Theodore Maiman1. Lasers are currently used in a wide range of medical and cosmetic procedures including cataract surgery2 and hair removal3. However, they have only recently received attention in clinical dental settings. Lasers are being recognized for their ability to ablate hard tissues with minimal anesthesia4, reduce bacteria counts in root canals5 and even provide hemostasis of soft tissues during their use6. The word “laser” is an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” Lasers are categorized according to the medium used to provide atoms to the emitting system. Each Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 35
  53. 53. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 type of atom can absorb photons of only certain wavelengths; therefore, each medium will produce a laser beam with a specific range of wavelengths7. Light of different wavelengths will interact differently with tissue and has different adsorption qualities. Lasers used in dentistry emit wavelengths between 377 nm and 10.6 μm. The most common types are carbon dioxide (CO2), diode, neodymium: yttrium–aluminium–garnet (Nd: YAG) and erbium: yttrium– aluminium– garnet (Er: YAG) lasers. They are used for cavity preparation, tooth whitening, gingival incisions and other applications. HISTORY OF LASER Historically, dental extractions have been used to treat a variety of illnesses. During the Middle Ages and through the 19th century, dentistry was not a profession into itself, and often dental procedures were performed by barbers or general physicians. Barbers usually limited their practice to extracting teeth, which not only resulted in the alleviation of pain, but often cured a variety of ailments linked with chronic tooth infection. In the 14th century, Guy de Chauliac invented the dental pelican which was used through the late 18th century. The pelican was replaced by the dental key which, in turn, was replaced by modern forceps in the 20th century. HOW DOES A LASER WORK A laser excites atoms, so that they give out energy as light in a Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 36
  54. 54. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 special way. The rod is set inside a cylinder with a mirror at either end. A flash tube is coiled around the cylinder. When this fires a flash of light the ruby atoms become excited and produce tiny bursts of light called photons. These photons strike the atoms, exciting them to produce more and more photons until the tube is filled with them bouncing back and forth from mirror to mirror. LASER WAVELENGTHS USED IN CLINICAL DENTISTRY: LASER APPLICATIONS There are many scientific, military, medical and commercial laser applications which have been developed since the invention of the laser in the Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 37
  55. 55. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 1958. There is use of lasers in medical and dental field also from past many years and has been a successful mode of treatment in this field. DENTAL PROCEDURES HARD TISSUE PROCEDURES • • • • • • Class I, II, III, IV and V cavity preparation Caries removal and caries detection Hard tissue surface roughening or etching Enameloplasty, excavation of pits and fissures for placement of sealants Whitening of tooth- teeth bleaching Root Canal/Endodontic Procedures SOFT TISSUE PROCEDURES INCLUDING PULPAL TISSUES • • • • • • • • • • Soft tissue crown lengthening Frenectomy and Frenectomy Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty Implant recovery Fibroma removal Incision and drainage of abscesses Leukoplakia Reduction of gingival hypertrophy Treatment of canker sores, herpetic and aphthous ulcers of the oral Mucosa Vestibuloplasty Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 38
  56. 56. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 LASER PERIODONTAL PROCEDURES • Flap surgery • Laser soft tissue curettage • Laser removal of diseased, infected, inflamed and necrosed soft tissue within the periodontal pocket • Removal of highly inflamed edematous tissue affected by bacteria penetration of the pocket lining and junctional epithelium • Removal of granulation tissue from bony defects • Osteoplasty and osseous recontouring (removal of bone to correct osseous defects and create physiologic osseous contours) • Ostectomy (resection of bone to restore bony architecture, resection of bone for grafting, etc.) • Osseous crown lengthening LASERS IN PERIODONTAL THERAPY The Carbon dioxide (CO2) and the Neodymium doped: Yttrium-AluminumGarnet (Nd:YAG) lasers were previously approved for soft tissue treatment in periodontics8,9,10, because of their superior ability of soft tissue ablation, accompanied by strong haemostatic and bactericidal effects11,12,13 . However, when these lasers are applied to dental hard tissues the result is major thermal damage, especially at a high-energy output, rendering them unsuitable for hard tissue treatment 14, 15. Recently, the Erbium-doped: Yttrium-Aluminum- Garnet (Er: YAG) laser was developed in dentistry 16, 17. As it is capable of ablation in both soft and hard tissues, the Er: YAG laser can be used for periodontal hard Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 39
  57. 57. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 tissue treatment such as root surface debridement, as well as soft tissue management18. The use of lasers within the periodontal pocket has become a topic of much interest and is a promising field in periodontal therapy. CLINICAL CASE: HARD TISSUE PROCEDURES CARIES REMOVAL: Lasers are used to remove caries within a tooth and prepare the surrounding enamel for receipt of the filling. There is no vibration, or numbness and you'll be comfortable the entire treatment. Carious tooth Cavity Preparation With Er:YAG laser Composite Restoration ROOT CANAL THERAPY: Root canal treatment is the removal of the infected soft tissue within the tooth and its replacement by an artificial inert ‘filling’ material. This procedure basically saves the tooth and eliminates dental pain. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 40
  58. 58. International Online eJournal The pre-operative view of the infected tooth. Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Using the YSGG The thinnest tip is used dental laser for to clean infected canal Desensitizing & conditioning TEETH WHITENING: Whitening with better results and patient acceptance is achieved using laser. Stains can be effectively removed. A peroxide bleaching solution, applied to the tooth surface, is "activated" by laser energy, which speeds up of the whitening process. Before treatment Bi-annual After treatment Nd:YAG laser was used with no bleeding and no sutures Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 41
  59. 59. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 SOFT TISSUE LASER SCALING & ROOT PLANING: Treatment to remove plaque and calculus. In pyorrhea: A noninvasive procedure providing better results and is cost effective compared to flap surgery. Pre operative view Post operative view after 1 month of scaling LENGTHENING Dental lasers can reshape gum tissue (soft tissue laser) and bone (hard tissue laser) to expose healthier tooth structure. Referred to as crown lengthening, such reshaping provides a stronger foundation for the placement of restorations. Aesthetic zone to facilitate an ideal gingival architecture Bi-annual Sounding to bone to establish the height of the osseous crest Er,Cr:YSGG laser is used to recontour the soft tissue Re-sound down to the bone to make sure the biologic width has not been violated Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 42
  60. 60. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 FRENECTOMY: Midline spacing in upper and tower anterior may often be due to high frenum attachment which can be relieved painlessly by excising with laser. Operated with Nd:YAG laser Pre-operative Removal of frenum Post-operative TONGUE TIE: Speech difficulties faced by people with tongue tie can be treated by lingual frenectomy using laser and marked improvement or complete elimination of difficulty is achieved at the same moment. An aberrant and heavy frenum pull on the papilla Bi-annual Nd:YAG laser was used Removal of frenum with no bleeding and no sutures Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 43
  61. 61. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 DIPIGMENTATION: Melanin hyper-pigmentation, or "dark gums", is prevalent in certain individuals who have darker complexions. These dark spots can cause an undesirable appearance to otherwise healthy, pink gums. Pre-operative gums Post-operative gums treated with diode laser GINGIVECTOMY & GINGIVAOPLASTY: Gingivectomy is the removal of gum tissue (gingiva) by surgery. Gingivoplasty is a type of gum surgery used to reshape healthy gum tissue around teeth. Both types of surgery are typically performed by Periodontist. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 44
  62. 62. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 OSSEOUS RESECTION Preoperative view Gingival contouring by Nd:YAG laser Osseous resection by laser Retracted view FLAP SURGERY Flap surgery involves lifting back the gums and removing the tartar. The gums are then sutured back in place so that the tissue fits snugly around the tooth again. It is often associated with areas of bone loss and inflammation of the gum tissue around the teeth Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 45
  63. 63. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 MAJOR BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH LASER DENTISTRY • Procedures performed using soft tissue dental lasers may not require sutures (stitches). • Certain laser dentistry procedures do not require anesthesia. • Damage to surrounding tissue is minimized. • Wounds heal faster and tissues can be regenerated. • No need of dental drill tooth and bone preparation by laser. • Treatment of pyorrhea (Bleeding Gums) without surgery by laser. • Painless root canal treatment by laser. • Cosmetic & facial treatment by laser. • Single step procedure for TEETH whitening. • Immediate relief from painful oral ulcers & tooth sensitivity. • Bloodless dental & oral procedure - so less or no swelling , “The laser, an incredible invention of man, will certainly evolve towards new horizons. With both its creative and destructive power, it leaves man his choice for tomorrow”. REFERENCES: 1. Maiman TH. Stimulated optical radiation in ruby. Nature 1960; 187:493–4. 2. Verges C, Llevat E. Laser cataract surgery: technique and clinical results.J Cataract Refract Surg 2003; 29(7):1339–45. 3. Bouzari N, Tabatabai H, Abbasi Z, Firooz A, Dowlati Y. Laser hair removal: comparison of long-pulsed Nd:YAG, long-pulsed alexandrite, and long-pulsed diode lasers. Dermatol Surg 2004; 30(4 Pt 1):498–502. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 46
  64. 64. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 4. Jayawardena JA, Kato J, Moriya K, Takagi Y. Pulpal response to exposure with Er:YAG laser. Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Pathol, Oral Radiol, Endod 2001; 91(2):222–9. 5. Ando Y, Aoki A, Watanabe H, Ishikawa I. Bactericidal effect of erbium YAG laser on periodontopathic bacteria. Lasers Surg Med 1996;19(2):190–200. 6. Sjostrom L, Friskopp J. Laser treatment as an adjunct to debridement of periodontal pockets. Swed Dent J 2002; 26(2):51–7. 7. Miserendino LJ, Neiburger EJ, Pick RM. Current status of lasers in dentistry. Int Dent J 1987; 56(4):254–7 8. Cohen RE, Ammons WF. Lasers in Periodontics (position paper). J Periodontol 1996: 67:826–830.AAP (The American Academy of Periodontology). The Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology, 9. Cohen RE, Ammons WF. Revised by Rossman JA. Lasers in Periodontics (Academy report). J Periodontol 2002: 73:1231–1239. AAP(The American Academy of Periodontology). The Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology. 10. Gottsegen R, Ammons WF. Lasers in Periodontics (position paper). Chicago: AAP, 1991:1–5 AAP (The American Academy of Periodontology). The Research, Science and Therapy Committee of the American Academy of Periodontology. 11. Adrian JC, Gross A. A new method of sterilization: the carbon dioxide laser. J Oral Pathol 1979: 8: 60–61. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 47
  65. 65. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 12. Dederich DN, Pickard MA, Vaughn AS, Tulip J, Zakariasen KL, Folwaczny M, Aggstaller H, Mehl A, Hickel R, Benner KU, Flasskamp B. Comparative bactericidal exposures for selected oral bacteria using carbon dioxide laser radiation. Lasers Surg Med 1990: 10: 591 594 13. Powell GL, Whisenant BK. Comparison of three lasers for dental instrument sterilization. Lasers Surg Med 1991: 11: 69–71 14. Frentzen M, Koort HJ. Lasers in dentistry: new possibilities with advancing laser technology? Int Dent J 1990: 40: 323–332 15. Wigdor HA, Walsh JT Jr, Featherstone JD, Visuri SR, Fried D, Waldvogel JL. Lasers in dentistry. Lasers Surg Med 1995: 16: 103–133. 16. Hibst R, Keller U. Experimental studies of the application of the Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances. I. Measurement of the ablation rate. Lasers Surg Med 1989: 9: 338–344. 17. Kayano T, Ochiai S, Kiyono K, Yamamoto H, Nakajima S, Mochizuki T. Effects of Er:YAG laser irradiation on human extracted teeth [in Japanese, English abstract]. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi 1989: 56: 381–392 18. Ishikawa I, Sasaki KM, Aoki A, Watanabe H. Effects of Er:YAG laser on periodontal therapy. J Int Acad Periodontol 2003: 5: 23–28. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 48
  66. 66. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Article 03 : Creative Thinking of Secondary School Students ToC Digumarti Bhaskara Rao Pricipal Author: Digumarti B. Rao, R.V.R. College of Education, Guntur , A.P., India Co-Author: Sarvepalli Sivaram Prasad, Municipal High School, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India Co-Author: Harshitha Digumarthi, Bank of America, United States of America Abstract Creative thinking is one of the key sources for the development of human civilization. Almost all activities of mankind are one way or the other concerned to creative thinking and out of that creative thinking only the mankind is surviving with all convenience and comfort to the core. Creative thinking is a unique psychic wonder, which is altering the history of man time and again through reshaping man’s imaginary world with all newness. Creative thinking can be developed through strategies like encouragement, developing basics skills, encouraging to take risks, self management, self competition, discovery, exploration, knowledge, performance, motivation, confidence, mastery, etc., which can be taken care of at home and in school. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 49
  67. 67. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 The present study is intended to find out the level of creative thinking of secondary school students. The secondary school students are holding a high level of creative thinking. The gender of the student, the locality of the school, the management of the school and the medium of instruction did show influence on the level of creative thinking of secondary school students. The boys, urban students, private school students and English medium school students are holding higher level of creative thinking that their counter parts, though all of them hold a high level of creative thinking. The secondary school students should enhance their creative thinking capacity through useful strategies and practices. Introduction Creative children are great assets to any prospering society. Development and progress in different areas of national life depends on creative children. Creativity is not restricted to the chosen few. All children are creative and its dimensions vary from child to child. It involves many traits: courage in conviction, independent in judgment, independent in thinking, intuitive in nature, vision for future, curiosity, originality, flexibility, fluency, emotional maturity, boldness, sensibility, tendency towards dominance, self-sufficiency and radicalness. Creativity is manifested through creative thinking, early in life and its development depends upon social conditions and conducive environment of the academic institution. Since the days of Aristotle, it has been a common point to say that Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 50
  68. 68. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 man differs from other animals, in that he is capable of thinking and reasoning. Thinking is of two kinds, viz., convergent thinking and divergent thinking. Convergent thinking leads to one solution to the problem, where as divergent thinking leads to a number of solutions to the problem. Divergent thinking in other words called creative thinking. Coleridge insisted that the creative imagination is the supreme power in man. In the same way, Vein Leighton stated that ‘man is not only an animal but a spiritual being and the greater difference between the two is man’s power of creative imagination’. Creative thinking is the very life blood of human civilization. Human future depends upon creative thinking ability. Therefore creative thinking has become a chief psycho-social motive of the present generation of mankind. Creative thinking is more than a word today: it is an incantation, it is a kind of psychic wonder, and it makes history through reshaping man’s world. Creative thinking requires newness, something unique, something better, some new association or addition to the old form or some new imagination. As Butcher (1972) observes, ‘any society, to avoid stagnation, needs a constant supply of original ideas at all levels, but profoundly original men who are the most fertile source of these ideas are often the very people who most disturb the society by threatening its established ways of thought and familiar structure’. Functioning of the mind and the nature of human genius has been the center of attention of psychologists and educationists for centuries. But it was not until very recently when Guilford propagated his theory of human intellect, that creative aspect of mental ability became the focus of research activity. Guilford’s Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 51
  69. 69. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 theory gave considerable impetus to recent research and theoretical interest in the area of creativity and creative education. The present popularity of the concept can in part, according to Cohen (1976) be accounted for in terms of changing fads and fashions, but a truer explanation of the current concern for creative thinking in schools probably lies elsewhere. The systematic educational research in creative thinking is a relatively new field of endeavour. The problems are as complex, the concepts as uncertain, and the results often as conflicting as the subject. Whether it is about the relation between creativity and intelligence or between creative thinking and creative achievements, about threshold hypotheses, or about the possibility of facilitating creative thinking in the classroom, there seem to be almost as many points of view as there are studies. Inevitably one discovers the inadequacy of methodology of human research and the short comings in the techniques for studying creative thinking. Given importance to creative thinking as an invaluable human resource for the development of any society or nation, it is but natural that many studies have been conducted, especially in the USA, on different aspects of creative thinking. Relationships between creative thinking and gender, age, location, socio-economic status, etc., are few examples of such studies. There is no gainsaying that the relationship between intelligence and creativity is the most controversial and most intriguing and challenging one to the researcher of intelligence and creativity. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 52
  70. 70. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Moreover, where adolescence is concerned, the literature on creativity has little to contribute except for general statements about it. One has to bridge the gap, trying to relate what he knows about adolescence to the statements about creativity. According to Arastesh and Arastesh (1976), creativity research and the development of talent have preceded form both childhood and adulthood with an obvious gap in the adolescent period. The recent concern with increasing scientific personnel has highlighted the need for fostering creative thinking endeavour at the high school level. Torrance (1964) commented that ‘of the different educational levels, the high school years have been the most neglected in creativity research’. What is necessary today is to bring about the optimum development of the whole individual. To realize this aim we will have to teach the child to think creatively about yet to be discovered (Crutchfield, 1967). Creativity is a naturally obtained boon to the man. Every one has creativity inherently in him without discrepancy of education, socio-economic status and heredity. Any one grows in his field that has both interest and creative thinking. Every one has same number of hands, legs, organs, and 24 hours day, but those who improvise their creative thinking in their respective fields will be ahead of others. But, the thing is we have to identify, sharpen and promote it. Curiosity gives colours to creative thinking. Creative thinking gives variety from monotony of life. Hence, the problem selected for the present investigation was “A Study of Creative Thinking of Secondary School Students”. The study was aimed Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 53
  71. 71. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 at analyzing the creative thinking of students of secondary schools in relation to certain variables like gender of the sampling unit, locality of the school, medium of instruction in the school and management of the school. Method of Research The present study was planned to proceed with the following objectives: 1. To assess the level of creative thinking of secondary school students. 2. To study the creative thinking of boys and girls of secondary schools. 3. To study the creative thinking of rural and urban secondary school students. 4. To study the creative thinking of Telugu medium and English medium secondary school students. 5. To study the creative thinking of government and private secondary school students. Based on the above objectives, the following hypotheses were formulated for investigation: 1. The secondary school students are not holding a high level of creative thinking. 2. There no significant difference in the creative thinking of secondary school girls and boys. 3. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of urban and rural secondary school students. 4. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of English medium and Telugu medium secondary school students. 5. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of government and private secondary school students. 6. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of urban secondary school girls and boys. 7. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of rural Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 54
  72. 72. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 secondary school girls and boys. 8. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of urban English medium and Telugu medium secondary school students. 9. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of rural English medium and Telugu medium secondary school students. 10. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of rural Telugu medium secondary school girls and boys. 11. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of rural English medium secondary school girls and boys. 12. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of urban Telugu medium secondary school girls and boys. 13. There is no significant difference in the creative thinking of urban English medium secondary school girls and boys. The variables chosen for the present study were Gender (boys versus girls), Locality (urban versus rural), Medium of Instruction (English medium versus Telugu medium), and Management of the school (government versus private). The sample for the study consists of 200 eighth class students of Nellore district. Equal weightage was given to gender (boys and girls), locality (urban and rural), medium (English and Telugu), and management (government and private). The standardized tool "Non-Verbal Test of Creative Thinking" constructed by Beqer Mehdi was used to measure the creative thinking of secondary school students. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 55
  73. 73. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 The collected data was analyzed by employing statistical techniques like Mean, Standard Deviation and t- test. Conclusions and Discussion The following conclusions were drawn from the present study on "A Study of Creative Thinking of Secondary School Students". The conclusions are analysed here under in order to utilize them for enhancing the creative thinking of secondary school students. 1. The secondary school students are holding a high level of creative thinking. It is very nice to observe that the secondary school students are with a high creative thinking capacity. The secondary school students should enhance their creative thinking to other higher levels by the following strategies of promotion/development of creative thinking as suggested by various eminent psychologists. The students should use their capacities to enhance their academic achievement, which can help them in becoming different kinds of successful professionals. The teachers should also utilize this creative thinking in promoting various skills and abilities of students to help them settle well in academic and vocational worlds. 2. Both boys and girls of secondary schools are with high creative thinking, but there is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of them as boys are holding high creative thinking ability than girls. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 56
  74. 74. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Sharma, M. (1977) found that males were superior in creativity to females. Sharma, K. (1982) found that boys were more creative as compared to girls. Kundu, D. (1984) found that males had higher scores on originality than females. Trimurthry, D. (1987) found that boys were better than the girls in both verbal, nonverbal of C.T.A. Bhogayata, C.K. (1986) found that boys were more creative than girls. Bindal, V.R. (1984) found that there was a significant relationship between verbal and non-verbal creativity for males and females. Sharma, S.C. (1979) found that males were significant by superior to females on figural originality and no significant difference was found in case of composite figural creativity. Asha, C.B. (1980) found a positive significant relationship between creativity and achievement scores of male as well as female students. Awasthy, M. (1979) found that boys scored significantly higher than girls in verbal originality and verbal total creativity. Dharmangadan, B. (1981) found that male students scored significantly higher than females in all measures of verbal and figural creativity. Rawat, M.S. and Garg, M.K. (1977) found that girls scored significantly higher than boys on the test of creativity. Awasthy, M. (1979) found that there was no significant difference among boys and girls in verbal fluency. Chaudary, G.G. (1983) found no significant difference between the mean creativity thinking scores of male and female children of rural and urban areas. Gupta, P.K. (1985) found no significant relationship between verbal and non-verbal creativity for males and females. Phatak (1962), Pogue (1964), Jackson (1968), Simpkins and Eisenman (1968), Burns (1969), Kaltsounis (1971), Philips and Torrance (1971), Kloss (1972), Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 57
  75. 75. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Thamma Pradeep (1976), Dutt, Bountra and Sabhrawal (1977) found no sex differences on creativity. Olshin (1965), Raina (1971), Gakhar (1974), Lal (1977), Rasool (1977), Gupta (1979), Harnek, Kaile and Sekhar (1988) found no relationship between creativity and sex. Singh (1981) observed that sex did not seem to have any significant differential effect. Sharma (1981), Pandey (1980), Thorat (1977), Vohra (1975), Raina (1971) and Singh (1978) found no significant effect between males and females on creativity. The difference in the present study may be due to the facilities accorded to boys, social mores and norms of the society, exposure of boys to various phenomena of the world etc. The girl students should do well in creative thinking by participating in various creative activities and by utilizing different strategies that promote creative thinking. Both the boys and girls should also try to enhance their creative thinking status through various strategies of promoting creative thinking. 3.There is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of urban and rural students, though both of them are possessing a high creative thinking ability. Urban school students are more creative thinkers than rural school students. Singh, G. (1985) found that the mean scores of urban students were higher than those of rural students. Sharma (1972) found that there was a significant difference in the creativity score of urban and rural students. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 58
  76. 76. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Passi (1971) observed that urban students were significantly more creative than rural students. Singh (1979) found that urban residential backgrounds were more conducive for creativity than rural residential backgrounds. Singh (1977), Singh (1978) and Srivastava (1978) also reported the superiority of urban students over rural students in creativity. Dharmangadan (1981) stated that urban students scored significantly higher than rural students on flexibility and originality measures of verbal and figural creativity. According to Agarwal and Gupta (1982), locality plays a significant role in developing creative potential among the students. Sharma (1971, 1972 and 1974) reported that rural students were significantly more creative than urban students. Sehgal (1978) also reported similar results. Singh (1981), Joshi (1982) and Chandrakant (1987) found that there was no significant difference in the creativity of urban and rural students. Jayaswal (1977) reported no significant difference between the teacher trainees from urban and rural areas. The urban school students might have been holding more creative thinking ability than their counter parts due to their expose to conducive educational atmosphere both in school and at home, time devoted for educational exercises, facilities available, quality in teaching and learning activities, etc., as these differ significantly in either of the schools. Urban as well as rural school students move further in the areas of creative thinking so that they do well in all endeavors of their lives. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 59
  77. 77. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 4. There is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of English medium and Telugu medium students, though both of them posses high thinking ability. English medium school students are more creative than Telugu medium school students. Vohra, I.N. (1975) found that English medium students were more fluent than the Gujarati medium students. It is known to the public that the English medium schools, because of their financial position, provide excellent amenities to its clientele, which help in promoting better creative thinking capacities. Besides this, the parents, mostly belonging to elite and or rich families, contribute their best in promoting creative thinking. All these students, irrespective of their socio economic backgrounds at homes and academic atmosphere in the schools should become very high creative thinkers through various ways and means to meet the challenges of the day as well as future. 5. The government and private school students are having high creative thinking ability, but there is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking between them, as the private school students are holding more creative thinking ability than their counter parts. Gupta, A.K. (1978) found that the students of private schools scored significantly higher than the students of government schools in different dimensions of verbal and non-verbal creativity. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 60
  78. 78. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 The private schools are popular for their infrastructural and instructional facilities that cover furnished accommodation, good library, equipped laboratories, committed teachers, advanced instructional strategies, etc., which contribute for better creative thinking when compared to the government schools. The administrators of government should also try to compete with private schools with regard to infrastructural and instructional facilities so that the government school students prosper to the core in the area of creative thinking. Any way, both private and government school students should develop more creative thinking ability than the existing level. 6. Even both urban secondary school boys and girls hold a high creative thinking ability, there is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of urban girls and boys. Urban school boys are with high creative thinking ability than their counter parts. As the urban boys and girls are holding a high level of creative thinking, though with a significant difference between them, they should improve it to the core by following techniques of creative thinking development with a strong support of parents, teachers and society. 7. Though rural school boys are with high creative thinking capacity and rural school girls are just crossed low level creative thinking to high level of creative thinking, there is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of rural girls and boys. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 61
  79. 79. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 Both of the sub-samples, rural boys and girls, should strive better to reach very high level of creative thinking. The parents should provide conducive facilities at home, the teachers should encourage at school and the administrators should create opportunities everywhere for the promotion of creative thinking to rural school boys and girls. 8. Even both urban English medium and Telugu medium secondary school students hold a high level of creative thinking capacity, there is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking between them. English medium students are superior to Telugu medium students in creative thinking. The urban school students, irrespective of their medium of instruction, should reach the highest range of creative thinking by following suitable strategies and by grabbing available opportunities. 9. There is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of rural English medium and Telugu medium school students, as former students are superior in creative thinking than the later. The rural English medium school students are with high creative thinking capacity and the rural Telugu medium school students are with low creative thinking ability. Both the sub-samples should strive hard to achieve a very high level of creative thinking, particularly the rural Telugu medium school students should do more than their counter parts to reach the said goal. The parents, the teachers and the authorities should do their best to achieve the affixed mark. 10. the rural Telugu medium school boys and girls are holding a high level of creative thinking, but there is a significant difference in the level of creative Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 62
  80. 80. International Online eJournal Vol.-2, Issue - 4 August 2010 thinking between them. Boys are holding more creative thinking capacity than their counter parts. The people who are concerned to promote the level of creative thinking in rural Telugu medium secondary school boys and girls should do their best in all walks of life in order to achieve the aim of enhancing the level of creative thinking in rural Telugu medium school students, who mostly come from the traditional vocational families with low economic status. 11. There is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of rural English medium school boys and girls. Boys of these schools are with high creative thinking ability and girls of these schools are holding bow creative thinking capacity. What ever the level of creative thinking of rural English medium school boys and girls may be, the concerned parties should help these students in enhancing their level of creative thinking until they reach the pinnacle. 12. There is a significant difference in the level of creative thinking of urban Telugu medium school boys and girls. Boys are superior with a high level of creative thinking than girls, who are possessive, a low level of creative thinking. When compared to urban English medium school students, the urban Telugu medium school students are with a little bit less level of creative thinking, may be due to the facilities available at school and home are different in both the cases. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 63
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