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  • 1. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ISSN 0975 - 7929 Vol - III, Issue – 6 August 2011 Bi-annual International Online eJournal Multi – disciplinary Multi – lingual Multi - media (A Refereed and Indexed eJournal) “The illiterate are not those who CAN’T read and write, but those who DON’T read and write” Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal
  • 2. International Online eJournal ToC Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Published & Edited by: Chief Editor: Dr. Bipin Parmar Co-Editors: Dr. Firoz Shaikh Dr. Nayan Tank Sanjay Bhut In Collaboration with: Managed by: (Shri Bharat Sarasvati Mandir Sansad - Shardagram) Shri M.N.Kampani Arts & Shri A.K.Shah Commerce College- Mangrol, Gujarat - India (Affiliated to Saurashtra University- Rajkot) Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal i
  • 3. International Online eJournal ToC Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Editorial In the era of fast globalization the rapidly changing fields of information, communication and technology–a dominant intellectual and political discourse of the last several decades-is one of the most outstanding developments of the past century. It has radically altered the politico-economic scenario. National territorial frontiers hold little significance in many spheres, which have affected peoples and societies across the world. It is true to say that, the arrival of information technology has made whole communication process easy and economical. It has also opened up floodgates of knowledge for all h through digital boom-internet. Since the technology is freely available to the developing countries, they are getting exposure to new ways as never before. Keeping this backdrop in mind, our humble attempt is to provide opportunity to the scholars of various subjects for sharing their novel ideas and thoughts through the medium of our online journal. The present issue contains multi-dimensional thoughts and information as well as ideas and analysis based on language, literature, commerce, technology etc. It is hoped that this issue will certainly lead scholars and colleagues think ahead. Bi-annual The Editors, Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN 0975-7929) Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal ii
  • 4. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Aims & Scope Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN – 0975 – 7929) is unique of its kind that provides a forum for the discussion on recent topics and issues in the various disciplines which have an immediate bearing upon thought and practice in human life. Articles drawn from the motley disciplines, well-documented and well-communicated addressing our present curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation in education, the challenges and opportunities around us will find their place in the Journal. It would certainly ‘spark’ interest and passion among the aspirants, researchers, explorers, critics and others desirous of research, invention and contributing something to their respective area and to self, societal and national development. Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal iii
  • 5. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Our Patrons Shri J. G. Bhuva Director Shri Shardagram (Guj.) India Dr. Hamirsinh Zankat Principal Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram) Guj. Acknowledgements The College Staff & Alumni of Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram) Gujarat-India Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal iv
  • 6. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Advisory Board • Dr. Jaydipsinh Dodiya : Reader, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni.- Rajkot, Gujarat (India) • Dr. Dilip Bhatt : Head, Dept. of English, Shri V.D. Kanakia Arts & Shri M.R. Sanghavi Commerce College, Savarkundla, Gujarat • Dr. Dilip Barad : Associate Professor & Head, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar Uni., Bhavnagar, Gujarat • Dr. Farook Salat : Head, Dept. of English, M.S. Uni., Baroda, Gujarat Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal v
  • 7. International Online eJournal ToC • Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Panel of Experts / Reviewers Prof. Dr. Kamal Mehta : Director – CDC & Head, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni. – Rajkot, Gujarat • Dr. Rajendrasinh Jadeja : Principal & Director, H.M. Patel Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat - India • Prof. Dr.Hemixaben Rao : Hon’ble Vice Chancellor, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan (Gujarat) • Prof. Dr. Daxaben Gohil : Head & Prof., Dept. of Commerce, Sau. Uni. - Rajkot, Gujarat • Ms. Latha Krishnamurthy: Director, Bansilal Ramnath Agarwal Charitable Trusts’ Vishwakarma Institute of Languages (VIL) – PUNE, Maharashtra • Dr. Ramesh Mehta : Asso. Prof. & Head, Gujarati Dept., Shri M.N.Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College – Mangrol, Gujarat • Atul Patil : Coordinator & Faculty, English Language Teaching, Institute of Symbiosis (ELTIS) & Symbiosis Institute of Foreign and Indian Languages (SIFIL) – PUNE, Maharashtra Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal vi
  • 8. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 • Dr. Jiwan Bakhshi : Ph.D. (English Literature) Critic, Playwright , Poet, State Punjabi Literature (Drama) Awardee, Govt. P.G. College, Jind, Haryana, India • Dr. H.S. Joshi : Asso. Prof.,Dept. of Chemistry, Sau.Uni., Rajkot, Gujarat ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal vii
  • 9. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Disclaimer Dear Reader/s: The articles in Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN – 0975 – 7929) are edited and published by the permission of the concerned author/s. The editors/publishers do not agree/conform to the views, opinions, theories expressed in the articles in any way. Authors are required to seek relevant approvals for any copyright material they may use in their contributions to Spark eJournal. The eJournal will not be responsible in any way for copyright infringements. Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal viii
  • 10. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Communication Links ToC publication@sparkejournal.com Editors Chief Editor: Dr. Bipin Parmar Shri M.N. Kampani Arts & Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol (Shardagram), Gujarat – India E-mail: br_parmar444@yahoo.co.in Co-Editors: Dr. Firoz Shaikh Lt. Shri N. R. Boricha Edu.Trust Sanchalit Arts & Commerce College, Mendarda, Dist.-Junagadh, Gujarat – India E-mail: firozjunagadh@gmail.com Blog: http//firozmendarda.blogspot.com Sanjay Bhut Mahila Arts & Commerce College, Veraval (Somnath) Dist.-Junagadh, Gujarat – India E-mail: sanjay.bhut@yahoo.com Dr. Nayan Tank Gurukul Mahila Arts & Commerce College,Jubilee Porbandar, Dist.-Porbandar, Gujarat – India E-mail: nayandtank@gmail.com Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal ix
  • 11. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Dear Editors Spark Int’l Online eJournal I am greatly pleased to know that Spark eJournal is indexed in Cabell’s Directory U.S.A. I congratulate its Editorial Board for such a praiseworthy and substantive work. Its inclusion in the highly-acclaimed Cabell’s Directory of Journals in the USA is an indeed another feather in the cap. I praise vociferously the entire team of the Spark Online e-Journal. It is a great pleasure to see and go through the latest number of Spark Online e-Journal. Its content and outlook are attention-arresting. It will be useful to a larger teaching and learning communities since it is multilingual and rich with multimedia. I wish for its growth and development in all directions of higher education. I also wish that more and more higher educational institutes may take note of this eJournal as a research work and join it by actively participating in it. With kind regards. Dr. Hemixa Rao Vice-Chancellor H.N.G.University PATAN (North Gujarat) India Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal x
  • 12. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Dear Editors Spark Int’l Online eJournal I am highly pleased to know that Spark eJournal is indexed in esteemed directory named Cabell’s Directory,U.S.A. It is, indeed, a phenomenon thing for all of us. I congratulate entire committed team of Spark eJournal. Education assumes utmost significance in human life. In the present time, it is deemed as the potent means of empowering the humanity along with enhancing process of civilization. Higher education contributes to them by way of creating and disseminating ideas and knowledge. Such journals serve as a forum for sharing and disseminating ideas and knowledge. Spark is at its best in making accessible them to scholars and colleagues across the world. Once again, I convey my sincere congratulation to spark Pariwar. Prof. Dr. Kamal Mehta Director – CDC & Head, Dept. of English & Comparative Studies, Sau. Uni. – Rajkot, Gujarat Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xi
  • 13. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC Dear Friends, It gives me immense pleasure to learn that Spark International eJournal is listed in Cabell’s Directory U.S.A. It is a prestigious Directory of manuscripts and the journal’s inclusion in it underscores the high quality of the journal. After a span of three years, Spark International eJournal has matured and is doing commendable work in the academic field. I am very pleased that Spark International eJournal is following all the parameters of a quality research journal. I will not hesitate to say that Spark is one of the most noteworthy Journals of Gujarat. Wish the entire team of Spark the very best for future issues. Dr. Farook Salat Head, Dept. of English, M.S. Uni., Baroda, Gujarat, India Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xii
  • 14. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 ToC The Editors Spark Int’l Online eJournal It fills my heart with joy unspeakable to know that Spark eJournal is indexed in international directory. I feel privileged to announce this prestigious news that Cabell Publishing Inc. has selected Spark eJournal for indexing among renowned and internationally reputed journals of the world. It read on Cabell Publishing official website that – “In 1978, Cabell Publishing, Inc. was founded to help professors, graduate students, and researchers publish their manuscripts in academic journals.” They have almost a dozen of directories for academic journal and Spark eJournal is indexed in the directory for Educational Journals. This journal will be accessible from any corner of the world which is connected through internet. The Cabell’s Directory will help in systematic dissemination of creative & innovative ideas and in sharing & collaborating information which in turn will lead us towards knowledge society. This eJournal has been quite unique from the idea of its inception. It is one of the morning voices in the arena of interdisciplinary and Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xiii
  • 15. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 multidisciplinary research studies. As this journal includes all the subjects of Humanities, Social Sciences & other branches of knowledge, the readers get variety of knowledge to keep them abreast with latest happenings in the academic research. The multilingual feature of this journal is something that all journals published in country like India should adhere to. It provides opportunity to regional writers to contribute at international level. It gives ample opportunity to the peripheral view points to challenge the centre. It helps in giving ears to the unheard melodies. I wish for its growth and wide spread in academia in and out of India. I heartily congratulate to the young team of editors and all those who are actively involved with this journal for this grand success. Without your help, guidance & insights this journal would have not been so successful. Let this eJournal be borderless in terms of identity, language, nation, knowledge & wisdom! Dr. Dilip Barad Associate Prof. & Head, Department of English, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Campus, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar - Gujarat (India) ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xiv
  • 16. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Table of Content Sr. No. Article Title & Author Page No. 01 Multicultural Diversity, Ethnic Conflicts and Social Dialogue: Towards Community Cohesion in Plural Societies --Dr. Motaleb Azari 1-14 02 Dhruv Bhatta’s Modern Aranyaks: Theorising Indian Ecocriticism --R. B. Zala 15-34 03 Comparative Overview of the Forms of Storytelling with Reference to the Digital Age -- Dr. Dilip Barad 35-61 04 History and the Individual in Manju Kapoor’s Married Woman --Dr. Firoz Shaikh 62-76 05 Waste Elimination Method of 5S: A Review --Er. Rajesh Kumar Mehta; Dr. Naveen K. Mehta; Dr. D Mehta 77-85 06 Tagore's Portrayal of Feminine Characters: Manifesting the Bengali Society -- Dr. Richa Tewari 86-100 07 Creating Teaching Learning Value Chain with Modern-Age Paradigms -- Ms. Nishrin Pathan 101-127 08 Social thinking in Modern Sanskrit literature --Prema Sharma; Hemant Bamoriya 128-138 Contd… Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xv
  • 17. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue-6 August 2011 Table of Content Contd… Sr. No. Article Title & Author Page No. 09 Representation of Upper Class in Oscar Wilde’s ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ -- Ms. Kavita Vansia 139-166 10 Cartoon Analysis : A technique for Classroom Interaction -- Shamsha Emanuel 167-174 11 We, Technology and Puppets: Who’s Who? -- Ms. Jelam Hardik 175-180 12 Social thinking in Modern Sanskrit literature -- Dr. Sanjay Pandya 181-197 13 Creative Writing and Multimedia -- R. Janaky 198-214 14 Law and Order: The Story of the Rulers and the Ruled --Siddharth Chaturvedi 215-234 15 English Proficiency -A Step towards Sustainable Community Development in small cities -- Ms. Ritu R. Agarwal 235-245 16 Marketing Ethics: Issues & Problems --Dr. Kailashben P. Damor 246-280 ToC Bi-annual Multi-disciplinary, Multi-lingual & Multi-media eJournal xvi
  • 18. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-1: Multicultural Diversity, Ethnic Conflicts and Social Dialogue: Towards Community Cohesion in Plural Societies ToC Dr. Motaleb Azari Assistance Professor and Chairman of Department of Studies in English, Payame Noor University of Chenaran, Iran. “Difference is of the essence of humanity. Difference is an accident of birth and it should therefore never be the source of hatred or conflict. The answer to difference is to respect it. Therein lays a most fundamental principle of peace: respect for diversity.” (John Hume, Nobel Lecture1998) Abstract Community cohesion goes further than ideas of racial equality and social inclusion. It includes issues of class, gender, sexuality, etc. and is more about the dynamic relationships between and within communities in a society. Explaining the concept of community cohesion in simple, meaningful and direct terms underpins many challenging issues. In this regard, to achieve community cohesion it is necessary to consider a broad range of concerns including social inequalities, socio-cultural diversity and even modernisation in terms of access to communication and information technologies. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 1
  • 19. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Therefore, as DaveWeely (History of Community Cohesion 2)suggests, a cohesive society is one which creates a common vision and a sense of belonging among all communities wherein the diversity of individuals’ backgrounds and circumstances are “appreciated and positively valued”. In fact, this cohesion provides the situation for those from different backgrounds to have similar life opportunities. In this sense, strong and positive relationships will be developed among people from different backgrounds and society will achieve a sustainable socio-cultural development. It is important to understand the root causes and implications of particular incidents of any social disorder. Hence, the main emphasis must be on improving community cohesion among various ethnic groups and removing collective tensions. Before exploring the causes and influences of any crosscultural conflict due to such tensions, however, an attempt will be made here to provide a clear understanding of the concept of cultural diversity and the nature of ethnic conflict in plural societies. When we use the word “social” we are referring to society and to individuals that make up the society. Every society is constantly in transition as long as these individuals inter-mingle with one another. But social dynamism, or the rate of social change, may vary from one society to another and alterations within a society’s social organization, within its social institutions, and its social structure contribute to this social dynamism and change. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 2
  • 20. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 This means that change is a continuous occurrence—although in most cases the cultural and social entities would persist in such changes. Sociocultural changes come about when members of a society are confronted with cultural practices that differ from those that they have learned to accept and new customs are likely to be adopted more readily if they are viewed as being socially desirable and useful (Datin&Bujang 1). The issue of multicultural diversity has been broadly discussed on both scientific and public levels. During past decades, a “multiculturalist” perspective has been adopted by public policy framework in order to deal with cultural diversity. The idea of multicultural society has its roots in nation-states, throughout their histories, when confronted with international migration such as in Canada, The United States and Australia. These states are conventionally referred to as examples of various forms of multicultural society, accommodated through nation states’ public policies (Neumannova 1-2). Still, the issue includes a variety of challenges, which take new shapes according to the different political circumstances wherever they are manifested. Western European countries lately recognized the need to react to the cultural diversity brought in by immigrants as a consequence of their immigration and integration policies. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 3
  • 21. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 This issue was brought up, for instance, by ethnic clashes in Yugoslavia and Eastern Europe after the fall of communism, and by the crisis of the traditional nation-state in Western Europe, determined by non-European immigration into this area. Due to these and other events, multicultural diversity has been considered the root of possible international ethnic conflicts and discords. In this regard, most of the scientists and researchers identified the problem of multicultural diversity as a challenge to liberal democratic system and to civil society (2). Even some contemporary intellectuals such as the Canadian social scientist, John Ralston Saul tackles these challenges in hisThe Next Best Thing and The Paradise Eater. The main figures in these works are mainly of Canadian and European origins who have, temporarily or permanently, selected Thailand— another multicultural society—as their homeland. The question to be addressed here is to what extent can a plural society like Thailand include Western immigrants, who do not accept that society’s principles, without disintegrating itself? On the other side, how can such a society integrate immigrants, who have completely different ethnic origins, cultural principles and religion? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 4
  • 22. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 In his conversation with Spenser, Field presents the accounts on how various immigrants from USA, Canada and Europe have come and settled in Thailand; “A lot of us came here to get away. That wasn’t how we put it. We thought we’d come because of Vietnam, but that was just an excuse. … There [are] lots of Brits, Australians, French, everything”. These immigrants with “lots of stories” contribute to disintegrating Thai society (Paradise 22- 23; ch. 2). Giovanni Sartori (10) suggests that in more recent times the issue of multicultural diversity in plural societies has been very closely related to the question of “liberal society” and “liberal nation-states”. Liberal society, according to its definition, is there to guarantee individuals’ universal rights for freedom and autonomy. Modern nation states have so far been inclined towards promoting unifying and inclusive policies, and their aim still is to promote equality among citizens in regard to their civil rights in social and political life. In practice, these political demands have usually manifested themselves into acculturation policies meant to safeguard integration of diverse cultural groups. In this sense, recognition of an individual on a national level, acknowledged through a set of given cultural and linguistic stereotypes and political symbols, has been considered an essential step towards the acquisition of a citizenship in such plural societies. However, achieving equality in accessing civil rights—as the main focus on this theory—often meant for individuals from different cultural groups to gain equal opportunities. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 5
  • 23. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Cultural nationalists hold that a democratic society could solve such problems of inequality only through a shared national culture.Even increasing cultural diversity, which we can observe in modern plural societies since the beginning of the nineties of the last century, has focused our attention to the promotion of rights for different cultural groups. This is the reason why cultural diversity is often taken for granted by multiculturalists, in order to give an answer to ethnic conflicts or clashes in plural societies. Charles Taylor’s “politics of recognition” has also its roots in “communitarian liberalism” (25-74). Its central notion is that the recognition of cultural rights of communities should be guaranteed equally to each community, because “all cultures have an equal value”. However, this theory is not interested in affirmative action, reducing the inequalities and redefining equal opportunities for all; its goal is rather the formation of “differentiated individuals”, and of a state with sensibility for a difference. The main issue of policies designed under the influence of the politics of recognition is that they lead to divisions among citizens. In both cases, either affirmative action or politics of recognition lead to a reaction, where discriminated groups claim the same advantages given to other groups, while those groups with strong cultural identity claim more privileges at the expense of non-supported cultural groups. Such backlashes keep alive a discriminative behavior of disadvantaged groups or groups which are not accepted, or which are denied by a community. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 6
  • 24. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Michel Walzer (Spheres of Justice) ascribes these two actions to different types of liberalism. One type of liberalism is mostly concerned with liberal rights of individuals, in this way wishing to create a neutral state. A second kind of liberalismpermits one or more nations to flourish on account of other nations, while the rights of citizens, who are engaged in civil life, are, preserved. Therefore, multicultural diversity in a democracy provides a situation for individuals to be identified enough with their culture, in order to be recognized as politically or socially equal. The question of moral relevance for cultural rights as observed in the multicultural theories of Will Kymlicka or Charles Taylor, in order to justify other political or social actions, makes out of cultural recognition a matter of universal human rights and, consequently, the possible goal of political struggle to reach equal representation. It is to be observed that the multicultural diversity as suggested by some social scientists, does not propose any solution towards a conciliation of cultural differences with political institutions, but it would rather create distance and increase the political relevance of these differences. Therefore, multicultural diversity according to such a mindset would not bring unity of different cultural groups in one state, but rather social dissolution and further differentiation. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 7
  • 25. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Such sort of multicultural diversity turns into a non-tolerant policy, denying mutual recognition and integration, and it leads to what is called, the “balkanization” of societies. The cultural diversities of various ethnic groups in these states, would be therefore, radicalized into political programs, and society is politically and socially increasingly polarized. In The Next Best Thing(40- 41; ch. 3), there is a conversation between Gordon and Spenser which refers to the fragility of such societies: The society of man is the most delicate of flowering plants. Mistreated, ignored, grown foolish or over ambitious or too weak or too strong it does not wither but explodes in a mere second and disappears so completely it might never have existed. Its survival depends not on the good reading of warnings but on the correct actions of the society itself. A seed of imbalance appears at first to be nothing. But then it swells and germinates and flourishes into blossom. And no matter how beautiful the flower, its seeds will destroy the garden. The creative genius that you and I worship is a minor by-product that dies with the rest. The idea that economic development would help liberate individuals from their fixed roles and responsibilities,may perhaps explain why modern liberal theories inclined to ignore the question of morality, especially when it comes to reinforcing cultural diversity in a plural society (Neumannova3-5). Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 8
  • 26. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Plural societies should therefore be promoted culturally, but it is not specified how to build their social unity, when dealing with various cultural identities various ethnic groups. The general presuppositions are that the principle of citizenship will guarantee the equality among citizens, both in civil rights and responsibilities. Such principle of citizenship expects such societies to show neutrality towards cultural differences. The danger in integration of citizens who do not see this responsibility towards a state and towards other citizens implies that we can create differentiated citizenship based on a refusal of a state, which does not recognize cultural or ethnic differences. This is why many plural societies turn to fight for independence from the existing majorities. Citizenship in this sense is presented less as a system for attributing rights and more as a political field. However, we can ask a question as to whether all the political and social movements, really aim for socio-cultural recognition. In other words, this paper is led to the point of asking whether we really need a political strategy to manage cultural diversity, when culture is capable in its autonomy to accommodate differences without restrictions. Or whether the demand for recognition of cultural differences is really connected to existing cultural diversity in a multicultural society, or whether it only represents the will of cultural groups for adjusting social and political inequalities? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 9
  • 27. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Such questions of universal respect and egalitarian reciprocity seem to be central nowadays to the discussion on multicultural diversity. Different groups in a multicultural society may fight for equality of moral values and demand to be ethnically and culturally recognized in a classificatory taxonomy of a state’s structures. “Often cultural differences are understood as cultural hierarchies rather than cultural variations” (Neumannova 7). For cultural relativists, cultural claims are important issues about equality. Therefore, cultural relativismperceives the contextual nature of equality under the influence of a constructive discourse. On the whole, the risk of multicultural diversity failing in its propositions of cultural relativism lays in the premise that every ethnic group has its own and distinct but equal values and cultural patterns. Therefore, no one could validly object to beliefs or interests of any ethnic group, because these interests and beliefs reflect their worldview. Consequently, the moral equality among various groups, and the presupposition that all groups possess their own sovereign perspective on right and wrong, have been the most criticized points of cultural relativism. Referring to this, Benhabib (34-35) suggests that some aspects of cultural relativism are true derivatives from certain features of modern world, and also from knowledge that the variability of human cultures is as old as human culture itself. In this sense, our increasing knowledge of other cultures multiplies our sense of relativity. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 10
  • 28. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Hence, the communication between different cultural groups and attempts to understand each other is only an interpretation and a process of making sense of meanings. The central insight that meaning must be first interpreted and understood from a standpoint of its producers, takes us to important moral implications. There is still very little research done on cultural relativism and equality of moral values. But, for example, studies from Brubaker (1992) or Ireland (1994) show how different national forms of participatory mechanisms shape political activities of immigrants, and such studies have proven to be very productive in understanding moral values of both immigrants and host society. Both, Brubaker and Ireland,arrived at similar results; they tried to prove that culturally similar groups of immigrants mobilize differently in different countries. This opened a discussion whether cultural recognition is really the main reason for political claims of culturally different groups, and it led to reconsidering cultural diversity as a problematic category. Such assumptions consequently affirm the idea that multicultural diversity does not use culture as an end but as the means to solve moral inequities in contemporary society. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 11
  • 29. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal Works cited: 1. SeylaBenhabib,“The claims of culture: Equality and diversity in the Global era”, Princeton: Princeton University Press. 2002. 34-35. 2. Roger Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1992. 3. Datin and RahmahBujang, “Cultural Diversity: Social Inclusion or Exclusion?” World Youth Foundation Dialogue.(June-July 2007): 1. 4. John Hume, “Nobel Lecture.” Oslo. (December 10, 1998).Web. 04. 03. 2008. 5. Patrick Ireland, “The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland”, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. 6. RadkaNeumannova, “Multiculturalism and Cultural Diversity in Modern Nation State.”A paper presented to Conference Turin University of Economics, Prague Czech Republic.(2007): 1- 10, 09. 08. 2009. 7. Giovanni Sartori, “Pluralismus, Multikulturalismus a Pristěhovalci. Dokoran”, 2005, 10. In; Neumannova, Radka. “Multiculturalism and cultural diversity in modern nation state”. A paper presented to Conference Turin University of Economics, Prague Czech Republic. 2007. 8. John Ralston Saul, The Next Best Thing, Ontario: Collins, 1986. 9. ---. The Paradise Eater, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1988. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 12
  • 30. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 10. Charles Taylor,The Politics of Recognition,In;Multiculturalism: Examining the Politics of Recognition, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.25-74. 04. 11. 2007. 11. Michael Walzer, Spheres of Justice: A Defense of Pluralism and Equality, New York: Basic Books,1983, xiv. 11. 05. 2010. 12. Dave Weeley, “History of Community Cohesion.” Community Cohesion – LGA,(2001): 2. Note on the Author: Presently living in Bangalore, Motaleb Azari (b. 1978) is a Lecturer (Azad University of Quchan), PhD Scholar (Dos in English, University of Mysore, India). He has participated and presented many research papers at the national and international seminars and conferences in India and abroad including Kolkata, Varanasi, Mysore, Kerala, Malaysia, Turkey, Canada, and a lot more. Hi papers/articles have been published in ‘Sarasa Dhvanyavaloka’, ‘Indian Journal of Post Colonial Studies’, etc. Grants and Awards: • “Bonyad Shahid Fellowship for Ph.D. scholars abroad” (2007 to present) • University of Mysore, Registration under “Scheme A” for outstanding foreign MA candidates. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 13
  • 31. International Online eJournal • • Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 A Grant of 1200 $US, received from The Center for Poverty and Development Studies(CPDS), for a research contribution in the International Islamic Conference, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Winner of the Grant prize (Umrah), in “Quran Festival for Iranian Students Abroad”, 2009 for the selected paper entitled; “Quran and Globalization of Cultures”. Honors Received: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “The Outstanding Ph.D. Scholars’ Honor” Received from the Iran Embassy, India (2008). “The Outstanding Ph.D. Scholars’ Honor” Received from “The Union of Iranian Students’ Islamic Association in India for the years 2007-08. “The Outstanding MA Students’ Honor” Received from the Iran Embassy, India for Years; 2005 & 2006. “The Outstanding MA Students’ Honor” Received from The Union of Iranian Students’ Islamic Association in India. (2005). Honor received from Guilan University, Rasht, Iran, for securing the 4th place of outstanding Young Scholars in English Literature (2001). ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 14
  • 32. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-2: Dhruv Bhatta’s Modern Aranyaks: Theorising Indian Ecocriticism ToC R. B. Zala Senior Associate Professor, Department of English & CLS, Saurashtra University Rajkot (Gujarat) Abstract Dhruv Bhatta’s Modern Aranyaks: Theorising Indian Ecocriticism ॐ पू र् णमदः पू र् णमि दम् पू र् णा त् पू र् णमु दच् यते | पू र् णस् य पू र् णमा दा य पू र् णमे वा वशि ष् यते || ॐ शा न् ति ः शा न् ति ः शा न् ति ः || oṃ pūrṇamadaḥ pūrṇamidam pūrṇāt pūrṇamudacyate pūrṇasya pūrṇamādāya pūrṇamevāvaśiṣyate oṃ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ śāntiḥ Om ! That (Brahman) is infinite, and this (universe) is infinite. The infinite proceeds from the infinite. (Then) taking the infinitude of the infinite (universe), It remains as the infinite (Brahman) alone. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 15
  • 33. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Dhruv Bhatt is an established contemporary Gujarati writer, who is engaged in fictionalizing the basic environment issues, since last three decades, of ecology and traditional wisdom of the people dwelling in and around wilderness that present the environment issues discussed locally as well as globally. His first hand real experience of the life is well merged with the seemingly fantastic mythical narration in abode natural habitats of endangered species and human life in locales of Gujarat. His works are more than travelogues in creating a fictional word out of his real life wanderings in rapidly erasing eco system to interweave the environmental issues that are raised at the global forums to confront with the solutions at local level in the most natural and cohesive way. The issues as save whales and lions incorporated from two different terrains of thorny forest of Gir and the western coastal region ‘Ghed’ are interwoven without being slightest burden to the narrative is the focus of my study of Samudrantike(1993), Tatvamasi (1998), and Akoopar (2010). Greg Garrard’s Ecocriticism (2004) is the text for reference to speak of western ecocriticism to extend the theoretical perspective in Indian context through the contemporary Gujarati fictions by Dhruv Bhatt based on ‘a quest for fine balance between a traditional, non-scientific, faith driven society and cynical, profit driven economy.’ Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 16
  • 34. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 (Meghani) Dhruv Bhatt draws on the Brihad Aranyak Upnishad to contextualize the Indian ecocritical perspective to appreciate the newly emerging discourse of ‘Ecology and Literature’. In Introduction to The Ecocriticism Reader, Cheryl Glotfelty and Harold Fromm, define "ecocriticism as the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment….takes an earth-centered approach to literary studies’ The ecocritics have moved on to Ecocriticism that takes as its subject the interconnections between nature and culture, specifically the cultural artifacts of languages and literature, As a critical stance, it has one foot in literature and the other on land; as a theoretical discourse, it negotiates between the human and the non-human. But here the western notion of seeing diversity or binary opposition ‘human and the non-human’ while India can contribute with the wisdom of oneness to evaluate and study the writers as Dhruv Bhatt to speak of the interdisciplinary study that ecocriticism envisages to take in the cultural and environmental engagements in literature. Greg Garrard to elucidate the term ‘ecocriticism’ in Ecocriticism commence with ‘Begings: Pollution’ the reference to Carson’s Silent Sping(1962) to take a lead from scientific material that may well be amable to more ‘literary’ or ‘cultural’ analysis. Sighting Glotfelty with the fundamental question What is ecocriticism? : Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 17
  • 35. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 What then is ecocriticism? Simply put, ecocriticism is the study is the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment. Just as feminist criticism examins language and literature from the gender-conscious perspective, and Maxist criticism brings an awareness of modes of production and economic class to its reading of texts, ecocriticism takes an earth-centered approachto literary studies.(3) Approaching ahead from study of nature or wilderness from romantics in the early phase AND environmental crisis Garrald broadly defines ecocriticism as, Indeed , wider definition of the ecocriticism is the study of relationship of the human and non-human, throughout human cultural history and entailing critical analysis of the term ‘human’ itself. (5) The theorisation proceed to look into the ‘Positions’ as cornucopia (exaggerated threats), environmentalism (Concerned about environment issues but are not for radical change), Deep Ecology (flourishing of human- non human life has value but with smaller human population / Duality of human and nature), ecofeminism(association of woman with nature) social ecology and eco-marxism(rational-political) and (Difference between mere material existence and revelation of being/ extraordinary in ordinary). He goes on to elaborate on the key concerns/ trops for ecocriticsi.e. pastorals, wilderness(uncontaminated state of nature by civilisation) apocalypse narratives(prophetic) and troubles with apocalypse narratives, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 18
  • 36. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 dwelling , Animals(relation with human) to conclude with Future direction ‘The Earth’- earth/ dying image from space-monoculturing minds with homogenization through globalization and simulations by VR programmes (Biosphere 2 (1991) AND Thd EadenProject: cornwell (2000) )and Gaia (the ancient Greek Earthgoddess) to discuss the future challenges that ecocriticism of relation between globalization and ecocriticism end with a final futuristic comment as, It ought not to be too pious or too implausible, to associate with ecocriticism of the future with Eden’s inflection of the Earth: attuned to environment justice, but not dismissive of claims of commerce and technology; shaped by knowledge of long-term environment problems, ecological insight; and commitment to preservation of biological diversity of the planet for all its habitants. It is a long way from the pastoral we started with, and it is a great-souled vision with its feet planted solidly on the ground.(Garrard 182) Expending the argument with the western ‘vision’ with the wisdom to Indian ‘vision’ we shift to Dhruv Bhatt and his drawing from the Upnishad to contextualize the Indian ecocritical perspective to appreciate the newly emerging discourse of ‘Ecology and Literature’. The title themselves clearly are suggestive of his drawing from the tradition of the past and assimilating the present through the living spaces that that survive eternally in the abode of nature as Gir , Ghed, river banks and sea shores. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 19
  • 37. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The shift to the discourse of ecocriticism is in realistic presentation of the topology as a living text as Gir or Ghed as ground zero (‘feet planted on the ground’)against the mythical and prophetic tools that the western mind strive to bank on. Gaia to Gir is the striking difference between the sources of context that speaks of dead and alive respectively. The spaces narrated are not utopian nor pastoral nostalgia. Neither pastoral nor wilderness. It is no virtual or artificial simulater that is manmade reality based on sophisticated technology. Today if final solution is sought in unmeditated earth it is in these text that represent the surviving unmapped scapes in the mindscapes of people and landscapes of Gir and Ghed. To speak of theory to practice of ecocritics and activist against homogeniziing the indigenous ways of life is highly under the takeover of the project globalization which is run by the economically and politically powerful corporate houses and global brands. The global events by global forums are directionless and powerless to toil against the so called progress and developments that are compulsions for poverty-stricken nations of third world. The global ecological concerns can be viewed with the theme of 2010 Earth Day ‘One Planet. One Future'. It celebrated the incredible diversity of life on Earth as part of the 2010 International Year of Biodiversity. This year's global host, Rwanda – a country of exceptional biodiversity that has made huge strides on environmental protection – leaded the celebrations with three days of keynote events. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 20
  • 38. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Thousands of activities were organized worldwide, with beach cleanups, concerts, exhibits, film festivals, community events and much more. Pittsburgh, was selected as the North American host city by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to join World Environment Day-2010. " Highlighting theme "Biodiversity- Ecosystem Management and the Green Economy". Slogans as ‘Save Whales/Panda/Tigers/ Trees’ with national and international organizations and activists speak of the damage done to the environment in order to put forward the issues that have to a greater extent brought about an awareness towards the devastating effects of over use of natural resources by human population to lead us on the edge of dooms day. The reasons for the catastrophe need no further study but the solutions seem to be out of reach due to non commitment to resolve the crises at local as well as global level. ‘Global worming’ to the issues of the local tribes are worsening as the clock ticks on. Dhruv Bhatts’ works are modern Arayanks which he has written through his wanderings and dwelling in the forests or by the sea shores and river sides. It unfolds the secret knowledge of the age old seers to communicate in the modern language and novel form to the contemporary world. The canvass he uses is painted with the background distorted landscapes of the surviving natural habitats to speak of the physical environmental problems. He speaks out the mindscapes through the surviving wisdom with the people and their culture in these spaces. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 21
  • 39. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The intervention of the writer through usually an anonymous narrator is the understanding one can reach if the knowledge of decoded with self affiliation to the environment. The exoteric actions reveal the mind that contemplating on esoteric as Sri Swami Krishnananda in his introduction to Brihad Aranyak Upanishad as, The Upaniṣhad is a revelation of the inner principles of life as manifest in actions of a variegated nature. The ritual of the is contemplated in the Upaniṣhads. The Vedic sacrifice, or, for the matter of that, any kind of religious performance, is a symbol, ultimately, which is the point of departure in all esoteric approaches to religion. External religion is symbolic of an internal principle which is true religion, towards which the Upaniṣhad drives our minds. This departure is to be found in every religion in the world. The symbolic character of human activity and religious performance is brought out in a study of esoteric principles, which is the philosophy of life. The activities of human life are symbolic in the sense that they are not representative of the whole Truth, but manifest only certain aspects of Truth. Every action is involved in cosmic relations of which very few are brought to the surface of one’s notice when the action is really performed. We always think that an action is motivated by an individual or a group of individuals towards a particular relative end which is visible to the eye and conceivable by the mind, but never do we imagine for a moment that there can be farther reaches of the tentacles of this action, beyond the reach of the human eye and mind and our little action can really be a cosmic deed, that God can see what we do, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 22
  • 40. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and the whole universe can vibrate with the little word that difficult thing for us to understand; and the Upaniṣhad explains it to bring to the purview of our consciousness these inward secrets of outward action, telling us that the outward sacrifice is symbolic of an inward contemplation of Universal Reality. (13) Dhruv Bhatt fictionalizes the life of people dwelling in and around the natural abodes of Gujarat to incorporate the issues and solutions at hand. His realistic presentation of life and locals in Samudrantike (southern most coast of Saurashtra), Tatvamasi (on/along the banks of river Narmada) and Akoopar (Gir forest) are result of his wanderings and dwelling with the people as a seeker of knowledge with faith in the deep rooted culture that survives withs age old living vedic tradition. I would focus on Akoopar that unfolds not just the geographic space that is the wild life sanctuary of the few surviving Asiatic lions that are under the threat of extinction but the surviving tradition of the people that can be a solution to all our anxiety at the local, national and the global level. To begin with, the writer’s explanatory note: ‘About the Title’ Akoopar, states that he ‘decided’ to write on Gir and Ghed (a coastal region north to Gir ) regions rather than any characters or theme. The characters evolve as it were in a given space. He further refers to the word ‘Akoopar’(Tortoise), suggested as the title by a friend with its meaning, was referred to Bhagavat Gomandal and the myth of Akoopar from Mahabharat was kown to the writer but it was confusing to connect it to what he was planning to write Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 23
  • 41. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and what would ultimately be written. The connection is drawn from the two incidences of his meeting of an old man whose utterance while narrating the calamity of the cyclone in 1882 and the half flat forest ‘…I thought that it was the end of the lifespan of Gir. But when I look at it today my dear has started to laugh. Now I can beat my breast (undoubtedly) and say that what the forefathers were saying is not wrong. Gir is my mother, eternal.’ And another incident in Ghed someone during the discussions on sky watching and revolution of Earth they spoke of the early belief that the earth is balanced on the hood of Shesh Nag and the back of the tortoise at that time someone commented that, ‘if that was the case then the point on which the support was would be exactly under Gir.’ This speaks of the centrality of the thorny Gir forest in the text and faith of the writer in the continuing tradition of wisdom for which he employs the title metaphorically to present the text as the witness to eternal ethos of life just as the mythical Akoopar of Mahabharat. The writers design of the text speaks of his design to blend the temporal with eternal. Akoopar gives the geographical map of the region just before it opens and gives space to the original myth of Akoopar after the narration ends. Symbolically the fiction is presented/held/planted by two palms with all the consciousness of real concrete geographical space and the long past. In between is the unfolding of living wisdom that links the two. Title Tatvamasi need no explaination nor does Samudrantike (translated as Oceanside Blues Mahendra Meghani) where the recurring revelation/ epiphany through the calls of legendry river Narmada and the earth respectively as: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 24
  • 42. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 I could hear an unknown voice beckoning me, now I belived that the earth indeed called out … The communion between nature and man was an established phenomenon that had stood the taste of time. Beyond doubt there exist in the universe a secret code by which the animate and the inanimate are able to interact.(Meghani 183) The writer keeping with the tradition creates a narrator who is an unnamed painter on a assignment to paint the element of ‘earth’ among five basic elements for the interior decoration under a big project. The artist is the outsider who gradually unfolds the inner world of Gir. The wide range of characters from Maldharis (cattle rearers)who live within the forest, to forest officers and guards, villagers, wildlife activist, fishermen, characters dead and alive present the life of Gir and Ghed regions. It is a modern Aranyak Upnishad where the narrator sits at the feet of the Gir dwellers to attain wisdom. The painting of the ‘Earth’ element for a modern artist is more of an imagination while for the traditional artist as Iemma. The environment concerns interwoven in the text are numerable to take account of them exhaustively. To take note of a few are, human-wildlife conflict, lion poaching, encroachment on forest lands, stakeholders of forestry management, livelihood concerns in forest areas, recognizing access to forest resources for survival , fears of extinction of lion among wildlife conservationists, relocate some of the lions from Gir national park, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 25
  • 43. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 illegal mining, biodiversity , coastal regulations, soil erosion, afforestation, hill ecology , endangered species , ecological balance and many more. The solutions lie in immunity that the characters inherit from traditional way of life and the values they live with. Iieyma, Sansai and her forefather Ravaata along with other characters reveal the secret wisdom of the local people that is spellbinding. The opening of the novel with a colloquial expression “Khamma” by Iema (Akoopar), ‘Appi de- le(Give –take )(Tatvamasi) or is so gudh that the meaning unfolds suspendedly in the very end to resolve all the conflicts environmental as well as of life as a whole to end the work with the same blessing address. The contemplative urben artist narrator reveals the knowledge from usage ‘khamma’ used by Iema the local traditional artist. In her reply to a question during her painting exhibition in Ahmedabad that , ‘Do you like to stay there in jungle more than here in Amdavad?’ And some one else also spoke, ‘To go outing is fine;but to stay!without facilities, among the lions and leopards, fear of being killed or will be killed.What to live where there no safety of life?’ … ‘My boys, all of you understand that no one is going to livefor ever staying in this pakka house. I have never heard that lion-leopard or scorpions ever killed the number people killed by the cars and trucks and motorcycles on the roads would be ‘We read daily in papers that don’t people die in quarreling for nothing? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 26
  • 44. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 And yet does anyone have the time to say khamma to the earth?’ The exposition on the part if the narrator that almost merges with the writer is that ‘She does not just say khamma to the departed soul. To her pain of passing away of one soul is the sorrow of the whole universe. And that is why in her khamma the life on this beautiful planet has the strength to bear the shock and bloom on with the blessings and confidence that is heard.’(135) Just as incase of usages the recognition of lions by names as well as regarding them handsome ( rupalo ) not just the beast but also, as in case the forest guide Mustaffa points at various hills by their names and speaking of one among them as the most handsome speaks of the mutualism in the true sense. The doha (a folk metrical composition in oral tradition) Ghantalo paene ghantaline, ‘ne anvar vahadhor Hiran, Meghal Janadiu ne gyerma jakamjol (33) The couplet comes up with a long story to tell of blind and legendary Ravaata that bring together the threads of the complex mosaic plot to speak of interconnected whole and realization that, ‘and that invisible voice that said,‘Gir, our land one time…’. I accept it too. Neither is it ghost nor illution. It is the one within me lac, crore or more years old .me. yes myself.’(284) Ravaata on whom the doha is written speaks of a seemingly fantastic a ceremonial marriage of two hills Ghantla and Ghantly Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 27
  • 45. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 celebrated by Ravaata in order to give a feast to people as he being blind had wowed not to marry but promised to feed the people and he did this by adopting Ghantala while Ghantli was adopted by the Divan of Junagadh Nawab! This is unbelievable and unimaginable that a person could think of marrying the hills but the reality is that the legend is alive with third generation to capture their imagination for whom there is Iema to paint the scenes of the story and according to her she paints what she believes in. Sansai as is the returning fact with all his works is all powerful female character. She mistorically moves around the scene to present the essence of Gir, She is at once an enchanting Charan Kanya, a Jogmaya, the life soul, a devi,shakti incarnated, Shakti the power herself. She is Gir, a lioness with the trait of courage and concerns that she has inherited from Rawaata her great grand-father. She is omnipresent to carry forward and give unity to the plot. She is projected as self confident and out spoken and one who can not tolerate unjust word or action in the space. In the begning she might read as a new bold and rustic woman portrayal but as and when we come to know the legendary success of Rawaata to stop the English Lords’ hunting of lions by walking all the way to Junagadh and persude the Lordsahib. This results in Nawabs order to ban hunting lions. Rawaata’s commitment and large-heartedness that Sansai inherits- she is her own master like the lions. She cannot tolerate interference in her life and the life of Gir. and is very straightforward to say for instance Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 28
  • 46. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 when she asks for lift on the motorcycle from the narrator and Vikram they pull her leg by asking whether she knew where they were going for which she replies, ‘Why are you asking me whether where you are going? I should ask myself where I want to go’. (271) Her intervention in the discussion of students and forest officer on the wildlife issues of new home for lions to save lion king in Madhya Pradesh arouses Sansai to speak out to herself as a crude joke when she mutters: ‘Where the lion should live and where not should be decided by us or by the lions?’ (152). Again the debate of lions and other wild animals found in the human dwellings around Gir is well brought up. Sansai and the narrator campaigned to trace the lion hunters they call meetings in the villages around the mapped gir forest. During their expidation the villagers come up to discuss the issues as ‘This village is not in the territory of forest. According to the map it is not part of Gyar(Gir). Earlier the lions never came here but now as their number has grown they have started coming out.’(119) Sansai has the spontaneous answer: ‘We don’t want the mapped Gyar. Let that be so for the tourist. For us Gir is where ever the lion walks. Let it be even it reaches the sea of Ghed or Bayda mountain.’ And then she questioned with fury, ‘and in the name of Gyar you sell your mangos, in the name of Gyar you sell ghee at that time you don’t remember that this Gyar is not its part?’ Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 29
  • 47. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 One of them gave substantiated saying, ‘This too is Gyar. Who says that there never were lions here? In the real times I have heard that lions were found far up to Dwarka and that way in Gohilwar up to the bushes of Shihor’ Sansai replied, ‘The number of lions have increased is the myth created by newspapers. How does an outsider know whether how far the Gyar extends? The fact is that we have started living in Gyar; yet the animals of Gyar kept our respect. As their space was encroached they went in, then whether it is lion or other lives, where would they go?’. (119-120) Further when on of the villager confesses that they fence their farms with live electric current to guard their crops from roz deer not to kill lions she rebukes, ‘ So you don’t consider roz as living beings. The day since you started differentiating a lion from a roz the troubles have set.’(120) It is a master solution to all the environment debates possible - possible to be uttered only by one who find no duality in the animate and inanimate world. The mountains are married and lions are to decide where they want to live! It is she who is the company of the narrator with his first encounter and introduction of lions in wilderness and her restlessness after the lion poaching incident. The mutual respect ‘amanya’ is also a code that is decoded to respect not just lion the King but also for the grass that is demanded by Rawaata from all not to graze cattle on the hills. It is the wisdom of commenalism or co-existance Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 30
  • 48. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and if moved away the issues of soil erosion and ecological balance is alarming. It is the alarm sounded by Sansai on the weed that is fast spreading in the gir useless even for grazing herds. The stray incidents of attacks by lions and leopard are marked to bring home the reality that even the beast respect the humans especially in case of Dhannu. Writer comprehensively presents Ghed region with a different terrain and life that is indigenous to a landscape in between the water logged land during monsoon and the western most shores of India. Here too it is once again Rani the young widow Sarpanch who replaces Sansai and deals with the Global issue of saving whale. The whale that has been accepted as the Mascot in the space can be read in recent TOI report of Jan.26,2011 where its head lines read: ‘Mangarol adopts whale shark as mascot’. .(3) The issue is conservation of whale shark that are found on the western coast as they come to lay eggs during monsoon. They are hunted for the oil and meat and fins. The awareness to save whale is a success according to the said report but the same is resolved by the writer with the help of writers incorporating the seizer of a local boat by Pakistani coast guards with a young pregnant woman never to return and the pregnant whale shark hunted for the water proofing of their boats is well done through Rani who could bring the point home by correlating the incident in a statement as, ‘How is it when our daughters are coming home carrying a child in their womb is caught?(224) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 31
  • 49. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 At one the massage is through and the fisher folk wow not to hunt ‘bale’. The writers contemplative novel also has a recurring circular narrative pattern. The works end at the point where they begin. This is to draw to the point that everything is interconnected. The loose threads in the plot are so well inter connected at the end it seemingly episodic narration turns out to e a master plot. This is keeping with the aspect of circularity of time in nature. Noting can exist or be on its own it has the design. Often repeated usage Kak hai to kak aave(‘if something thing is some thing takes form’) The wonder stuck artist recognizes the unity as, ‘I think both the aspects are interrelated . Yes some unknown equation that influences the whole universe. One day or the other I shall find that universal equation.’(198) To conclude with the lines quoted in the dedication page of the Akoopar with true offering of the text to Earth poetically: The one Create of fire Formed in space Appeared from water And Breathed life from air And holds All four Even now. To that, form of matter Earth.(Trans. mine) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 32
  • 50. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Also turning to the beginning of this paper it is a fiction that represent the life and wisdom sought in Aranyakas as ‘I am Thou’ and at micro level and encompasses the wisdom of the sages of the Vedic period meditating on the basic inquiry of evolution of life on earth. The idea of integration of five elements fire, space, water, air and matter that is earth where Earth has integrated the other four. This wisdom or realization of oneness in all innate is the solution with the locals living in Aranyaks striving to keep alive the traditional knowledge. The world needs to go back to Upnishadas meaning literally to seat at the feet of Rawaata, Sansai, Suparia, Aval,Ieyma, Puria,Ganesh Shashtri, Bitubanga, Noorbhaai, and others to save earth not to imbalance it on the back of Akoopar the earth bearer the eternal witness to evolution of this eternal life. The paper was presented at the Tenth CLAI International Conference , CUG, Gandhinar (3-6 March,2011) References Garrard, Greg.Ecocriticism,the Ne Critical Idiom,London: Routledge,1994 Meghani,Mahendra. Tran. Oceanside Blues DhruvBhatt,New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi,2001. Bhatt,Dhruv. Akopopar. Amdavad:Gurjjar Granthratna Karyalaya,2010. ---. Samudrantike Amdavad: Gurjjar Granthratna Karyalaya, 1993. ---.Tatvamasi Amdavad: Gurjjar Granthratna Karyalaya, 1998. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 33
  • 51. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Note on Author: R.B.Zala is a Senior Associate Professor, Department of English & CLS, Saurashtra University Rajkot (Gujarat) since 2002. Formerly he worked at Choksi Arts and Commerce College (Somnath College), Veraval (1991-2002). He has done doctoral in the area of Compative Studies with ‘Pre-independence Gujarati and Indian English Shor Story: A Comparative Study’.He is the co-editor of Gujarati Short Story in Translation published Under UGC SAP. His other areas of interest are ecocriticism, Drama and Indian Literatures. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 34
  • 52. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-3: Comparative Overview of the Forms of Storytelling with Reference to the Digital Age ToC Dr. Dilip Barad, Associate Prof. & Head, Dept. of English, Bhavnagar University Bhavnagar (Guj.) India Abstract At the heart of literature is telling story, and its success depends on how well the story is told. How well it is told, however, depends largely on the pleasure it gives to readers. This pleasure, if it is conditioned by ‘the law of poetic truth and poetic beauty, elevates the story to the height of a classic. Over the ages the form of storytelling has undergone significant changes. The Sanskrit and Greek masters were happy in telling their stories in form of verse letters, plays and epics; in the 18th century ‘Novel’ was seen as the most suitable form for storytelling. In the 20th century, the fragmented life found its expression in theatre of absurd, problem plays and the life full of hurry and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 35
  • 53. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 flurry gave shorter forms like novella, one-act plays and short stories. At the fagend of the first decade of the 21st century, some forms have emerged to cater the needs of techno-savvy netizens. The Epistolary form of telling story initiated by Richardson in ‘Pamela’ found its new manifestation in Matt Beaumont’s novel ‘e’ in 2000. Matt has experimented with the epistolary form by replacing letters by emails among the characters. The advent of e-novels is seen as yet another step further in the evolution of new forms of telling story, and yet another form to mesmerize the world with its synergism of words and videos is in the buds. This new form of storytelling is ‘vook’ – a word coined for ‘video-book’. This paper attempts to compare the changing forms of storytelling, and also aims to examine the connection between at the forms of literature, changing times and tastes of the reading audience. ________________________________________________________________________ “Over all [the scholar’s work] should rule a searching intelligence, asking that fundamental question of the septic: just what do you mean by that? And if the question is asked with a real desire to know and understand . . . the work is done.” - G.R. Elton, The Practice of History (New York, 1967) 141. (Altic 1993) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 36
  • 54. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 At the heart of literature is telling story, and its success depends on how well the story is told. How well it is told, however, depends largely on the pleasure it gives to readers. This pleasure, if it is conditioned by ‘the law of poetic truth and poetic beauty’ (Arnold 2001), elevates the story to the height of a classic. The pleasure quenched by the reader from the truth and beauty of literature is also governed by the race, milieu and the moment. I mean to say, the taste of the reader and the time in which it is written also has its own aesthetic influence on the art of telling story. The poor peasants and brave warriors of Greece and Mahabharata found dramas and epics better forms of story telling to quench their thirst for aesthetic life. Reaching to this point in the history of narrating story for aesthetic pleasure and to teach moral lessons on niti-shastra, it has undergone important changes. Slowly and steadily, the oral tradition metamorphosed into written and from there into performing art. The Aesop’s fables (Long 2011) in the West and Panchatantra & Hitopadesha in East had its beginning in oral story telling (Wikipedia). Later on they were found in written form. From here on wards, I would rather concentrate on the literary tradition in Literature in English than on world literature, because by speaking on changing art of story telling of world literature, I would display my ignorance than knowledge. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 37
  • 55. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Coming to the 18th century, the century where in new forms of telling stories are experimented and invented, we find that the fire, fine feelings, enthusiasm, the glow of the Renaissance and the moral earnestness of Puritanism (Long 2004) is lost from their art of telling story. Renaissance was the time of fiery passion, hunger to grow, unlimited enthusiasm to achieve the unachievable and never ending passion for life. Thus the classical form of telling story i.e. Drama, found its new format in Christopher Marlow. Though, still it is drama and poetry only, yet the performance of drama is quite different than that of classical Greek & Latin masters. Use of Blank verse, breaking of unities and mixture of tragicomedies gave new style to the old art of telling story. Shakespeare polished all the gems that were invented by Marlowe in such a shining state that none can make it more polished there after. It was John Dryden (1668) Who said this to enumerate the phenomenon in ‘Of Dramatik Poesie, An Essay: “Those beauties of the French poesy are such ... it where it is not: they are indeed the beauties of a statue but not of a man”. The plays written by Shakespeare and University with all deformities of plot construction and characterization were still true representation of human soul and nature. During renaissance and reformation, we had the tradition of telling story in prose form also. The University Wits and thereafter John Bunyan, Daniel Defoe, Addison and Steele carried on this tradition and went on adding Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 38
  • 56. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 a component or two by the time Samuel Richardson (1689-1761) and Henry Fielding (1707-1754) turned it into the new form of telling story – well-known today as NOVEL. (Watt 1957) The spread of education led to more readers. The way technique of making papers migrated from China to Europe and Gutenberg’s printing press encouraged more writing, similarly education helped in the spread of more magazines and prose writing. Thus 18th century has more number of magazines and novels to cater the needs of the reading public. The education to females in 18th century gave rise to more number of female readers. (Compton-Rickett) The coarseness of Fielding, Smollett and Stern did not satisfy the aesthetic urge of these female readers. Thus we have women novelist in abundance in the same years. Thus we can perceive that the time, the moment, the philosophies and thoughts of the era has tremendous impact on the art of telling story. Compton- Ricket has rightly noted in The History of English Literature (1946) that the masculine qualities comprehend a broad grasp of general principles, a logical constructive power of a faulty for dealing largely and sanely with the big issues of life. The feminine qualities on the other hand, lie in subtlety rather than vigor of perception, an intuitive insight into the delicate complexities of character and an intensity and tenacity of passion. As illustrations of the masculine and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 39
  • 57. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 feminine methods of approaching the social life to the late 18th century we have Fielding and Jane Austen, each of them essentially a painter of manners, concerned in the difference between town and country, satirical in treatment, eschewing sentiment as far as possible. Between the, we have a wonderful picture of the time, and the one complements the other, for the difference are rather sexual than purely literal – the one, bold, dashing, painting strong, vivid colours; the other, delicate, subtle, avoiding violent contrasts, and dealing rather in nuances. This proves the point how art of story telling differed from man to woman. The education and experience of Fielding, the man on the roads, and Austen, the woman of the house, reflects the moments lived by the society in their predefined horizons. The increasing number of readers gave rise to NOVEL as the most sought after form of telling story. The Victorians found in Novel what Elizabethans sought in plays. The rise of magazines contributed to the rise of short story also. (Watson 1994). Short stories were a staple of early-19th-century magazines and often led to fame and novel-length projects for their authors, similar to one-act plays. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 40
  • 58. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 In the modern times, industrialization & growth of factories influenced the reading habits of people which in turn influenced creative writing also. (Ward 1978). The life became so fast that people were not able to spare more time to read long novels or see long plays. The short story and one-act plays were more suitable form of telling story for such an audience. Thus we find more numbers of such arts of telling stories in 19th and 20th century. But still we find that the art of telling story is not that experimentative. The path and faith breaking philosophies of 19th and 20th century has its own toll on the art of telling stories. Darwin’s proving that the world in not created by God (1860), Freud’s libidal interpretation of human relationship (1896c) and Nietzsche’s final declaration – God is death (1882), shattered the faith of creative genius. It is well said by Mahesh Bhatt (film maker) that artist as a creative person is abnormally and inhumanly sensitive – for him a touch is a blow, a sound is noise and ay misfortune a tragedy. (qt from The Times of India article – “Is M.F. Hussain a Victim?”) The influence of art of telling story does not require detailed mention here. The shattered faith fragmented the lives of people. The remaining work was done by two world wars. The witness of First World War and life under the thread of second was terrible for the sensitive creative mind. What we find in Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 41
  • 59. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 fragmented art of telling story. In fact, there is no story at all. It is all rambling of thoughts, trying to say something, utterance fail to express their anguished anxiety. Thus, the stream of consciousness in novel, collage in poem of TS Eliot, Auden and Yeats, absurdity in plays took place of sanity in telling stories. Martin Esslin (1967) makes a working hypothesis of the traits of story-telling art of these decades in his famous book. ‘The Theatre of the Absurd’. The modernist art of telling story is the best example of how philosophical discourse can interpose its influence on it. The time it self was shattered and fragmented. Nothingness was the meaning and nihilism was their only optimism. The story tellers of the time faithfully reflected this in their art of telling stories. The post modernist era was the time of deconstructionist ideology. In the modernist art of telling story, thought the stories were fragmented and nothingness was the only thing, yet the centre hold the ground strongly. In post modernism, the centre is de-centered. There was an attempt to identify meaning in meaninglessness of modernist art of telling story; here the meaning is nothing but free play of difference and deffarance (Derrida 1966). The centre is at the periphery and the periphery is at the centre. Thus Coetzee’s (1986) art of telling story has the centre in Friday ( in novel , 1986) and not in Robinson (Defoe). Mahabharat is retold from Draupadi’s view point. (Vaidya Spivak) Julian Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 42
  • 60. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Branes’s The History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters has a narration form woodworms angel and not from Noah’s. Derridian influence gave free play of experiment in telling stories. Derrida’s philosophical discourse impacted the art of story telling. Dattani’s plays have entre in eunuchs and HIV patients (Kumar T). Sarojini Sahoo’s feminist discourse undermines the western feminist discourse of Simon De Bouevier and gave rise to Indian feminism. Similarly, Dalit aestheticism is also on the high rise. Whatever may be the influencing force, the last decades of 20th century betrayed several experiments in the art of story telling. Thus, Author John Fowles’s novel The French Lieutenant’s Woman (1969) has three endings. This novel is a period novel inspired by the 1823 novel Ourika, by Claire de Duras, which Fowles translated to English during 1977 (and revised in 1994). Other interesting experiments in art of telling story were done by B S Johnson. The Unfortunates (1969) was published in a box with no binding (readers could assemble the book any way they liked) and House Mother Normal (1971) was written in purely chronological order such that the various characters' thoughts and experiences would cross each other and become intertwined, not just page by page, but sentence by sentence. B. S. Johnson's infamous book-in-a-box is, if remembered at all, notorious for its presentation Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 43
  • 61. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 rather than its content. The "book" consists of a first and last section plus 25 other chapters, each one coming as a self-contained "pamphlet", that can be read in any order the reader likes. The subject matter concerns a journalist's day covering a football match in Nottingham, remembering previous times spent in the city with a lover now gone and a friend now dead. The innovative format permits Johnson to echo the random thought processes of his protagonist--the associations and reminiscences bubbling up in no fixed order as he walks through the city, watches and reports on the match and returns home afterwards. We have curios experiment in novel ‘A Void’ by Georges Perec (1995). A Void (translated from the original French La Disparition (literally, "The Disappearance") is a 300-page French lipogrammatic novel, written in 1969 by Georges Perec, entirely without using the letter e (except for the author's name), following Oulipo constraints. The website www.fantasticfiction.com has curious collection of such experimental novels written and published in later decades of 20th century. If all these ages were marked by some peculiar social, political, economical, philosophical, anthropological etc contemporary issues, the 21st Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 44
  • 62. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 century is marked by the IT revolution. The time in which we live is known as the time of e-renaissance. Information and communication technology has brought in sweeping change in all walks of life. The technological tsunami began in wild waves in 80s and 90s. Today, as we enter second decade of 21st century, the world in deluged under the splurge of techno-tsunami waves. Now the question is has this revolution brought any change in art of telling story? Well, forget about the literary value of his novels for time being. Just see what is the moving fore in the plot in his novels: the mobiles, internet and call centers. Yes, Chetan Bhagat’s One Night @ Call Centre (2005) has technology at its centre. Now, the God does not say in thunder, but He rings and talks on your mobile phones. Now, too much of thinking or rash actions are not fatal flaws or hamartia. The fatal flaw is leaving your email account open without logging out/signing out before leaving PC/laptop. In Three Mistakes of My Life (2008), the mobile call from best friend’s sister during climax brings havoc in the life of protagonist. Today, it is unimaginable to think of the story where in mobile or internet is not an important part of the play and vital part to play. It is not only movers and shakers of plot, but the form of telling story is also affected. At the fag-end of the first decade of the 21st century, some forms have emerged to cater the needs of techno-savvy netizens. The Epistolary form of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 45
  • 63. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 telling story initiated by Richardson in ‘Pamela’ found its new manifestation in Matt Beaumont’s novel ‘e’ in 2007. Matt has experimented with the epistolary form by replacing letters by emails among the characters. Thus, the novel is a multiple-perspective narrative where events are seen through the eyes of various people working for the agency, from temporary workers to CEO. e (novel) centers around corporate business structures, leadership, creativity, headhunting for and firing people to keep up appearances, work efficiency, business ethics, and all kinds of human weaknesses which stall progress by having employees waste their time and energy on unimportant things and which eventually prevent success. The advent of e-novels is seen as yet another step further in the evolution of new forms of telling story. The characterization, situations, plots, etc are changing and finding new alterations. Even Sidney Sheldon type pulp fiction or J.K. Rowling type child fiction or Poe type detective fiction are affected by the digital wave. We have not Cyberpunk to replace traditional classical pulp fictions. Cyberpunk is a postmodern and science fiction genre noted for its focus on "high tech and low life." The name was originally coined by Bruce Bethke as the title of his short story "Cyberpunk," published in 1983 It features advanced science, such as information technologyand cybernetics, coupled with a degree of breakdown Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 46
  • 64. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 or radical change in the social order. Cyberpunk works are well situated within postmodern literature.(Wikipedia Cyberpunk). Collaboration as against isolation is the key word in the digital age. Social media is nothing but collaborating. It seems that suddenly everybody want to ‘speak/write’. Listeners or readers are fast becoming rare species. Well, this trend of life is mirrored in Penguin project of WikiNovel. A Million Penguins, the wiki-novel experiment currently underway at Penguin Books is trying to find out if a self-organizing collective of writers can produce a credible novel on a live website. A dubious idea if you believe a novel is almost by definition the product of a singular inspiration, but praiseworthy nonetheless for its experimental bravado. Though the project has not succeed yet, nearly 1500 individuals have contributed to the writing and editing of A Million Penguins, contributing over 11,000 edits making this, in the words of Penguin’s Chief Executive, ‘not the most read, but possibly the most written novel in history‘. 75000 people have visited the site and there have been more than 280,000 page views.( Ettinghausen 2007) Such experiments in writing literature along lead one to think of the demise of literature. Kernan Alvin (1992) takes a critical look at the changing paradigm in society because of the influence of digital ways of life Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 47
  • 65. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and tries to connect with with the literature. Let me quote at length from the review of his book ‘The Death of Literature: “Kernan Alvin probes deeper, relating the death of literature to potent forces in our postindustrial world—most obviously, the technological revolution that is rapidly transforming a print to an electronic culture, replacing the authority of the written word with the authority of television, film, and computer screens. The turn taken by literary criticism itself, in deconstructing traditional literature and declaring it void of meaning in itself, and in focusing on what are described as its ideological biases against women and nonwhites, has speeded the disintegration. Recent legal debates about copyright, plagiarism, and political patronage of the arts have exposed the greed and self-interest at work under the old romantic images of the imaginative creative artist and the work of art as a perfect, unchanging icon. Kernan describes a number of the crossroads where literature and society have met and literature has failed to stand up. He discusses the high comedy of the obscenity trial in England against Lady Chatterley's Lover, in which the British literary establishment vainly tried to define literature. He takes alarmed looks at such agents of literary disintegration as schools where children who watch television eight hours a day can't read, decisions about who chooses and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 48
  • 66. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 defines the words included in dictionaries, faculty fights about the establishment of new departments and categories of study, and courtrooms where criminals try to profit from bestselling books about their crimes. According to Kernan, traditional literature is ceasing to be legitimate or useful in these changed social surroundings. What is needed, he says, if it is any longer possible in electronic culture, is a conception of literature that fits in some positive way with the new ethos of post-industrialism, plausibly claiming a place of importance both to individual lives and to society as a whole for the best kind of writing.” (Kernan yalepress.yale.edu) It is difficult to disagree with Kernan. The Gutenberg has tolled the death of printed poem or novels. As an alternative to this Apocalypse of print, some theorists, critics or artists have already found solutions of „escape”. New forms of literary practice access digital resources and force the boundaries of „literature” to expand to visual, cybernetic, hyper-textual territories. (Echinox Journal 2011). This experience of visual, cybernetic & hyper-textual is experimented in form of Vook. (www.vook.com). WHAT IS A VOOK? A vook is a new innovation in reading that blends a well-written book, high-quality video and the power of the Internet into a single, complete story. You can read your book, watch videos that enhance the story and connect Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 49
  • 67. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 with authors and your friends through social media all on one screen, without switching between platforms. Vooks are available in two formats: As a web-based application you can read on your computer and a mobile application for reading on the go. With the web-based application you don't have to download programs or install software. Just open your favorite browser and start reading and watching in an exciting new way. You can also download and install the mobile applications through the Apple iTunes store and sync them with your Apple mobile device. Vook has a simple idea: put great filmmakers together with great authors and let them create a new kind of media. But for this to succeed, we need a talented filmmaker who can be imaginative, work with another creative vision and shoot and edit for an entirely new form. For more than 500 years the book has been a remarkably stable entity: a coherent string of connected words, printed on paper and bound between covers. (Vook) But in the age of the iPhone, Kindle and YouTube, the notion of the book is becoming increasingly elastic as publishers mash together text, video and Web features in a scramble to keep readers interested in an archaic form of entertainment. The readers are invited to log on to a Web site to watch brief Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 50
  • 68. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 videos that flesh out the plot. Some publishers say this kind of multimedia hybrid is necessary to lure modern readers who crave something different. But reading experts question whether fiddling with the parameters of books ultimately degrades the act of reading. (Rich 2009) I would like to quote at length form what Moroko Rich reported in The New York Times (Oct 1, 2009 Pg A1) “There is no question that these new media are going to be superb at engaging and interesting the reader,” said Maryanne Wolf, a professor of child development at Tufts University and author of “Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain.” But, she added, “Can you any longer read Henry James or George Eliot? Do you have the patience?” The most obvious way technology has changed the literary world is with electronic books. Over the past year devices like Amazon’s Kindle and Sony’s Reader have gained in popularity. But the digital editions displayed on these Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 51
  • 69. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal devices remain largely faithful to the traditional idea of a book by using words — and occasional pictures — to tell a story or explain a subject. Simon & Schuster is also releasing two digital novels combining text with videos a minute or 90 seconds long that supplement — and in some cases advance — the story line. “Everybody is trying to think about how books and information will best be put together in the 21st century,” said Judith Curr, publisher of Atria Books, the Simon & Schuster imprint that is releasing partnership the with electronic Vook, a editions in multimedia company. She added, “You can’t just be linear anymore with your text.” (Rich 2009) Well, the question may arise at the end of this paper reading that ‘what is the meaning of this comparative survey of art of telling story? I would end this paper with following stolen words – quoted randomly from ‘The Search is All?: The Pursuit of Meaning in Julian Barnes’s Flaubert’s Parrot, Staring at the Sun and A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters’ written by Wojciech Drag. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 52
  • 70. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 “For Oliver, who found the whole idea deeply embarrassing?” Originally used by Terry Eagleton to opens his recent book entitled The Meaning of Life (2007). What is more, in the preface he notes that writing about such a suspect concept as “the meaning of life” seems “fit for the crazed and the comic”. Why is the notion of “meaning” embarrassing to explore? Why are we so wary of it? Possible answers are many. One of them is that we have come to live in an age that distrusts “big words” and concepts which purport to account for the totality of human existence, which disregard variety and difference. The postmodern thought, which highlights the contingency of human life and announces the lack of any solid foundation to it calls into question the notion of absolute meaning and regards it as redolent of “an old-fashioned metaphysics”. The search for absolute meaning, I will argue, can also find its expression in a desire to establish a stable context of interpretation (such as religion or art) – a framework through which one can understand one’s own experience and make sense of it. It may also take the form of a longing for truth and authenticity, which would stand firm and intact in confrontation with the relativity, skepticism and moral chaos that appear implicit in the postmodern age marked by the demise of grand narratives. In the times when no new ideas are to be expressed, what we find is experiments with forms of expression. The end of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 53
  • 71. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 cognitive receptivity deadens the creative grey cells of human mind. Is it the absence of creativity that more importance is given to form of expression rather than the idea of expression? May be it is the urge for instant gratification or to satisfy sensual pleasure that these sort of mingling of words and videos are experimented. May be it is the habit of techno-savvy mind to go for multitasking – doing several things at a time – reading, viewing, listening, discussing on social network, interacting with author and other readers – that these forms are emerging. During Modernist era, Eliots, Pounds James Joyces and Beketts were in search of form of expression which can express the fragmented existed of world war worn generation. They found in stream of consciousness, absurd theatre and mythical technique. May be today’s writer wants synergism of words and videos for better expression of their ideas and to give what reader wants. Yes, the traditional ways of writing literature and reading literature is on death bed. In all ages past, we have experienced at each and every fin de siècle there is conflict between the new and the old. For the time being while the transition is happening, we find literature with the traits of the old and the new. It’s a different matter that such literature is hated by both, the old readers and the new readers. Shakespeare’s plays were compared with bedlam asylum. Wordsworth’s poems were considered childish, D.H. Lawrence Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 54
  • 72. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 was porno-writer, T.S. Eliot was not understood to the Moderns. Today, they are all ‘classics’. In a new era of globalization and terrorism, Eagleton (2003) warns, the bundle of ideas known as post-modernism is essentially toothless. In this eloquent synthesis of a lifetime of learning, Eagleton challenges contemporary intellectuals to engage with a range of vital topics-love, evil, death, morality, religion, and revolution-that they've ignored over the past thirty years. In his cry for more holistic and humane way of "reading" the world, it becomes essential to see how art of storytelling is undergoing sweeping change under the influence of digital age. It would be interesting to watch how will comparative literature and literary theory respond to these new practices? Will the theorists and critics consider “old” theories fulfilled by the „empowerment of the reader”? Will they feel the need to forge new concepts and new methods? Or will they seek entirely new perspectives to which traditional methods can be adjusted? Alternative conceptual and methodological discourses emerge in present-day discourses on literature, springing from totally different points of view. The expansion of literature beyond the paper-written support and the expansion of digital media to the realms of literature engage writers and researchers of the literary field in a rethinking of their own creative identity and of their disciplinary approach. (Echinox Journal) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 55
  • 73. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Works cited: Altick, Richard & John J. Fenstermaker. ‘The Art of Literary Research’. Fourth Ed. W.W. Norton & Co. New York, London. 1993. Arnold, Mathew. A Study of Poetry. Essays: English and American. Vol. XXVIII. The Harvard Classics. New York: P.F. Collier & Son, 1909–14; Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/28/. Barnes, Julian. A History of the World in 10½ Chapters. Jonathan Cape (UK). 1989. Beaumont, Matt. ‘e’. 2000, Reissued 2007. Harper Collins. U.K. Bhagat, Chetan. One Night @ Call Centre. Rupa & Co. 2005. India. Bhagat, Chetan. Three Mistakes of My Life. Rupa & Co. 2008. India. Bhatt, Mahesh. Qtd. In ‘Is M.F. Hussain a Victim’. Seema Sinha, Sep 12, 2010 Retrieved on 12 Jan. 2012 from http:///2010-09- 12/people/28250651_1_paintings-picasso-qatar> articles.timesofindia.Indiatimes.com/ Coetzee, J.M. Foe. 1986. Viking Press. Compton-Ricket, Arthur. A History of English Litearature. T. Nelson. 1946.Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (2nd ed.), London: John Murray. 1860. Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. 1719. W. Taylor. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 56
  • 74. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Darwin, Charles. On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life (2nd ed.), London: John Murray. 1860. Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. 1719. W. Taylor. Derrida, Jacques. “Structure, Sign and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences”. Alan Bass, tr. Writing and Difference. 1966. Drag, Wojciech. The Search is All?: Dryden, John. Of Dramatik Poesie, An Essay. L O N D O N, Printed for Henry Herringman, at the Sign of the Anchor, on the Lower-walk of the New-Exchange. 1668. Retrived on 11 Jan.. 2012 from <http://andromeda.rutgers.edu/~jlynch/Texts/drampoet.html> Eagleton, Terry. After Theory. Slovaj Zizek. http://www.amazon.com/After-Theory-Terry Book Review. Eagleton/dp/ 0465017738. Retrieved on 12th Jan. 2012. Echinox Journal. Literature in the Digital Age. Call for Papers. Vol 20/2011. Esslin, Martin. ‘The Theatre of the Absurd’.Pelican Books. 1967. UK. Ettinghausen, Jeremy. A Million Penguins Go to Sleep. The Retrieved from Penguin Blog. http://thepenguinblog.typepad.com/ the_penguin_blog/2007/03/a_million_pengu.html> on 12th Jan. 2012. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 57
  • 75. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Fowles, John. The French Lieutenant’s Woman. 1969. Jonathan Cape Ltd. UK. Freud, Sigmund The Aetiology of Hysteria. Standard Edition, Vol. 3, p. 204; Schimek, J. G. (1987). Fact and Fantasy in the Seduction Theory: a Historica Review. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, xxxv: 937-65; Toews, J.E. (1991). Historicizing Psychoanalysis: Freud in His Time and for Our Time, Journal of Modern History, vol. 63 (pp. 504–545), p. 510, n.12; McNally, R.J. Remembering Trauma, Harvard University Press, 1993, pp. 159–169. 1896c. Johnson, B.S. House Mother Normal. 1971. Collins. UK. Johnson, B.S. The Unfortunates. 1969. Secker & Warburg. UK. Kernan, Alvin. The Death of Literature. Yale University Press. 1992. Retrieved from < http://yalepress.yale.edu/book.asp?isbn=9780300052381> on 12th Jan. 2012. Kumar T, Vijay. Mahesh Dattani’s Collected Plays. Muse India Archives. Book Review Retrived from http://www.museindia.com/viewarticle. asp?myr=2007 & issid=14&id=773 on 12 Jan. 2012. Long, John R. Aesop’s Fables. Star Systems. © 1997-2011. < http://www.aesopfables.com/ > Retrived on 10 Jan.. 2011. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 58
  • 76. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal Long, W.J. English Literature. The Project Gutenberg EBook. 2004. Nietzsche, The Gay Science: With a Prelude in Rhymes and an Appendix of Songs, tr. Walter Kaufmann. Vintage Books, March 1974. Perec, Georges. A Void. Tr.from the original French La Disparition (literally, "The Disappearance").1995. The Harvill Press. Rich, Motoko. Curling Up With Hybrid Books, Videos Included. The New York Times. Published on 30 Sept. 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/01/books/01book.html. Retrieved on Aug. 2010. Sahoo, Sarojini. Sense & Sensuality. Blog. Retrived from http://sarojinisahoo.blogspot.in/ on 12 Jan. 2012. Spivak , Gayatri Chakravorty. "Draupadi" by Mahasveta Devi.Critical Inquiry. Vol. 8, No. 2, Writing and Sexual Difference (Winter, 1981), pp. 381-402. Published by: The University of Chicago Press. Stable URL:http://www.jstor.org/stable/1343169. Staring at the Sun and A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters. Submitted for the degree of MA Literature, Culture and Society. University of Glamorgan, September 2007. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 59
  • 77. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal The Pursuit of Meaning in Julian Barnes’s Flaubert’s Parrot, Vaidya, Kajal Oza. Draupadi (Gujarati novel). RR Sheth Co. Pvt. Ltd. 2011. Vook. www.vook.com. © 2009-2012 Vook INC. Ward, A.C.Twentieth Century English Literature. Core Collection Books. London. 1978. Watson, Noelle (ed.) Reference Guide to Short Fiction. St. James Press, Detroit. 1994. Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson, and Fieldin Uni of California Press. 1957. Wikipedia contributors. "Cyberpunk." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 13 Feb. 2012. Web. 14 Jan. 2012. Wikipedia contributors. "Panchatantra." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 23 Jan. 2012. Web. 11 Jan.. 2012. About the Author: Dilip Barad, Ph.D.: He is an Associate Professor & Head, Department of English, Bhavnagar University (Gujarat- INDIA), where he teaches American Literature, Indian Writing in English, British Literature and Theories in Literary Criticism. He has contributed several articles and book reviews in renowned journals and magazines. He has published books on Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 60
  • 78. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Business Communication and English Literature. His areas of interest are Technology Enabled Language and Literature Learning (TELL), theories in literary criticism and ELT. He is TELL practitioner and experimenter. UGC has awarded financial assistance to him to do research on TELL. He conducts workshops on ‘Use of ICT in ELT’ at national and international forums. His profile in detail can be viewed at www.wikieducator.org/user:Dilipbarad. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal
  • 79. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-4: History and the Individual in Manju Kapoor’s Married Woman ToC Dr. Firoz Shaikh Head, Department of English Arts & Commerce College, Mendarda, Dist:Junagadh (Gujarat) Abstract Many of the post colonial writers caught the theme of historical events such as Independence and Partition in Indian Writing in English, in their key works such as Khushwant Singh’s Train to Pakistan, Chaman Nahal’s Azadi, Manohar Malgonkar’s A Bend in the Ganges, Amitav Ghosh's The Shadow Lines, Manju Kapur's Difficult Daughters etc. In A Married Woman (2002), the second of her three novels and the only one so far to incorporate public concerns into a contemporary setting, Manju Kapur focuses on, among other themes, the HinduMuslim conflict as crystallized around the Ayodhya/Babri Masjid issue. This novel has attracted attention for its frank depiction of a love affair between two women, but less attention has been paid to the historical and political context in Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 62
  • 80. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 which that relationship develops. The writer boldly returns to the Ramayana's sense of a beginning by initiating the transgressive relationship in Ayodhya, in the wake of an anti-communalist rally, and by making one of the pair the Hindu widow of a secularist Muslim. The novel explores how India entering the age of globalization, evolving personal relations on the social level are shaped by wider historical forces. ________________________________________________________________________ A Married Woman, published in 2002, is the second novel by the Delhi-resident writer Manju Kapur (the others to date are Difficult Daughters, 1998, and Home, 2006). It is the only one of the three to combine a setting nearcontemporaneous with the time of writing with the head-on examination of public issues. Set in an India of the late 1980s and early 1990s poised on the verge of its globalization-powered take-off, it explores two evidently controversial subjects: Hindu-Muslim confrontation and same-sex intimacy between women, against a backdrop of respectable middle-class Delhi life. The theme of Indian individuals was caught up in and having their lives reshaped by major collective historical events such as Independence and Partition. It has been a constant theme in postcolonial Indian Writing in English such as Khushwant Singh’s Train to Pakistan, Chaman Nahal’s Azadi, Manohar Malgonkar’s A Bend in the Ganges, Amitav Ghosh's The Shadow Lines, Manju Kapur's Difficult Daughters etc. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 63
  • 81. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 In A Married Woman, history enters the contemporary setting through the presence of a highly charged symbol of ancient India today appropriated for new purposes, namely the city of Ayodhya. Kapur uses a celebrated, indeed notorious, recent event - the demolition by Hindu extremists of the Babri Masjid mosque in Ayodhya - as a significant part in the backdrop of the life stories of her two women protagonists, and does so with a fine sense of documentation and detail. A Married Woman has been greeted by some readers as a direct contribution to the same-sex cause, but such a categorization appears problematic1. This is not a novel emanating from India's same-sex community as such, nor is it linked to the campaign spearheaded by Vikram Seth to overthrow the legal prohibition, dating from the Raj era, on same-sex intimacy. In addition, the same-sex relationship occupies only the last third of the novel. An alternative reading of A Married Woman may be suggested which views Kapur's novel as, inter alia, a dense exploration of the making of history in two different senses: the contemporary appropriation of the artifacts and symbols of the past; and the attempt to forge new kinds of human history here and now, in the construction and exploration of a discourse of modernity that stands in an uneasy relationship to a still-hegemonic tradition. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 64
  • 82. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Astha Vadera, a school teacher with an MA in English, lives a comfortable, conventional Delhi Hindu middle-class life, within an arranged marriage with her businessman husband, a self-satisfied materialist who sells South Korean TV sets, and their two children, until she meets Aijaz Khan, a secular Muslim involved in a progressive theatre group. Their budding friendship is cruelly brought to an end when Aijaz perishes tragically, burnt to death by a Hindu mob in the wake of the Ayodhya dispute. Yet it is, later, in Ayodhya itself that Astha first encounters Pipeelika (Pipee) Khan a woman qualified in sociology and economics, who works for a Delhi NGO and who, though raised a Hindu, turns out to be Aijaz's widow, having boldly married him across the religious divide. Against all social norms, the friendship between the two women develops into a fully intimate same-sex relationship. The relationship reaches its highest point when Astha and Pipee visit South India together, but finally it breaks up with Pipee leaving for a doctorate in the US and Astha left with no option but to return full-time to her marriage. In Manju Kapur's novel, the personal histories of the two women unfold in the larger context of a changing India and the rival interpretations placed today on key elements of the country's history. Here, Kapur places herself in the ranks of those contemporary writers who have interrogated reductive and communalist views of Indian history, as in Salman Rushdie's satire on Bal Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 65
  • 83. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Thackeray in The Moor's Last Sigh or Githa Hariharan's exploration of Hindutva tendencies on Indian campuses in her In Times of Siege. If Rushdie sees Hindu sectarianism as negating Bombay's long tradition of pluralism and Hariharan explores ideologically motivated re-readings of ancient south Indian history, Kapur boldly takes on no less a subject of historical and political controversy than Ayodhya and the Babri Masjid issue. Ayodhya is a small city located some 550 kms from Delhi in Uttar Pradesh state. It is also, of course, much more than that, as a city with major symbolic resonance as both a mythical space of the Hindu cultural heritage and a very contemporary post-Independence trouble-spot. In the Ramayana, Ayodhya is Rama's birthplace, the city where he should have been made regent but from which he is expelled to the forest, and to which he returns in triumph having won Sita back from Ravana's clutches, to inaugurate a legendary golden age, the Ram Rajya. It is also in Ayodhya that the sage Valmiki is believed to have composed the original Sanskrit Ramayana (and there too, that century later, Tulsidas began his celebrated Hindi version). Valmiki's Ramayana describes Ayodhya under Dararastha, Rama's father, as an ideal city, an earthly counterpart of the heavenly city of Indra.2. In Kapur's novel, Ayodhya as symbolic space is closely linked with a complex and many-sided exploration of the notion of history. Indeed, both Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 66
  • 84. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Ayodhya and history are among this novel's keywords. The time span of A Married Woman begins at a moment in the 1980s when the Babri Masjid is still standing; the reader is allowed to visit the mosque with the protagonists; but by the end, it is 1992 and the kar sevaks have reduced it to rubble. History irrupts into the text as a key signifier in the sequences around Aijaz Khan. Aijaz is a history lecturer by profession. He teaches history, and during the holidays he performs. When his Street Theatre Group is invited to hold a workshop at the secondary school where Astha is a teacher, Aijaz becomes her initiator into Indian history as crystallized around Ayodhya. The workshop is aimed at the school producing a play on, precisely, the history to date of the Babri Masjid / Ram Janambhoomi controversy. Kapur's own view on the issue is clearly the skeptical. To quote from the text of A Married Woman itself, 'The protest that it was not possible to really place the exact spot of a man's birthplace so many thousands of years ago. (105). Aijaz, as a secular Muslim, takes a similar line, and it is from a neutral, rationalist point that he asks Astha to write the text for the play. To do so, she goes to research the subject at Delhi's India International Centre, 'in the history section' (107), and thus Aijaz takes her on a voyage through history. She stares at a picture of the then still standing Babri Masjid and asks herself: 'How could she effectively present its history, long and tortured, in a manner that was Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 67
  • 85. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 simple without distorting?' (107). Indeed, Aijaz has set Astha a major historian's task: to provide a non-'distorting' perspective on a 'tortured' issue: she takes up the challenge until she feels it is she, not he, who is 'the Babri Masjid expert' (113). The play goes ahead, under the title Babri Masjid: Fact, Fiction and You (115). Astha's son Himanshu, a pupil at the school plays the role of the mosque. Three days after the performance, the newspaper headlines scream out: 'THEATRE GROUP BURNED ALIVE IN VAN'. Aijaz and his co-actors, performing the same play in a mohalla, have been dragged off the stage by an unspecified band of militants, abducted and burned to death (138-139). A newly politicized Astha takes part in a rally in Delhi to protest the killings and she becomes an active member of the Sampradayakta Mukti Manch, 'a forum set up in memory of the Street Theatre Group' (147) to fight communalism and defend secularism. In 1989, the Manch decides to hold a rally in Ayodhya itself, to affirm its pluralist view of India past and present, precisely at the time when the Hindu supremacists are turning up the pressure on the Babri Masjid issue and planning to march on Ayodhya, bricks in hand, to restore the fabled temple. History thus brings Astha to Rama's city at a time when the communalists are dreaming of a 'Hindu Restoration' (185) that would mark the Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 68
  • 86. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 end of history – and yet, also, at a time when Ayodhya might seem a space more open to a multiple vision of history than it does today, or even by the end of the novel, for Kapur has her protagonist visit Ayodhya at a moment when the Babri Masjid is still there on the Ramkot. Here as before in defiance of her husband, who has little time for what he calls her 'rabble-rousing' (212) and if anything sides at least passively with a watered-down Hindutva line, Astha plunges herself into living history by joining the Manch on its strategic visit to Ayodhya. She takes the train from Delhi alone, and boards with her Manch fellows at a guest-house in Faizabad. 'Not far from the banks of the Saryu' (196), across the river from the old town, her secularist group holds its rally. The first speaker is 'a very respected historian' (197), his profession recalling Aijaz, who declares forcibly that 'history can be used to build or to destroy' and that 'there is no evidence ... that Babur ever came to Ayodhya, let alone declared a temple' (196). He is followed by Astha herself, and her own speech places her at history's heart, even as she strives to reshape the whole notion in less ideological and more human terms. Then suddenly, the narrative takes on a whole new dimension, as there in Rama's city, not at the Babri Masjid but in view of it, Astha's eyes light on 'someone staring at her' (198), an unknown woman whom she will go on to meet in a full-blown Ayodhya epiphany. That ‘ someone‘ is Aijaz's widow Pipee, who is there in Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 69
  • 87. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Ayodhya to attend the rally, she too having come from Delhi to escort a group of basti women for her NGO. The two talk after the rally and meet the next day to tour Ayodhya's monuments, the Babri Masjid included. In Delhi, they meet again, and the remaining third of the novel centres on the vicissitudes of their relationship, its blossoming, consummation and final slow, painful dissolution. The relationship may of course be read in and for itself as a manifestation of same-sex identity, but the very circumstance that it begins in Ayodhya may also point to a broader reading. Both Astha and Pipee may be best described as bisexual; both have been in love with Aijaz, and with him Pipee has been 'a married woman' quite as much as Astha. Before Aijaz she was involved with a woman, a schoolmate called Samira (presumably also Muslim from her name). Pipee thus shifts partners from female to male and back again. This utopian sense of open-endedness is reinforced by Pipee's status as a Hindu widow and her total rejection of the norms of withdrawal and internalized guilt that all too often govern Hindu widowhood (As in Deepa Mehta's film Water). The fluidity that characterizes the life-story of both women (more successfully in Pipee's case) contrasts with the normative rigidity that marks Astha's husband, the pseudo-modern, eminently traditional Hemant. If this final part of the novel centres on the two women, at the same time Ayodhya constantly reappears as a leitmotif. Astha continues to Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 70
  • 88. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 inherit Aijaz's mantle of unofficial historian of Ayodhya, asked by the Manch to 'prepare a readable memorandum that would combine historical accuracy with emotional appeal' (215) – a pamphlet entitled The Testimony of the Black Pillars, in which she states that 'the black stone pillars ... are not proof that a temple was destroyed'. As she writes, she perceives history as something not fixed but relative: 'she had to go on sifting, sieving, fact from fact, fiction from fiction, and in the end not be sure of anything' (216). When the two women escape briefly to South India, ostensibly to join an anti-communalist yatra, Pipee, she too following in Aijaz's footsteps, organizes 'a street play around interpretations of history', using Astha's pamphlet as a source (262). Finally – it is now 1992 history catches up on the two women even as the utopia of their relationship starts to fall apart. Abroad on a compulsory holiday with her family, in London Astha watches the BBC and witnesses the build-up to the kar sevaks' onslaught on the Babri Masjid. Back in India, she finds that Pipee had actually gone back to Ayodhya and witnessed the latest goings-on in person – an experience that will become source material for her American Ph.D on 'the politics of communalism' (288). The inevitable cannot now be postponed, and as the novel draws to an end and Pipee prepares to leave for the US, Astha picks up the newspaper and reads the headline: 'A NATION'S SHAME: BABRI MASJID DEMOLISHED' (291). All the work, intellectual, cultural and pedagogic, done by Aijaz, Astha Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 71
  • 89. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and Pipee to fight communalism with secularist and pluralist arguments seems now no more durable than the two women's unsustainable love-relationship; and as Astha resigns herself to losing Pipee, she also has to handle Hemant's postdemolition dismissal of her, his wife, as a 'Muslim lover' (292). Temporarily at least, the monolithic view of history seems in the ascendant, and alternative possibilities, both personal and political, contract and close up. Nonetheless, alternative ways of seeing remain, and a further interesting element of Kapur's novel is the way that, at least to an extent, it could be read as adumbrating aspects of the two women's story as a kind of scenario for an alternative Ramayana. The great narrative that begins in Ayodhya is, of course, indelibly written into the consciousness of virtually all Indians, literate or otherwise, if not through the countless texts in multiple languages, then through the endless stage, cinema and, most recently, TV versions. R.K. Narayan has said, in his introduction to his retelling of the Tamil version by Kamban: 'I am prepared to state that almost every individual ... in India is aware of the story of the Ramayana in some measure or other'.3 Sita, in particular, is traditionally seen as the archetype of the perfect 'married woman'. She is 'the ideal of a faithful woman and a devoted wife'. The text of A Married Woman includes specific reference not only to Ayodhya but to the epic itself: mention is made of the late 1980s televised version, whose viewing becomes for Astha's family, as for so Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 72
  • 90. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 many real ones, an act of devotion. Astha challenges her husband with her own, non-communalist reading of the epic's message: 'Ram would have hated what was going on in his name – a man who sacrificed everything to keep his father's honour, who left his home, his palace, his kingdom ... he would be the last to appreciate the fuss over his birthplace' (108). There exists a pan-Indian tradition of alternative female Ramayanas, or, indeed, Sitayanas4; and one may tentatively point to elements in the Astha-Pipee narrative that might partially constitute it as such a women's Ramayana. Not only does their story begin in Ayodhya, but Pipee, South Indian on her mother's side, could be seen as a female Ravana, to be interpreted positively: coaxing Astha-Sita away from Hemant-Rama, and succeeding in the relationship as her epic counterpart does not. This would not seem entirely farfetched if we consider that in south Indian renditions of the Ramayana such as Kamban's, Ravana, spiriting Sita from the Aryan north southwards through the Dravidian lands to Lanka, tends to be presented in a more positive light than in Valmiki's canonic northern/Sanskrit version. Astha's journey south with Pipee takes them through Chennai to Kanyakumari and then up to Bangalore and the boarding school where Pipee's mother lives and works – perhaps an alternative version, for the two of them, of Ravana's palace in Lanka. Hemant would then Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 73
  • 91. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 appear as a singularly unheroic Rama who does nothing to 'rescue' his wife; and Astha's return to the family bosom would be the result not of a monkey army's deeds but the work of a Hanuman within her head, an internalized notion of family duty that ultimately triumphs over dreams of an alternative lifestyle. As India plunging into the age of globalization, what has won out for the moment is not the open-ended future of multiple choices embodied in Pipee, but the bitter cocktail of the kar sevaks' communalist neo-traditionalism and the pseudo-modern, TV-and-Disneyland discourse of Hemant. Despite all this, perhaps Manju Kapur's biggest stroke of genius in this novel has been to locate the two women's meeting, adumbrating as it does a utopian future of open-ended choice, in an Ayodhya. Her text thus reappropriates the fabled city hijacked by the communalists and returns it to its broader identity as a symbol of Indian multiple possibilities and new beginnings, for both individual and nation. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 74
  • 92. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 References 1.Subhash Chandra, review of A Married Woman, Intersections: Gender, History and Culture in the Asian Context (Electronic journal, Perth, Australia), 14, Nov. 2006. 2.Valmiki, The Ramayana. In Romesh C. Dutt, tr., The Ramayana and the Mahabharata: Condensed into English Verse, London: Dent (Everyman's Library), 1969. 3.Narayan R.K, 'Introduction' to The Ramayana: a Shortened Modern Prose Version of the Indian Epic, New Delhi: Penguin India, 1971, ix-xi. 4.Sen, Nabaneeta Dev. 'Lady Sings the Blues: When Women Retell the Ramayana', Manushi: A Journal about Women and Society, No 108, Sept-Oct 1998. 5.Kapur, Manju. A Married Woman. 2002. London: Faber and Faber, 2003. (All references are taken from this book only.) Websites referred •www.indiatogether.org/manushi/issue108/nabaneeta.htm •wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 75
  • 93. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 About the Author: Dr.Firoz Shaikh, has been serving as the head of the English Department since 1998 in Arts and Commerce College, Mendarda. He did his doctorate in 2006 on Indian English Partition literature. His many research articles were published in international & national journals and books. He has presented many research papers in International, National and State level conferences and seminars. His two books Partition a Human Tragedy: A Critical Study of Novels on Partition of Indian Subcontinent and second one (edited) New Perspectives on Indian Writing in English are published by Sarup & Sons, New Delhi. His two programmes were also telecasted from Rajkot Doordarshan’s Girnar Channel. He has also discharged his duties as a resource person in seminars, workshops, and other academic training programmes. He has completed his minor research project funded by UGC. He is the District Coordinator of Digital Education and Learning Lab & Key Master Trainer of Knowledge Management Programme, both are the initiatives of Commissioner of Higher Education, Gandhinagar. He is also the co-editor of Spark International Online eJournal. His area of interest is Indian Writing in English and ELT. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 76
  • 94. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-5: Waste Elimination Method of 5S: A Review ToC Er. Rajesh Kumar Mehta Faculty-Deptt. of Mechanical Engineering, RIT, Indore Dr. Naveen K. Mehta Dr. D Mehta Faculty-MIT, Faculty-FMS-Pt.JNIBM, Ujjain (MP) Vikram University, Ujjain Abstract Most organizations begin by implementing waste elimination methods in a particular production area or at a “pilot” facility, and then expand use of the methods over time. Companies typically tailor these methods to address their own unique needs and circumstances, although the methods generally remain similar. In doing so, they may develop their own terminology around the various methods. There are numerous methods and tools that organizations use to implement waste elimination methods like as Kaizen, 5S, JIT Production, TPM etc.Among them 5S is an approach to quality improvement that can take an organization to new heights when implemented effectively. Simple and immensely practical, this methodology can transform the fabric of a company. The present paper is an attempt to review 5S as an effective waste elimination method. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 77
  • 95. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Keywords: Lean, 5S, Concept, Method, Production. Introduction 5S is a Japanese methodology for workplace organization. As the name implies, it is a five-step technique for changing the mindsets of the staff and involving the entire organization in improvements. To some, this methodology may appear to be a housekeeping approach, but it actually delivers much more. The 5S concept was popularized by Taiichi Ohno, who designed the Toyota Production System, and Shigeo Shingo, the Japanese practitioner who put forward the concept of poka-yoke. When Japanese organizations embark on a quality journey, typically they commence with 5S deployment and then move on to higher methodologies. In the manufacturing World, 5S is used as a housekeeping tool while deploying. Rules of Five S’s The Five S’s are some rules for workplace organization which aim to organize each worker’s work area for maximum efficiency. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 78
  • 96. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal 5S AMERICAN SORT JAPANESE Evaluate and eliminate everything Seiri not required for the current work, keeping only the bare essentials. ‘Say-ree’ (Organization) Separate needed tools, parts, and instructions materials & from unneeded instantly remove the latter unnecessary things. SET IN ORDER Arrange items in a way that they are Seiton (Straighten) easily visible and accessible. ‘Say-ton’ (Tidiness) SHINE Inspect, refine, and clean everything and Seiso (Sweep) find ways to keep it clean. Make this a ‘Say-soo’ (Purity) part of our everyday work. STANDARDIZE Create rules and procedures by which Seiketsu (Systematize) the first Document. 3 S’s are maintained. ‘Say-kit-sue’ (Cleanliness) Put things in order: Neatly arrange and identify materials & equipment/tools for ease of use Conduct a cleanup campaign. Clean to original condition. Do cleaning work positively. Conduct the other 3Ss at frequent, in fact daily, intervals to maintain a work environment in perfect condition. Free from bad habits. SUSTAIN (Self-discipline) Keep the other 4S activities from Shitsuke unraveling. ‘Shit-zuk-ay’ (Discipline) Be disciplined. Form the habit of always following the first four Ss, maintaining what has been achieved. Be well-mannered; use polite behavior. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 79
  • 97. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 5S provides a cyclical, ongoing approach with five methodologies for organizing, cleaning, developing, and sustaining a productive work environment. In the daily work of our organizational unit, routines that maintain organization and orderliness are essential to the smooth, efficient flow of work. This approach encourages all staff to improve their working conditions. 1) Sort – Go through the workplace removing anything that is not needed for regular workflows, as well as excess inventories. Throw away garbage and move items that we are unsure of to a red tag area for later evaluation. 2) Straighten (or “Set in order”) – Arrange essential things in order for easy access. The objective is to minimize the amount of motion required in order for workers to do their jobs. For example, a tool box can be used by an operator or a maintenance staff who must use various tools. In the tool box, every tool is placed at a fixed spot that the user can quickly pick it up without spending time looking for it. This way of arrangement can also help the user be immediately aware of any missing tools. 3) Scrub (or “Shine”) – Keep machines and work areas clean so as to eliminate problems associated with un-cleanliness. In some industries, airborne dust is among the causes of poor product surface or color contamination. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 80
  • 98. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 To be more aware of dust, some companies paint their working places in light colors and use a high level of lighting. 2)Stabilize (or “Standardize”) – Implement daily checklists to maintain 5S. Create owners and rules to maintain the first three Ss as part of daily work. 3)Sustain – Promote, communicate and train in the 5 S’s to ensure that it is part of the company’s corporate culture. This might include assigning a team to be responsible for supervising compliance with the 5 S’s. Why to implement 5S? Implementing 5S across the organization will:1) Change the mindset of employees and facilitate continuous improvement. 2) Improve the efficiency of employees and make them more productive. 3) Eliminate time spent on non-value-added work affecting individual and workplace efficiency. 4) Create a robust foundation for future work in the quality arena As a matter of fact, before implementing any other quality methodology, organizations should implement and institutionalize 5S Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 81
  • 99. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Conclusions There is no question that the elimination of waste is an essential ingredient for survival in today’s manufacturing world. Companies must strive to create high-quality, and low cost products that can get to the customers in the shortest time possible. Last few years had seen plenty of researches into the area of manufacturing improvement such as lean manufacturing, total quality management, total productive maintenance and their application within various manufacturing companies such as automotives, electronics, plastics components and etc. Majority of research studies have shown 5S as the best manufacturing method in the 21st century. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 82
  • 100. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 References [1] Womack, J., Jones, D.T. and Roos, D., (1990), “The machine that changed the world,” Rawson Associates, NY. [2] Karlsson, C. and Åhlström, P., (1996), “Assessing changes towards lean production”, International Journal of Operations & Production Management 16, pp 24-41. [3] Liker, J.K. and Wu, Y.C., (2000), “Japanese automakers, US suppliers and supply-chainsuperiority”, Sloan Management Review 42, pp 81-93. [4] Hines, P., Holweg, M. & Rich, N. (2004). Learning to evolve. A review of contemporary lean thinking. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 24, pp 994-1011. [5] Dennis, P. (2007), Lean Production Simplified: A plain language guide to the world's most powerful production system. New York: Productivity Press. [6] Wilson, L. (2010), How To Implement Lean Manufacturing. New York: McGraw-Hill Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 83
  • 101. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Note on Authors: 1. Er. Rajesh Kumar Mehta is working as a Faculty and Head of Mechanical Engineering Department in RIT, Indore. He has completed his ME in Industrial Engineering and Management from RGPV, Bhopal. He is also an MBA in Marketing Management from IGNOU, New Delhi. He completed his Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering from RGPV, Bhopal (M.P.) He did his Diploma in Mechanical Engineering from M.P. Board of Technical University, Bhopal (M.P.) His areas of specialization and interest are Industrial Engineering & Production Management/ Production Engineering/ Marketing Management / O.R. He has authored several research papers in International and National journals of repute. He actively takes parts in presenting his research papers in International and National level Conferences/Seminars/workshops. He is also guiding UG/PG students in their project works and research endeavors. 2. Dr. D. Mehta is a Reader in Faculty of Management Studies, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Business Management, Vikram University, Ujjain. He has more than a decade of teaching /research and administrative experience. He also contributed as an Associate Editor in the prestigious Indian Journal of Accounting. He has authored several research papers /articles on Marketing, and other Management related themes. He is UGC-NET qualified in Management and Ph.D. in Management. He has participated in young scientist congress. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 84
  • 102. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 3. Dr. Naveen K Mehta is presently working as a Reader and Head – Communication Skills Department, MIT, Ujjain (MP) .He is a former Faculty of The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India, New Delhi. He has more than seven years of research, academic and teaching experience. He has been honoured by the Prime Minister of India and Ministry of Human Resource Development of India on account of his eritorious and outstanding academic career. He is UGC- NET & SLET qualified as well triple post graduate in Business Management, Education and English Literature. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 85
  • 103. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-6: Tagore's Portrayal of Feminine Characters: Manifesting the Bengali Society ToC Dr. Richa Tewari Asst. Prof. Dept. of Humanities, PSIT, Kanpur Abstract Strong, ambitious, and independent- these are all characteristics that are associated with many of the women today. The role of women has made great strides over past eras, as we move closer toward a state of equality. From labels such as, “Frailty, thy name is woman!”(I, II, 46) females now are productive, confident, members of society. Women now have a powerful voice in the occurrences of today. However, society was not always so accepting of this idea. William Shakespeare’s Hamlet exhibits society’s submissive view of the female during the Elizabethan era. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, Gertrude and Ophelia portray women who are romantically passionate, but are frail, passive, people lacking the precedence to make decisions concerning their own lives. Similar representation of women is conspicuous in the works of Indian writers. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 86
  • 104. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 From the times immemorial, the feminine characters have been portrayed as a symbol of fecundity, an Indian Goddess (Durga and Kali, or even as a class of people who'd best place is within the home, "ranna gharer pratibha" ('the talent of the kitchen'). In each of these cases the woman is not viewed as an individual, but she is a part of a whole symbolizing one philosophy or the other. Replicating the true tradition of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Ishwar Chandra Vidhya Sagar, Tagore through his novels brings out the problems of the women of his age. For this purpose he makes women the protagonists in almost all his novels. He tries to focus the attention of the society on the major problems of the women. The fight of the modern intellectual young women for parity and independence in the maledominated conservative society has been exposed frequently. The predicament of women in the joint families after their husband’s death is well depicted who are physically, psychologically and financially exploited. If they think of are not permitted for the second marriage. The obstructions that take place in the family setup when the modern women involve themselves in the freedom fight have largely been highlighted in Tagore’s works. Tagore’s female characters are found vivid and lively. The tragic condition of women in the Bengali society was best demonstrated in the grudging narrow-mindedness of the society. Revealing the maltreatment which women were subjected to during this period, Tagore pointed out the injustice and absurdity of outdated and cruel feudal customs. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 87
  • 105. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 HemaliChallenging Feudal Backwardness of the Society ne of the novel ‘The Wreak’ is a traditional woman. She is the true representative of the new emerging class of emancipated women of the early twentieth century. Sucharita of the novel Gora heralds the age of the modern women who refuse to sit idly at home. She is eager to serve the country and the people. She is the precursor of Bimla (The Home and the World), Ela (Four chapters) and Sarla (The garden) who show political awareness and interest in freedom movement of the country. Sucharita surpasses the other heroines of Tagore in her keen perception, critical judgment and liberal outlook. She is necessary for the growth of Gora’s personality and his self realization. Because of her, he realizes that women too have a role to play in the escalation of the country. In the same novel Lolita anticipates the modern women who rebels against all, sorts of tyranny and oppression by at least a generation. She is the harbinger of the women’s liberation and feminist movements of the twentieth century. Tagore forewarns people that the days of women of the Sita and Savitri image are numbered. Women like Lolita are ready to come out of the portals of tradition and orthodoxy and will not allow themselves to be oppressed by the male dominated society. Anandamoji appears to be a symbol to Tagore’s broad vision of life, liberal and non-sectarian outlook and universal love. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 88
  • 106. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 She echoes the novelist’s ideal of heaven of freedom, where there is not barrier between man and man. She believes that human beings are not born with caste and there is no reason why they cannot be united in wedlock in spite of their different religions. Anandamoyi is a great rebel as a true follower of Raja Ram Mohan Roy. She does not care for the traditional and orthodox practices proclaim her a rebel against the customs and conventions of the conversation society. She is the only one in her class to wear bodice. She is mockingly referred to by her people at ‘Mem Sahib’. Bimla in the novel ‘The home and the world’ comments: “I was no longer the lady of the Rajah’s house, but the sole representative of Bengal’s womanhood. And he was the champion of Bengal …I said within myself that his language had caught fire from my eyes, for we woman are not only the deities of the household fire, but the flame of the soul itself”. The theme of all the novels of Tagore revolves around a woman. Among the modern heroines of Tagore labanya (Farewell, my friend) is the first to take a post graduate degree and earn her livelihood. Urmila (Two sisters) the western educated woman takes her place in the company of Hemalini, Labanya. She is the first woman who goes to Europe unescorted. Urmila plays tennis and is interested in literature and music. The tragic condition of woman in Bengali society was best demonstrated in the feudal backwardness of the society. In the question of woman’s emancipation Tagore agreed with the enlighteners. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 89
  • 107. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The analysis of the stories of the nineties confirms that as far as the question of the position of woman in society was concerned Tagore was never influenced by patriarchal views. It is not sheer chance that in many of his stories Woman characters are drawn more powerfully and in a brighter way than the characters of many spineless men. In the story Punishment (1938) the author takes us to the world of poor peasants where woman have no human rights. Tagore thus showed that woman protested against feudal oppression. Though their protest is positive one it is important to note that they resented against the set norms and customs and was not ready to accept humiliation in a sub missive manner. In the novel Gora, Tagore characterizes the principal women of the story Sucharita - the liberated young woman with a strong mind of her own, and equally at ease within and outside 'home' as well as Anandamoyi - or 'mother' of the protagonist (Gora), confined only to home and yet with a liberated outlook ready to break the shackles of dogma. The novel, created and serialized at the turn of 20th century, is regarded as an important milestone in the history of Indian fiction, and there have been numerous attempts to interpret each move Tagore has made here. Tagore imbibes a soft touch to his lead characters and makes them look true to life more than words would have described them. This is also the same time that Gora has his renewed realization of India. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 90
  • 108. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Realizing Vision of Indian Women with Pride and Self-exploration Tagore as a whole suggests an emerging pattern seeking to encompass his vision of Indian reality and his adumbration of ideas about the nature of Indian society and culture caught up in the throes of radical change. Tagore’s distinctiveness lies in his responding positively to the forces of historical acceleration in Indian milieu without abandoning the age-old values Tagore also shows their keen practical sense and the purposive nature of their character. Tagore believed in progress and in freeing women from feudal bondage and he also believed that given equal rights and opportunities they may occupy their rightful place in society side by side with men. Tagore utilizes the importance of idea of Swami Vivekananda, who highlighted the importance of women as he makes us realize that history of India was incomplete without any understanding of the trials and tribulations of women. Women constituted half of India, that is- India as a nation of people. As seen in the great Indian epic written by Vyasa Muni, the Mahabharata presents much social, religious, political, and philosophical discourses through the dynamics of a few members of a large family is well-depicted in Gora. Pride is a recurring theme in Rabindranath Tagore's writing and life. Tagore has often been denounced for having enjoyed the joys of touring and taking full advantage of a human lifetime and celebrity status. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 91
  • 109. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 But in many ways he was a young child looking for adventure. For this he often discarded his pride and enjoyed life. His love for women and an aristocratic living amidst family estate are a few examples of Tagore's carefree manners. Unlike Gandhi, Tagore did not associate personal or national pride with freedom. Even in Gitanjali, we find the poet penning pride to ghostly status, "My song has put off her adornments; She has no pride of dress and decoration. Ornaments would mar our union; they would come between thee and me; their jingling would drown thy whispers." Emphasizing on Women Education and Emancipation The heroine of Tagore’s first great novel, Binodini, published in 1903, did not have any formal education even though her father appointed a European Governess for his daughter’s instruction. Again in the same novel, Asha, the wife of the hero, Mahendra was an uneducated girl. Sucharita and Lolita in the novel Gora (1910) did not have any college education since the story pertains to the latter half of the last century. Though HemaMalini in The Wreck (1906) studied in a college, she was not a graduate. Similarly, Bimla, the heroine of The Home and the world had no formal education. The heroines of the novels written in the interwar period (1918-39) were educated Labanya, the heroine of Farewell My Friend written in 1928 was a post graduate. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 92
  • 110. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Similarly, Ela the heroine of Four Chapters written in 1934 was a research scholar before she joined the revolutionary party. The novelistic world of Tagore embodies a vision of India caught up in the cross current of opposing ideologies, of the questioning of the old or traditional moral sanctions in search of self fulfillment, the clash between the reformist and revivalist forces the conflict between the moderate and extremist elements in politics as well as the eternal struggle in the human consciousness between love and sacrifice. The novels Binodini, The Wreck and Chaturanga relate to some of the pressing social issues which rocked the Bengali Hindu, society towards the end of the last century. The first novel dramatizes the struggle of young beautiful window for self actualization and selfhood in a social system that denies all scope for such attempts. The heroine Binodini though brought up in a village is skilled in all the households’ arts like cooking, knitting and interior decoration. Her father despite his limited resources engaged an English governess, to educate his daughter at home. Binodini is very fortunate to receive modern education which many girls of even the affluent classes were denied, Modernity is ridiculed by Annapurna she taunts Mahendra, “Would you rather have her as a modern girl, lazily longing about the whole day, reading novels or doing fancy knitting wanted upon by other.” Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 93
  • 111. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Committed towards Psychological and Social Realism Tagore’s short stories, in addition, are undoubtedly practices of psychological and social realism related to Indian women characters. As a short fiction writer, His stories depict poignant human relationships within simple, relatively uneventful plots. Tagore's short stories often focus on the struggles of women and girls in traditional Indian society. Many of these tales are concerned with marital relationships and the various forms of estrangement and conflict between husband and wife. “A Wife's Letter” is narrated by a woman writing to her husband describing the many injustices imposed upon married women. In the tale “Vision” a woman goes blind after which her husband begins to neglect her and falls in love with a young girl. “Number One” depicts a woman who commits suicide in order to escape the conflict she feels between her sense of duty to her husband and her love for another man. In “Punishment,” a man kills his wife in a fit of rage; his brother, wishing to save him from punishment, convinces his own wife to testify that she is the murderer. In “Living or Dead,” a woman, thought to be dead, regains consciousness during her funeral only to be regarded by her family as a phantasm, and to prove that she is truly alive, she drowns herself. In “Postmaster,” a young orphaned girl employed by the postmaster in a remote village regards him as a surrogate father; when he returns to his home and family in Calcutta she is devastated at being left behind. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 94
  • 112. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 When failing to appreciate the depth of her longing for family, the postmaster laughs at her request to be taken home with him. The story “Kabuliwalla” concerns a man who appears brusque, crude, and violent—to the extent that he is in prison—but is so sentimental about his faraway daughter that he cherishes a crumpled piece of paper because it is smudged with her fingerprints. The young girl named Mili has been minutely characterized throughout the story. In the story ‘Atonement’ (1894) Anathbondhu like Jaigopal from the story ‘Elder Sister’ belongs to that section of middle class society which at the first opportunity would use the helpless position of woman. Anath bondhu is an idler whose only intention is to make money without much effort. He married Bindhyabasini, a girl from a well-off family and led a parasitic life in the house of his in-laws. The author depicting the tragic position of woman emphasizes the real character of the heartless representatives of the middle class through the character of Anathbondhu. In this story Tagore sharply criticizes the meaninglessness of feudal religious rituals but the pathos of his work in revealing the true picture. Tagore in his stories also depicts the progressive section of the intelligentsia, who ceaselessly struggled against feudal backwardness and colonial oppression. In the story ‘The Renunciation’, Tagore shows the harmful effect and backwardness of caste system which was an obstacle in the development of normal human relations and one of the main hurdles in overcoming feudal backwardness of the society. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 95
  • 113. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Peari Sankar utilizes the custom of prohibition of inter-caste marriage and encourages Hemanta to marry Kusum belonging to a lower-caste. Hemanta’s conservative father asks him to renounce Kusum but Hemanta along with Kusum renounces his father’s home for the sake of his innocent wife. Revealing the Real Pathos of Women in Bengali Society The analysis of the pathos of women in the eighteen short stories is commendable. It exposes the sad condition of women in the Bengali society against the odds of feudal system and points out the unjust suppression of feminine wants and rights. At the same time, it never fails to hint at the strength, courage, and determination of these women. Though they are shown as the victims of patriarchal society, their moral courage and spiritual wealth make them inspiring heroines. Some of the pathos of the women in the stories include: the unfruitful and unfulfilled desires of an orphaned girl in “The Postmaster”; the agony of a dumb girl who seeks a lasting relationship with nature in “Subha” or “The Dumb Girl”; the pathetic story of Kusum as narrated by an inanimate object in “The Landing Stairway” or “River Stairs”; Hardships of Bengali women due to unhealthy and unjust feudal morals and customs in “Living or Dead”; the impact of dowry system on Nirupama, who is left uncared on her death-bed, in “Debits and Credits” or “The Deal”; the extreme faith of a poor wife on her husband’s intellectual caliber and his eventual failure in “Taraprasanna’s Fame”; Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 96
  • 114. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 the consequences of child marriage and ‘Suttee’ in “Mahamaya”; Spiritually rich Bengali peasant women being dehumanized and undervalued by their husbands in “Punishment” or “The Sentence”; the sacrifice of a lovable elder sister to save her younger brother from her greedy husband in “Elder Sister”; the oppression of women in the bourgeois society in “The Judge”; men’s exploitation of the helpless position of women in the middle class Bengali society in “Atonement”; the sufferings of women due to their excessive love and respect for their husbands in “The Middle One”; the threatening act of a woman to fulfill her inner urge in “Skeleton”; the reflection of the “suppressed emotions and passions of the dead women of the palace” in “Hungry Stones”; the misunderstanding between the newly married couple in “The Conclusion”; an orphan girl being “beguiled by the false hope of marriage with a doctor” in “The Wedding Garland”; and the sufferings of wives not only from the hands of their husbands but also from the inlaws of the houses in “The Wife’s Letter.” Pathos of ‘handsome and angelic’ children and the adolescent in the seven short stories arises out of factors like, the existing system of education and parental training that curtail the natural genius of children and which make learning a painful experience, the authority of elders on children, unsound social norms, and underestimation of children by adults. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 97
  • 115. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Some of the pathos of these children include: a rustic child’s inner urge to return home as he is sent to his uncle’s home due to his mother’s disgust at his reported unruly behavior in “Holiday”; the consequences of a homeless boy’s unintended unethical action and his ‘tragic disappearance from the world in “Unwanted” or “Castaway”; the agony of a little girl due to child marriage in “The Exercise Book”; the problems faced by the wards from their cruel teachers in “Housewife”; a boy’s uncontrollable love for nature and his failure to maintain domestic relationship in “Guest” or “Runaway”; the torture of a boy for having picked flowers from the garden without his aunt’s knowledge in “Trespass”; and a grandchild being killed by the greed of his grandfather in “Wealth Surrendered” or “TrustProperty.” Many stories of Tagore are devoted to the theme of exploitation of women. In the most glaring manner this them is revealed by the author in “Elder Sister” (1895).Tagore in this story shows that the middle class in spite of their education were still sticking to old cruel feudal morals. Jaigopal, one of the main characters of the story, is a typical representative of the middle class. His wife Soshi, a modest and kind-hearted woman, loves him and greatly respects him. Tagore reveals the extent of the submissiveness of Bengali women to their husband, characteristic feature of Indian society for ages. Husband to the wife was almost like God and disobedience to husband was considered a great sin. In this story Tagore shows that had already stared protesting against humiliation and injustice. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 98
  • 116. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Soshi fully realizing the difficulty of her position does not despair and takes upon her the odious task of defending her brother. When Soshi approached the Deputy Magistrate for help, he refused to help an unprotected woman. He did not approve that a lady from a highly regarded family should come out of her home and start a dispute with her husband and property. Soshi dies struggling against injustice. Her death symbolizes the awakening of women. In the character of Soshi a splendid picture of Bengali Women has been revealed. Their brave, decisive and kind nature capable of loving intensely and struggling for justice has been reflected in the story. Thus, the works of Tagore reveal his deep sense of character-portrayal, depth of human nature and multiple roles of women with their real plight, and show him as an iconoclast who had represented the ordinary women who had so far been neglected in the writings of his days. Reference: 1. Bhabani Bhattacharya: “Tagore As A Novelist” In Rabindranath Tagore, 1861-1961, A Centenary Volume, Ed. S. Radhakrishnan. New Delhi: Sahitya Academy 1961 2. Edward Thompson: Rabindranath Tagore: His Life and Works Rev. by Kalidas Nag. Calcutta: Y.M.C.A Publishing House, 1961. 3. Bi-annual Girish Karnad (Trans.): Three Plays. Delhi: OUP, 1994. Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 99
  • 117. International Online eJournal 4. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 G.V. Raj: Tagore, the Novelist. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. 5. M.Sarada: Rabindranath Tagore: A Study Of Women Characterizing His Novels. New Delhi: Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd., 149-155. About the Author: The author did her graduation and P.G. from C.S.J.M. University, Kanpur. She did PhD in the precinct of American Literature in the year 2009. She is currently teaching in the department of Humanities in Pranveer Singh Institute of Technology, Kanpur. She has published/presented various research papers in national/international conferences. Her second area of interest for research is English language teaching. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 100
  • 118. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-7: Creating Teaching Learning Value Chain with Modern-Age Paradigms ToC Ms. Nishrin Pathan Asst. Professor S G M English Medium College of Commerce and Management (SEMCOM), Vallabh Vidyanagar- Gujarat, India Introduction: The perpetual concern of any education system is how to improve students' learning, enhance teachers' teaching techniques and thereby increase students’ overall achievement. In psychology and education, a common definition of learning is “a process that brings together cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences and experiences for acquiring, enhancing, or making changes in one's knowledge, skills, values, and world views.” (Illeries, 2000). At the same time teaching is not indivisible from learning. Teaching and Learning are the parts of the same continuum. One can be good teacher only if she knows what is meant by good learning. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 101
  • 119. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Understanding the ‘learning’ makes a teacher understand what learners expect from the teacher. So far several researches have been done in the various parts of the world about the reformation process of education. The theory of transforming education focuses on possibilities of creating new kinds of education systems and learning communities for today’s learners so as to face tomorrow’s world. For that it also suggests systemic change in curriculum, teaching and learning strategies so that every student can be successful. It incorporates innovative learning processes which foster active Interaction among teachers and learners. The recent researches on quantum teaching and quantum learning theories focus on new ideas on how to create encouraging and engaging environments that motivate learners and support them in the learning process. Several teaching and learning models have been created and new strategies are introduced. These strategies are most effective when they are applied in positive, supportive environments where there is recognition of the emotional, social and physical needs of students and where individual strengths are recognized, nurtured, and developed. Advancements in information and communication technologies, ease of availability of technical gadgets with students and teachers alike, overall increase in general pace of life etc. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 102
  • 120. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 are some of the factors which dictate the perspective with which teaching-learning process needs to be re-looked into. The most famous transactional model of teaching – learning process* seems ineffective and obsolete as its main focus was comparing students’ heterogeneous achievements gained in the homogeneous environment. Also, It does not take into consideration a learner’s active role in determining the outcome of a teaching-learning value chain (TLVC). * (Developed by: W. Huitt, in May 2003) The present study is an attempt to relook into Teaching-Learning value chain in the technologically charged environment and considering both – a teacher and a learner – as important determinants of the desired outcome. It demands an ideological shift wherein not only teacher but also the learner is an important part of TLVC. The prevailing Teaching-Learning Value Chain (TLVC) has to be revised based on modern day paradigms as under: 1. Ease of Availability of Information: Internet has made it very easy the availability of information on any topic on earth. In the past a teacher had to scour through so many books, had to take physical pains to gather information. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 103
  • 121. International Online eJournal 1. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Ease of Information Processing: The information that was gathered by a teacher had to be converted into deliverable knowledge. For example, charts, graphs, diagrams, case studies, write-ups etc. Modern tools like software, computers, printers, copiers etc make information processing quite easy. 2. Ease of Knowledge Delivery: Unlike the old method of chalk and duster now knowledge can be delivered through PowerPoint presentations. These can be enhanced by animations, simulations and other such tools. Websites, blogs, chatrooms etc further facilitate knowledge dissemination. Acknowledging the active role of a learner: In the traditional model of TLVC the learner is at the passive end. It is assumed that a learner has to receive whatever is delivered by teacher. There is no mention or acknowledgement of learner’s participation like interaction, discussion, dialogue through any means. The modern-age TLVC has to be Learner-Centric. Literature Review The literature review includes two parts: The first part reviews the traditional methods of teaching and learning process and also relevant resources that have examined the efficacy of the teaching – learning value chain. The second part examines how innovated chain enhances value to teaching –learning process and thereby benefits both teachers and learners. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 104
  • 122. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Since the literature related to the nature and methods of teaching – learning is so wide, the important and relevant literature was explored in the form of popular write-ups, articles, web resources, film and books on teaching and learning. Bruce Joyce & Marshal Weil (1997), in ‘Models of Learning’ wrote: “Models of teaching are really models of ‘learning’. As we help students acquire information, ideas, skills, values, ways of thinking, and means of expressing themselves, we are also teaching them how to learn”. (Page 7) Marc Rosenberg, talking on strategies for delivering knowledge in the Digital Age, cites six fundamental beliefs on e-learning. Major two of them are: 1. Internet technology is the key to profound revolution in learning. But technology – any technology - is a tool, not a strategy. 2. There is an unending and important role for traditional classroom interaction……” (Marc Rosenberg: ‘e –Learning - Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age’ 2001, Preface xvii) The review of literature suggested that there are well defined theories of teaching and learning. However, very few models have been designed to provide guidelines to the teachers for specific subject –related teaching and learning process. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 105
  • 123. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The emphasis on use of technology is also found in literature review. Thus, the present study makes an original contribution towards teaching –learning value chain. It is an effort to examine the efficacy of teaching and learning with modern age paradigms. The present study verifies the existing teaching methods and modifies the value chain. It then explains the research design & methodology and presents the results with discussions followed by summary of findings. Rationale for the Study It has been observed by the researcher that most of the teachers follow traditional (mentioned below) teaching – learning value chain. The need was felt as there is a gap in the existing value chain as it does not focus on learner at all. Moreover, it does not take into account changes wrought in by technology. Objectives: 1. To study the existing teaching learning value chain adopted by most of the teachers. 2. To find the gap between prevalent teaching process and learning outcome. 3. To suggest innovations in existing teaching – learning value chain for contemporary teachers and learners of information age. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 106
  • 124. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 4. To suggest enhanced use of technology in teaching – learning process. Teaching Learning Value Chain: Underlying presumptions The prevailing model of teaching-learning value chain is depicted as under: Exploring Responding Acquiring Evaluating Defining Monitoring Delivering Motivating It seems that this chain must have been modeled with certain basic presumptions or paradigms. These are: • Teaching is a one-way process and not an interactive process The whole value chain does not talk anywhere about students’ interaction, their inquisitiveness, their viewpoints, and their learning potentiality. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 107
  • 125. International Online eJournal • Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Information access is difficult and strenuous The words exploring, acquiring, and defining indicate that the information /knowledge to be delivered requires lots of efforts and needs to be worked upon. • The students act as per Theory X of Douglas McGregor Theory X and Theory Y In his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor proposed two theories by which to view employee motivation. He avoided descriptive labels and simply called the theories Theory X and Theory Y. Both of these theories can give useful insight into providing basic framework for devising teaching- learning system. Theory X Theory X assumes that a person (a Student, for our sake): o Dislikes work and attempts to avoid it. o Has no ambition, wants no responsibility, and would rather follow than lead. o Is self-centered and therefore does not care about organizational goals (Teaching-Learning Goals, for our sake). o o Bi-annual Resists change. Is gullible and not particularly intelligent. Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 108
  • 126. International Online eJournal Creating Teaching Learning Value Chain Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 with Modern-Age Paradigms If a teaching-learning value system for new age teaching is to be modeled then It needs to be modeled with following underlying assumptions/Idea: • The Teaching is an interactive process The process has to be learner centric encouraging and fostering interaction rather than a monologue by teachers. The process should also have provision of modification (customization) depending on general potentiality of students. For example, if most of the students in a class are from commerce background then teacher of accounts may not have to modify his/her methodology. But, if the students are being exposed to Accounts subject for the first time the methodology will have to be customized to suit the need of students. • Information is easily accessible and easily deliverable By the advent of information technology, the accessibility of information is not a problem area. Unlike in past, both, the students and teachers have equal access. Hence, the real challenge for a teacher is to compile information, analyze and synthesize it into deliverable knowledge. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 109
  • 127. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The intellectual capacity and skills to analyze, synthesize and assimilate information will differentiate a teacher from a student. Just like accessibility, delivery and dissemination of knowledge has been made more enriched by advent of presentation of technologies. Delivery of a lecture with power point through help of projectors and disseminating assignments/additional information of a topic through e-communication (blogs / chat rooms /sites) are good examples of ease of delivery/dissemination facilitated by technology. • The students act as per Theory Y of Douglas McGregor With information exposure and growth of economy, students have become more career conscious. Hence, it is fair to design the new model with assumptions that the students are keen to learn knowledge and are active partners in TeachingLearning process. With little modification, theory Y gives idea about students’ attitude, motivation and aptitude to learning. Theory Y Theory Y makes the following general assumptions: o Work (Learning, for our sake) can be as natural as play and rest. o People (Students, for our sake) will be self-directed to meet their work objectives if they are committed to them. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 110
  • 128. International Online eJournal o Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 People (Students, for our sake) will be committed to their objectives (of course, learning objectives!) if rewards (Fair, multi-dimensional and equitable evaluation system for our sake) are in place that address higher needs such as self-fulfillment. o Under these conditions, people (Students, for our sake) will seek responsibility. Most people (Students, for our sake) can handle responsibility because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population (the students, for our sake). Learner/User Centric Instructional Design (LUCID) The LUCID chain for a teacher and a student can be: Exploring & Surfing Modifying and Adapting Bi-annual Comprehending and Assimilating Evaluating Delivering and disseminating Motivating and interacting Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 111
  • 129. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The chain from the student’s perspective will be : Receiving the Knowledge Comprehending & Assimilating Getting motivated & Interacting Getting Evaluated Suggested activities as per the LUCID chain for a teacher and a student: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 112
  • 130. International Online eJournal Stage Activity 1 Exploring Surfing Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Action for Teacher and Action For Students Finding compiling Finding and referring (detailed and information from all the sources reading) curriculum related like books, journal, magazines, references prior coming to the and of course, web resources. class by using books, previous Online groups of teachers notes, and web resources. contribute lot to the resource sharing. Surfing word indicates predominant use of internet Extracting and relating information is a skill. Attending seminars, workshops, and becoming part of Teachers’ Associations can also help exploring the material. E. g. Showing films on Novels, telefilms and documentaries on various literary genres for teaching literature Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 113
  • 131. International Online eJournal 2 Comprehending and Comprehension and assimilation of the With Assimilating information into knowledge for the students. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 available resources i. e. dictionary and internet (so much Comprehension becomes easy when related information available) limited / partial with existing knowledge. Use of dictionary, comprehension is possible before encyclopedia and audio –visual means can coming to the class. (That is being bring better understanding as far as English proactive!) course is concerned. Assimilation is internalizing complex but familiar subjects/topics in a simplified manner which enhances pre-existing knowledge. Communication Skills being part of every personality can be related with every behavioural aspect of the person. Various situations and intentions for communication can be understood. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 114
  • 132. International Online eJournal 3 Delivering Disseminating Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and The knowledge, as, garnered, in stage 2 will be Receiving and assimilating the knowledge delivered through Dissemination conventional indicates, tools, methods. being delivered through all media. various apart the use from of the various communication technologies like web portal, pod cast, mobile phones etc. for making the knowledge accessible to students. Most common examples can be: PPT presentations, Online group sharing, video demos, screening of films, emailing, giving assignments & Project work and personal counseling. 4 Motivating interacting and Once the knowledge is delivered and Get motivated to learn the knowledge disseminated to students, it is very important to being delivered. Also to interact with the interact with them and motivate them for teacher so as to give the correct feedback about the knowledge being gained. learning. At this stage, the teacher has to be smart enough to motivate students appropriately and devise such ways so as to get correct feedback from the students about the knowledge being delivered. This is the most important stage of the whole cycle. This is best possible through: Identifying potentialities of the students, praising their skills, discussing opportunities & career options, mentoring and personal counseling. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 115
  • 133. International Online eJournal 5 Evaluating Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 It is a devise with certain methods so as to have The students have to submit themselves correct evaluation of the knowledge being sincerely to the evaluation process. The delivered and the skills expected from the students evaluation outcomes will also help in E. g. Group Discussion, live individual and group modifying and adapting their learning presentations, oral exercises, note taking and needs. making by watching and listening audio –visual aids, personal interviews, reacting on real life situations (role play), various written tasks & quiz can help evaluate language and communication skills of a student. 6 Modifying and Adapting Interaction with students will result in their feedback. Thus, the Adaptation will be a mutual process. The teacher may methodology or knowledge being delivered or both will have to find new knowledge and new methods of delivery but be adapted as per requirement, potentiality, understanding level, the students also need to adapt to the style of the and motivation of the learners. teacher. Many a times, there are generic methodologies Adaptation may require going to stage 1& 2 If new knowledge is to a subject to which students need to adapt. For e.g., required. If a teacher adapts based on knowledge already in Management subjects you have case studies method available then stage 3 will be taken up. to which a student needs to adapt or in sciences lot of The action plan can be: hands on practical are there to which a student has to Course plan updating adapt to. Improvement in courseware Similarly in English a student has to keep on updating Exploring new methods of teaching himself with new additions in the vocabulary and new situations to communicate with different people. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 116
  • 134. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Research Design & Methodology Pre-research study: 1. Personal Interview: Pre-research study was conducted by Personally Interviewing 40 teachers working in Commerce and Management Institute. Their views on teaching learning value chain were compiled. 2. Expert Opinion: Several expert opinions were taken from educationalists, academic administrators and senior academicians while designing new model. As mentioned in Point 1 and Point 2 above, The underlying paradigms and LUCID Model suggested herein were discussed with teachers and other people involved in management of education. They all unanimously acknowledged the modern-age paradigms. Initially the phase of ‘evaluation’ was not incorporated in the LUCID chain. This was incorporated after discussion with the teachers. The people involved in the Management of education suggested to have LUCID chain from the perspective of the students. This is also presented in this paper. However, that serves only academic interest. Testing of LUCID chain does not have any implication of that suggestion. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 117
  • 135. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Model Implementation: LUCID has been tested on a selected group of students pursuing Masters of E–Business for the course of Communication Skills in English. Traditional value chain has been implemented on the group of students not included in the test. The learning satisfaction level was compared and analyzed to measure the effectiveness of LUCID. Hypothesis A. Traditional Value Chain does not encompass modern-age paradigms while addressing the needs of contemporary learners. B. LUCID model is covering the features of conventional value chain and also encompasses modern-age paradigms for meeting the needs of contemporary learners. The modern-age paradigms are (a) increased usage of information & communication technology for all dimensions of knowledge i.e. exploring, compiling and disseminating (b) Proactive role of learners through interaction and motivation. Sampling Size and Population - 25 Students of first semester of Master of E Business for the academic year 2009-10. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 118
  • 136. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Sampling Design - Non – parametric tools as samples were collected without adhering to any parameter. (Convenience and Judgment based) Data Analysis: 1. Systematic tabularization of data. 2. Analysis through three point scale. 3. Graphical representation through chart & graphs Findings & Hypotheses Validation Hypothesis A: Chart 1 Motivating & Interacting 100 92 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 4 4 Disagree Can't Say 0 Agree About 92% of the students prefer to participate in question - answer session and for that they want to be motivated by the teacher. Conventional value chain does not invite learner’s participation at all. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 119
  • 137. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Chart 2 Exploring & Surfing 16 8 Agree Disagree Can't Say 76 76% of students agree that if a topic is related with examples from real life situations then learning becomes easier. This requires extensive exploration of the topic which, in the modern times, is better possible and easier through internet. Hypothesis B: Exploring & Surfing Multi Resources Chart 3 8 8 Agree Disagree Can't Say 84 84% of sampled students agree that learning enhances if material is collected using multi - resources like books, journals, magazines, and internet. LUCID makes teacher to use all available resources. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 120
  • 138. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Chart 4 Com prehending & Assim ilation 12 8 Agree Disagree Can't Say 80 80% of them believe that material compiled from various resources needs to be assimilated and presented in such a way (like PowerPoint) so that it becomes easy for them to understand. Thus, supporting comprehending and assimilating of LUCID. Chart 5 Delivery & Dissem ination 12 4 Agree Disagree Can't Say 84 Almost 84% of students support the idea of knowledge being delivered by using various traditional & modern modes of communication. However, 12% of them couldn't answer as they may be reluctant or unaware about experience of the modern ways like online groups, SMS, pod cast etc. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 121
  • 139. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Various methods of evaluating students’ performance were suggested by students. They are like: Classroom Interaction, Regular Assignments, Quiz, Project works, individual & group presentations, Case study, participation in co-curricular activities (e.g. Literary activities like Debate, Elocution, Essay writing, Public Speaking etc. in case of language skills). For further modifications and adaptations in teaching process, more linkage with real life situations, personal attention on a student, simplifying the language & style, use of personal tone, more interactive classroom environment were recommended. Arranging expert lectures for a specific topic is also suggested. Thus, Hypothesis A & B are validated from the data collection supporting the LUCID value chain. Summary Information technology has made task of exploring for information very easy. Assimilation of information and turning it into deliverable knowledge is the challenge for teachers. It is imperative for a teacher to create the environment wherein student’s inquisitiveness is challenged. Stephen Covey, the renowned Management Thinker, talks of motivation as under: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 122
  • 140. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 One of the greatest insights in the field of human motivation is: satisfied needs do not motivate. It’s only the unsatisfied need that motivates. The greatest need for human being is psychological – to be understood, to be affirmed, to be validated, to be appreciated. It is also important that the learner’s efforts, however miniscule, stand appreciated and affirmed LUCID takes students as active members of teaching learning process. It takes into consideration the fact that students are eager to learn, grasp and comprehend provided that teacher challenges their inquisitiveness and reaffirms their learning efforts. The findings when studied vis-à-vis the objectives of studies lead to following inferences: 1. To study the existing teaching learning value chain adopted by most of the teachers. This was studied by interacting with around 40 teachers. All of them acknowledged the need for its revision with modern-age paradigms as basis 2. To find the gap between prevalent teaching process and learning outcome. This study substantiates that there is a gap in two areas: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 123
  • 141. International Online eJournal a) The usage of advancements in Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Information and Communication Technologies for improving the teaching-learning process outcome b) The traditional process is heavily teacher-centric. It should be learner-centric. 2. To suggest innovations in existing teaching – learning value chain for contemporary teachers and learners of information age. The innovative LUCID model is suggested and is validated by a testgroup of students. However, It needs to be tested on more students. Also, it needs to be tested for different subjects to be taught using LUCID. LUCID model may require some customization based on the subjects being taught through it. 1. To suggest enhanced use of technology in teaching – learning process. Though this is not the main objective of the study, the suggestions are: a) The teachers should make maximum use of Internet for study material preparation b) Teachers should use tools like software and computers for transforming information into knowledge c) Teachers should take maximum advantage of new tools like emails, blogs, etc for knowledge dissemination. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 124
  • 142. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 References Books: 1. Bruce Joyce & Marshal Weil (1997), “Models of Teaching”. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi. 2. Marc J Rosenberg (2001), “e-Learning – Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in Digital Age”. McGraw Hill. 3. Jacqui Gough (1997), “Training Essentials – Developing Learning Materials”. Universal Press (India) Ltd. 4. M L Tickoo (2003), Teaching & Learning English – a source book for Teachers and Teacher Trainers”. Orient Longman Pvt. Ltd. 5. Richard D Mann, “The College Classroom: Conflict, Change and Learning”. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 6. Gordon H Bower and Earnest R Hilaard (1986), “Theories of Learning” 5th Edition. Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi. 7. Douglas McGregor (1960), “The Human Side of Enterprise” The McGraw Hill Companies Inc. 2006. 8. Jack C Richards (1991), “The Context of Language Teaching”. Cambridge University Press. 9. Leo Van Lier (1989), “The Classroom and the Language Learner” Longman. London. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 125
  • 143. International Online eJournal 10. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Les Tickle (1987), “Learning Teaching, Teaching Teaching…A study of Partnership in Teacher Education”. The Falmer Press. 11. Editors: V K Rao and R S Reddy (1992), “The Nature of Educational Technology”. Commonwealth Publishers, New Delhi. 12. David Nunan (2001), “The Learner Centered Curriculum”. Cambridge University Press. Articles: 1. Herbert Dordick, “Catering for Information Technology in Tertiary Education today” published in ‘Communication Skills, Teaching & Practice’. Vol. III, edited by P J Hills and Margaret McLaren 2. Dimitrios Thanasoulas, “What do teachers bring to the teaching-learning process”. Posted on www.developingteachers.com/ articles_tchtraining 3. Clement, “Teaching Learning Process” posted on www.eslteachersboard.com/cgi-bin/articles e-Books 1. Charlotte Danielson and Thomas L. McGreal (2000). “Teacher Evaluation: to Enhance Professional Practice”. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 126
  • 144. International Online eJournal 2. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Brent Davis (2004), “Inventions of Teaching: A Genealogy” Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates. 3. Compiled and Edited by Dee Dickinson (2002). “CREATING THE FUTURE: Perspectives on Educational Change”. Copyright New Horizons for Learning Web References 1. http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies 2. http://www.materials.ac.uk/guides 3. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_Ttheory 4. www.teach.valdosta.edu/WHuitt/materials/mdltlp Film: 1. To Sir, with Love (1967), Directed by James Clavell, Based on Novel written by E.R. Braithwaite Starring Sidney Poitier as Mark Thackeray. About the Author Ms. Nishrin Pathan is Asst. Professor at S G M English Medium College of Commerce and Management (SEMCOM), Vallabh Vidyanagar. She is MA (ELT), M Phil, MBA (HR) and pursuing PhD in Management. She holds more than 10 years of teaching experience in the area of English and Business Communication at undergraduate and post graduate programs. Her area of interests is teaching Communication, Human behavior and Soft Skills. She loves to incorporate technology in her teaching activities. Bi-annual ToC Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 127
  • 145. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-8: Social Thinking in Modern Sanskrit Literature ToC Prerna Sharma Assistant Professor (Finance) Acropolis Faculty of Management & Research, Indore. Hemant Bamoriya Assistant Professor (Marketing) Faculty of Management Studies Acropolis Institute of Technology & Research, Indore. Further with free mobility of capital and globalization; risks multiplied and risk diversification came to occupy the center stage. It led to the risk hedging mechanisms i.e. Derivatives. Options are subtype of derivatives. These are exchange traded and effective tools to hedge the risk. Study attempt to analyze volatility of 35 listed (at Nifty) companies share prices through Beta coefficient and Standard deviation with an objective of suggesting investors companies for option purchasing. Key words: Options, Nifty, Beta coefficient. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 128
  • 146. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 INTRODUCTION Due to globalization and liberalization process initiated by the states all over the world, the international trade and financial activities have grown in multifold resulting into rising level of all types of risks for investors such as market risk, interest rate risk, foreign exchange risk, inflation risk and price risk. Further with free mobility of capital, risks multiplied and risk diversification came to occupy the center stage (Gupta, 2009). All this logically led to the risk hedging mechanisms, first in the forex market, later in the other segments of financial service industry and these have come to be known generally as Derivatives or Financial derivatives. Financial derivatives like options, futures, forwards and swaps have emerged in the financial markets to handle and manage such multiplied risks. Financial derivative is a financial instrument whose payoff is based on the price of an underlying asset, reference rate, or an index (Gerald, 2001). The Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act 1956 defines derivative as security derived from a debt instrument, share, loan whether secured or unsecured, risk instrument or contract for differences or any other form of security. The term ‘derivatives’ is hardly thirty years old in the academic discipline of finance, though it does not necessarily mean that they are a modern invention. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 129
  • 147. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Options and futures trading in India commenced from June, 2000 on National Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Exchange in stock index futures, stock futures, stock index option and stock option. Today, the financial derivatives have become increasingly popular and most commonly used in the world of finance (Kannan, 2008). This has grown with so phenomenal speed all over the world that now it is called as the derivatives revolution. In an estimate, the present annual trading volume of derivative markets has crossed US $ 30,000 billion, representing more than 100 times gross domestic product of India (Rao, 2009). Options are subtype of derivatives and are exchange traded. Options are of two types: Call options which give the buyer the right but not the obligation to buy a given quantity of the underlying assets, at a given future date and second Put options which give the buyer right, but not the obligation to sell a given quantity of assets at a given price on or before a given date. Figure: Types of derivatives as per availability Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 130
  • 148. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Options are the tools to hedge the risk. In recent pass awareness about the financial derivatives instruments and their application has increased among the investors at large. On the other side of this development was that element of risk and volatility in the stock market has risen (Vashishtha, 2010). This study is undertaken with the objective that investor may get clear and logical way that why they should invest in selected stocks for option trading i.e. this study gives investors knowledge about highly volatile stocks. It further suggests the strategy that will hedge the funds of investors in dealing with options. OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH 1. To suggest best companies for investment in buying of options in Indian derivative market. 2. To suggest strategy that will hedge the funds of investors in buying options. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH Study focus on analyzing market risk & evaluate Beta coefficient of companies listed to Nifty only, as Nifty is the index shows intraday fluctuations most. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 131
  • 149. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Secondary data was used for analysis. The study requires comparison of fluctuation in share prices of all the companies in which derivative trading is allowed. So the data required - share prices of 52 weeks of 35 listed companies to Nifty were collected. Last Thursday of every month is expiry day of option, therefore closing price of last Thursday was taken for the study. ANALYSIS & FINDINGS Standard deviation and Beta coefficient were the tools used for the analysis of data. The most important source of risk is the market risk because it cannot be eliminated through diversification. The Modern Portfolio Theory, therefore, argues that the riskiness of a security should be measured by its vulnerability to market risk. If the market were to go down by 1%, would the security go down by 0.5%, by 1% or by 2%? This sensitivity of the security to the movement of the market is known as the beta coefficient of the security. BETA= (n∑xy-∑x*∑y)/ (n∑x2-(∑x2)) Where, X= % change in Nifty Y=% change in particular stock n= no. of items Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 132
  • 150. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Table: Volatility Analysis Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 133
  • 151. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Table: Volatility Analysis Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 134
  • 152. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 INTERPRETATION The profit by investing in purchasing of options in derivative market of a particular company is directly proportionate to the fluctuation in price of share of that company in the cash market. Mathematical expression PF Where, P= profit. F= fluctuation in share price Statistically this fluctuation with respect to % change in Nifty was calculated by Beta coefficient. Higher is the Beta coefficient more volatile is price of share of particular company, higher is the possible return on purchasing particular derivative. Thus top five companies with higher Beta coefficient were suggested for investment in derivatives. SUGGESTIONS On the basis of the above interpretation following top 5 companies were suggested for purchasing of options in derivative market since the fluctuation in these companies were higher as compare to other companies: 1.Reliance Infra 2. RNRL Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 135
  • 153. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 3. Reliance Capital 4. IFCI 5. JP Associates CONCLUSION & IMPLICATION Above study estimates the nature of share prices of companies regarding fluctuation. Thus it guides the investors about in which companies they should invest in. Further study gives the information of the companies in which it will beneficial to hedge the funds on the basis of Beta coefficient. By applying investment strategy investors can safeguard themselves from losses and can ensure higher returns. REFERENCES Gerald D. Gay, Jouahn Nam and Marian Turac (2001), How firms manage risk: The optimal mix of linear and non-linear derivatives, Available online: http://www.cermas.gsu.edu/documents/howfirmsshouldhedge.pdf Gupta, S. L., Financial derivatives: theory, concepts and problems, PHI publications, India Kannan, R. (2008), Onset of derivatives trading in derivatives market, Available online: www.geocities.com/kstability/content/derivatives/first.html NCFM derivative market (dealer) module, NCFM, India Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 136
  • 154. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Rao, V. S. Rama (2009), Derivatives trading in India, Available online: http://www.citeman.com/5544-derivatives-trading-in-india/ Vashishtha, Ashutosh and Kumar, Satish (2010), Development of financial derivatives market in india- a case study, International research journal of finance and economics, Issue 37, pp. 15-29 www.myiris.com www.nseindia.com About the Authors: 1. Prerna Sharma Bamoriya is Assistant Professor (Finance) at Acropolis Faculty of Management & Research, Indore. Her area of interest in teaching includes financial engineering & derivatives, taxation, portfolio management. She received her M.B.A. in Finance degree from Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya in 2009 and currently she is pursuing PhD in Management titled Issues & Challenges in Mobile Banking in India with Special Reference to Regulations from Devi Ahilya University, Indore. She is having three national journal publications to her credit, along with one international publication in Research Journal of Finance & Accounting-USA, an international refereed journal published from Washington, DC. She has also presented several research papers in national and international conferences. Her research interest lies in mobile banking regulations & derivative market. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 137
  • 155. International Online eJournal 2. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Hemant Bamoriya is Assistant Professor (Marketing) at Faculty of Management Studies - Acropolis Institute of Technology & Research, Indore. He is B. Pharma (Gold Medalist) from Rajiv Gandhi Technical University Bhopal and MBA-marketing (Gold Medalist) from Devi Ahilya University Indore. He has 3 years of rich industrial experience in Pharma Brand Management and 2 years of academic experience in management education. He stared his carrier in academics as visiting faculty at Devi Ahilya University. His teaching interest includes strategic management, brand management and product policy management. He is currently pursuing PhD in management from Institute of Management Studies- Devi Ahilya University. His research area includes mobile marketing and pharma brand management. He has 4 International journal publications to his credit; 2 of USA, one of UK and one of Germany. He has also 3 national journal publications to his credit. Currently he is serving on the editorial board of Shodh Ganga Management Journal, a refereed annual journal. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 138
  • 156. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-9: Representation of Upper Class in Oscar Wilde’s ‘The Importance of Being Earnest’ ToC Ms. Kavita Vansia, Assistant Professor of English, Shri P. H. Umrao College of Arts and Commerce, Kim, Surat, Gujarat Wilde never regarded his works as an adequate expression of his extra ordinary genius and his magnificent intellectual endowment, thereby, his genius stands beyond the conventional boundaries of good and evil, and chiefly concerned only with the perfection. The Importance of Being Earnest embodies Wilde's decency, warmth and legendry wit. Wilde’s witty outlook on the Victorian upper class exposes a world of shallow indifference and true love. There is something Chekhovian in this study of England, which exposes the immorality and hypocrisy, and the immense self satisfaction of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 139
  • 157. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 the English ruling classes, and which yet contrives to show glimpses of the charm and elegance, the allure of a way of life which has no future. (Raby 144-159) Wilde has presented the glittering world of aristocrat society having no future and leading on the path of mere darkness. The opening scene between Algernon and Lane is a joke against a society which is ruled by class distinction and that runs throughout the play. With a comic approach, Wilde has ridiculed the absurdities of lover's courtship rituals, their false faces and their secrets in order to present the world very unashamedly artificial. Below the surface of the light delicate comedy, it is a serious satire on hypocrisy of the Victorian society as well as it is a delightful but utterly frivolous and superficial comedy. The play is, as Eric Bentley observes, “about earnestness that is Victorian solemnity, that kind of false seriousness which means priggishness, hypocrisy and lack of irony." (Ellmann 111) Wilde touches the subjects like money, property, marriage, social class, education, philanthropy and aristocracy among other matters, all with the lightest but sharpest flashes of humors. In fact, he made fun of everything the English held, money, baptism, birth, religion, food and property and in so non- Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 140
  • 158. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 sensical, lighthearted and fantastic way that the comedy never fails to amuse in even the poorest of revivals. “In fact, the play seems to be singular unilluminated by criticism, a curious state of affairs for a work which has frequently been praised in terms which indicated that it is among the best English dramatic comedies.”(Gregor 501-521) This play received the least criticism and it brought true fame to Wilde and ultimately was awarded one of the most celebrating works by Oscar Wilde. Wilde has clearly defined the moral position of the Victorian society through the portrayal of the characters that pretends to be all about surface, which makes them seem trivial, shallow and ineffectual. The play reflects the conventional preoccupations of Victorian respectability, social position, income and character. Morality and the constrains and its impose on society becomes the chief topic of conversation. Algernon thinks that the servant class has the only responsibility to set a moral standard for the upper class. "Really, if the lower orders don't set us a good example, what on earth is the use of them?” (The Importance of Being Earnest: 4) The aristocratic Victorians valued duty and respectability but above all, for them appearance was everything and style was much more important than the substance. Wilde questions whether the more serious issues of the day Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 141
  • 159. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 are overlooked in favour of trivial concerns about appearance. Gwendolen is the paragon of this value. She insists Jack to repeat the proposal process over and again, doing it properly. The social commentary goes deeper in this scene. The scene in which Jack proposes to Gwendolen portrays a reversal of Victorian assumptions about gender roles. Propriety demanded that young women be weak, and ineffectual, helpless vessels and passive while men were supposed to be authoritative and competent. Here, however, Jack stammers ineffectual and Gwendolen takes the whole business of Marriage proposal out of his hands. Thus, Wilde plays fun with the rigidity and convention of upper class. Gwendolen’s aristocratic attitude is reflected in the following lines. "In matters of grave importance, style, not sincerity is the vital thing." (IBE: 55) Here, Triviality is given the highest priority; the serious is overlooked. Wilde continues to mock the social customs and attitudes of the aristocratic class at the tea ceremony in Act II. Both women, thinking they are engaged to the same person, wage a civilized "war" over the tea service while the servant was silently watching them. Gwendolen denies sugar and reflects her shallow aristocrat attitude, "No, thank you. Sugar is not fashionable anymore."(IBE: 47) Gwendolen prefers bread and butter insisting, "Cake is really seen at the best houses nowadays."(IBE: 47) She pretends to be highly mannered girl but Cecily not considering her acts unexpectedly and adds four lumps of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 142
  • 160. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 sugar to her cup and offers a large slice of cake. Gwendolen pretends when she arrives at countryside and encounters Cecily. "I had no idea there were any flowers in the country."(IBE: 47) Further she says, "Personally, I cannot understand how anybody manages to exist in the country; the country always bores me to Death."(IBE: 47) Here Wilde relentlessly attacks the aristocratic values, views and their concern for stability in upper class social structure. Wilde provides heaps of examples of aristocrat’s concern for propriety that everything is done properly no matter what those good manners might be camouflaging. It was Wilde’s creed that ironic imitation of the contrasts, absurdities and inconsistencies of life, its fads and fancies ,its quips and cranks, its follies and foibles, give far more pleasure and amusement than faithful portraiture of the dignity of life, its seriousness and profundity, its tragedy, pity and terror. (Archibald 9-18) Here it seems that Wilde is much more interested in portraying the characters full of follies and absurdities. Lady Bracknell is the best illustration of it. Lady Bracknell is a colossal snob and worships wealth with a zeal which is only Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 143
  • 161. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 matched by her abhorrence of the lower classes. She is a type that loves success passionately and has a morbid fear of contamination from the less privileged classes. The play deals with certain permanent values and attitudes which are even now present in English social life. The excessive weightage that Lady Bracknell gives to wealth and lineage is ridiculed. For her, money, fashion, mannerisms and birth in a high society are the yardsticks of success and failure. Lady Bracknell is brilliantly portrayed at surface who has no depth and no subtlety. She is at heart a woman to whom money means infinitely more than birth. She disapproves Algernon’s proposal and is duly impressed, when it is revealed that Cecily has a large fortune, where upon she instantly becomes attractive to the extent that she heartily approves of their alliance. Initial disapproval of the girl suddenly turns to warm admiration. "A hundred and thirty thousand pounds! And in the funds! Miss Cardew seems to me the most attractive young lady, now than I look at her." (IBE: 59) She is highly conscious about one’s status in the society, fortune, etiquettes and even appearance. She adores Cecily and immediately attempts to bring some alterations regarding her looks. Here is the evidence that reveals her a brutal snob. "Pretty child! Your dress is sadly simple, and your hair seems almost as Nature might have left it. But we can soon alter all that." (IBE: 59) Further she continues with the words, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 144
  • 162. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 "The chin a little higher dear, Style largely depends on the way the chin is worn." (IBE: 59) She gives the supreme importance to society and scolds Algernon when he confesses that for Cecily he doesn't care two pence for society. "Never speak disrespectfully of society, Algernon. Only people who can't get into it do that." (IBE: 59) She even appreciates Algernon for pretending to exist what actually he is not. "He has nothing, but he looks everything.”(IBE:60) She is willing to accept Miss Cardew at the advanced age of thirty five as per the terms and conditions of her guardian because in her perspective a large accumulation of property is eminently desirable even if the owner's youthful charms fade away during the process for against human frailty is contrasted to morals, a real, solid quality, one of "the qualities that last and improve with time." "Thirty five is a very attractive Age. London Society is full of women of the very highest birth who have, of their own free choice, remained thirty five for years.” (IBE: 62) Lady Bracknell represents Wilde’s opinions on Victorian upper class, their shallowness, pretence, conservative and repressive values. Despite she belongs to upper class and her current position, Lady Bracknell is not in fact a member of upper class. In the play she is a social climber bent on marrying into the aristocracy. Ultimately Lady Bracknell agrees Jack and accepts the proposal as she judges human being on the parameter of the accumulation of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 145
  • 163. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 wealth and admires Cecily. "I see No reason why our dear Cecily should not be even still more attractive at the age you mention than she is at present. There will be a large accumulation of property."(IBE: 62) Lady Bracknell is unwinded and the flavour of the play, the sense of an immensely agile and vivacious mind, and the rapier - like thrusts of a sardoffic intelligence sceptical of received Victorian values, are all present in this exchange between Lady Bracknell, the dread nought dowager and Jack. She will consider him as an eligible suitor for her daughter only if she will find following qualities that are in the blood of the aristocrats. LADY BRACKNELL. Do you smoke? JACK. Well, yes I must admit I smoke. LADY BRACKNELL. I am glad to hear it. A man should always have an Occupation of some kind. LADY BRACKNELL. I have always been of opinion that a man who desires to get married should know either everything or nothing. Which do you know? JACK. I know nothing Lady Bracknell. LADY BRACKNELL. I am pleased to hear it. I do not approve of anything that tampers with natural ignorance.Ignorance is like a delicate exotic fruit; touch it and bloom is gone. (IBE: 17) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 146
  • 164. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 It is she who adores, approves and favours Worthing's ignorance and illiteracy as well as promotes his lacking education replying, The whole theory of Modern education is radically unsound. Fortunately in England, at any rate, education produces no effect whatsoever. If it did, it would prove a serious danger to the upper classes, and probably lead to acts of violence in Grosvenor square. What is your income? (IBE: 17-18) Lady Bracknell is of the opinion that revolution happens when the lower class is taught to question and thus she approves ignorance. Modern books are filled with truths that are never pure and scandalous books should be read but definitely in secret. Here, again Wilde criticizes the Victorians for believing the appearance is much more important than truth. He takes the opportunity to insert many examples of popular thought revealing bias, social bigotry, thoughtlessness and blind assumption to expose Victorian upper class mentality. Wilde is fond of spreading the subtle attitude of characters Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 147
  • 165. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 applying the coat of his wit. “Not only is it by for the most brilliant of his plays considered as literature. It is also the most sincere. With all its absurdity, its psychology is truer, its criticism of life subtler and more profound, than that of the other plays.”(Hankin 791-802) Further she reveals her snobbery and so called aristocratic attitude at the time of interviewing Jack confessing, “You have a town house, I hope? A girl with a simple, unspoiled nature, like Gwendolen, could hardly be expected to reside in the country.”(IBE: 18) Gwendolen too throw outs the inherent snobbery when she boasts that she has never been acquainted with a spade. The original shallowness is clearly revealed in the following dialogue. "I am glad to say that I have never seen a spade. It is obvious that our social spheres have been widely different." (IBE: 46) For the most part, these utterances seem to be part of Wilde's general lampooning of the superficiality of the upper class. The strict Victorian class system, in which the members of the same class marry each other, perpetuates the gulf between the upper, middle and lower classes. Snobbish, aristocratic attitudes further preserve the distance between these groups. Both Gwendolen and Cecily are self possessed and self conscious. They like appreciation and believe in self adoration. Gwendolwn, learning from her mother, is totally self absorbed and fond of making exhibitions. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 148
  • 166. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 When Jack exhibits his love to her, she requests him to behave in a particular manner. "And, I often wish that in public, at any rate, you had been more demonstrative. For me you have always had an irresistible fascination."(IBE: 14) Here, it becomes clear that she is fond of flattery and artificiality to the extent that she compels jack to say something about her and seems quite eager to listen to Jack. "What have you got to say to me”? (IBE: 16) She compels Jack to behave in a particular manner and to shower his love especially in the presence of others and thus proves that she is addicted to snobbery. "What wonderfully blue eyes you have, Earnest! They are quite, quite blue. I hope you will always look at me just like that, especially when there are other people present."(IBE: 16) Here, it seems that Wilde has treated trivial things of life seriously, and all the serious things of life with sincere and studied triviality. Cecily is not an exception as she too is equally interested in the least important things of life by giving the highest priority to it. "What an impetuous boy he is! I like his hair so much. I must enter his proposal in my diary." (IBE:42) It is she who likes undivided attention of other people and enjoys being appreciated when people notice her and talk about her. When Gwendolen looks at her through glasses seeking her consent if she would not mind it, Cecily replies, "Oh! not at all Gwendolen. I am very fond of being looked at."(IBE: 44) When Cecily and Gwendolen seek to establish their respect- Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 149
  • 167. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 -ive claims on earnest worthing, each refers to the diary in which she recorded the date of her engagement, as though the mere fact of having written something down makes it fact. "He asked me to be his wife yesterday afternoon at 5.30. If you would care to verify the incident, pray do so. I never travel without my diary. One should always have something sensational to read in the train."(IBE: 46) The play is too familiar with the detailed discussion and it may appear that extended analysis is grotesquely inappropriate to its precarious perfection. Yet it is worth insisting however that perfection is not the only matter of surface brilliance, however dazzling. It uncovers their shallow masks of mannerisms. Canon Chasuble and Miss Prism are comic and slightly grotesque caricatures. Canon Chasuble is the symbol of religious thought and Wilde uses him to comment on how little the Victorians concerned themselves with attitudes reflecting religious faith. He is an intellectual character who speaks in metaphor. He performs christening and interchangeable sermons filled with meaningless platitudes but occasionally however his mask slips and an interior world of lusty desire for Miss Prism appears. “Were I fortunate enough to be Miss Prism's pupil, I would hang upon her lips." (IBE: 28) Here, Chasuble's pious exterior betrays. Quickly collecting his errors, the Minister hides his hardly holy desires in the language of metaphor. He symbolizes Wilde‘s Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 150
  • 168. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 views on Victorian religion and respectability. Wilde's satire here is gentle, brutally exposing the society for its superficiality and self importance. Miss prism is a creative writer and a parody of "a women with a past". Miss prism is a female of repellent aspect, remotely connected with education and the most cultivated of ladies and picture of superficiality and hypocrisy. Miss prism disapproves of Cecily’s action of watering the plants because she thinks it is a utilitarian occupation fit only for the lower class and the upper class should only seek intellectual pleasures. "Such a utilization occupation as the watering of flowers is rather Moulton's duty than yours? Especially at a moment when intellectual pleasures await you." (IBE: 26) At the arrival of the vicar, initially she denies Cecily’s statement that she suffers headache but she fails to resist her temptation and gradually leaves her duty to educate Cecily aside, flying away with him for a stroll. "I think, dear Doctor, I will have a stroll with you. I find I have a headache after all and a walk might do it good." (IBE: 28) Here, she exposed her inner, suppressed desires and attachment for Chasuble which compels her to surrender leaving her duty aside and thus her original self is revealed. She like the Minister makes constant moral judgments. Her favorite line, even to dead earnest is "As a Man sows, so shall he reap?" (IBE: 33) Repeating this phrase often allows Wilde to comment Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 151
  • 169. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 how meaningless and clichéd religion and values have become. As an instrument of the aristocracy, Miss Prism educates Cecily, dry, meaningless intellectual pursuit, designed to keep the status. Further she regrets the reappearance of earnest, Jack's wicked brother. "After we had all been resigned to his loss, his sudden return seems to me peculiarly distressing." (IBE: 35) Beneath her surface she has hedonistic streak: often her language slips when she ventures outside her Victorian appearance. She persists in inviting chasuble to discuss Marriage. "You are too much alone, dear Dr. Chasuble. You should get married. A Misanthrope." (IBE: 31) She proves slave to her inherent lusty desires in the following lines. "And you do not seem to realize, dear Doctor, that by persistently remaining single, a man converts himself into a permanent public temptation. Man should be more careful; this very celibacy leads weaker vessels astray." (IBE: 32) She is of the opinion, "No married Man is ever attractive except to his wife." (IBE: 32) She also is not what she pretends to be. Her restrained emotions and falsely covered thoughts are uncovered in the following dialogue, when she herself confesses and tries to attract vicar, "Ripeness can be trusted, Young women are green." (IBE: 32) She speaks metaphorically like Ministry but her deeper meaning ultimately bursts out. She pursues him diligently and falls into his arms at the end. Both Chasuble and Prism with their lack of social opportunities become servants to the system promoting its continuation. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 152
  • 170. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 At the opening of the play, Wilde has touched the issue of marriage in the Victorian upper class. Lane remakes casually that he believes marriage to be “a very pleasant state” but he presumably considers his own marriage a misunderstanding. "That was in consequence of a misunderstanding between myself and a young person." (IBE: 4) Algernon considers marriage a loveless duty as it is going to end his pursuit of pleasure. "A man who married without knowing Bunbury has a very tedious time of it.” (IBE: 10) The Aristophanic vein and shallowness of their mentality regarding the serious issue such as marriage is sparked thorough Algernon's following statement. "You don't seem to realize that in married life three is company and two is none." (IBE: 11) When Jack and Algernon realize their marriages will end their pursuit of pleasure, they both admit rather earnestly, "You won’t be able to run down to the country quite so often as you used to do, dear Algy." (IBE: 51) Marriage means the end of freedom, pleasure, wickedness and the beginning of duty. Algernon’s aesthetic life of posing as the dandy, dressing with studied care, neglecting his bills, being unemployed and pursuing pleasure instead of duty is an example of Victorian valuing trivialities. Once Algernon marries, his life will be covered up by suffocating rules. The play draws a fine line exposing the Victorian upper class between the outer life of appearances and the inner Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 153
  • 171. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 life of rebellion against the social code that says life must be lived eventually. Lady Bracknell’s views about marriage reflect the conventional pre-occupation of Victorian conservative. Here her limited range and conventional attitude is revealed, "An engagement should come on a young girl as a surprise, pleasant or unpleasant as the case may be." (IBE: 16) The aristocrats of the Victorian society and their shallow values are reflected in the following statement regarding the status of women in their lives. "My dear fellow, the truth isn't quite the sort of thing one tells to a nice, sweet, refined girl." (IBE: 22) Jack wants to conceal the matter of his eloping to the town for pleasure and is afraid of being exposed that actually he is not. In Algernon’s view, “The only way to behave to a woman is to make love to her, if she is pretty, and to someone else, if she is plain.” (IBE: 22) Here, he appears a crafty and cunning man who represents a false youth of the Victorian upper class society. Lady Bracknell seems Wilde’s greatest single creation in whom he managed to reconcile the qualities of social observation. To her society is a battle field on which triumphs are won not only by social position and material wealth but equally effectively by words. She insists to marry soon finding Cecily the owner of large fortune as well as admits the statement in favour of her nephew, Algernon’s character. “I am not in favour of long engagements. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 154
  • 172. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 They give people the opportunity of finding our each other’s character before marriage, which I think is never advisable.” (IBE: 60) Wilde has tactfully exhibited and conveyed that the so called serious things of life should be treated with contempt and the apparently lighthearted things should be treated seriously. He has focused the issues such as inheritance of property, illegitimacy, class distinction in society, the role of aristocracy, money etc and has made fun of almost everything that the society of his times regarded sacrosanct. The triviality of Victorian aristocrats is lifted up to a much higher plane and thus has tried to hold the mirror to the ugliness of the society. Wilde approaches the issues in unconventional way. Apparently his treatment to the problem seems quite light but it stirs one from within. According to Eric Bentley: Wilde is as much of moralist as Bernard Shaw but that, instead of presenting the problems of modern society directly, he flirts around them, teasing them, declining to grapple with them. His wit is no searchlight into the darkness of modern life. It is flickering, a coruscation, intermittently revealing the upper class of England in a harsh bizarre light. (116) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 155
  • 173. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Wilde creates episodes in which his characters live secret lives and frame false impression to escape from the social duties of life over and above to conceal their real motives. Jack and Algernon both create personas to be free. These adopted other lives allow them to neglect their duties. As defined by Algernon, Bunbury is the practice of creating an elaborate deception that allows one to misbehave while securing to uphold the very highest standards of duty and responsibility. He reaches to the height of deception when he justifies his pretending to be a bunburist in the following lines. “My dear fellow, it isn’t easy to be anything nowadays. There’s such a lot of beastly competition about” (IBE:11) Algernon deceiving Lady Bracknell rejects her invitation of dinning with her, convincing her, “I have just had a telegram to say that my poor friend Bunbury is very ill again (IBE: 13) When he finds Lady Bracknell doubting him, he suddenly wins her trust saying “Yes, poor Bunbury is a dreadful invalid” (IBE: 13) In order to avoid his social duties and responsibilities, Algernon creates an imaginary character called Bunbury. Finding the pretext of Bunbury, he portrays Bunbury’s suffering and bad health so that it should not leave single cause to doubt him as well as his sudden alliance anywhere he likes, do not be suspected. He hates the society and relation to the height that in front of Jack Algernon confesses that he does not pay any heed to relations. “Relations are simply a tedious pack of people, who haven’t got the remotest knowledge of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 156
  • 174. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 how to live nor the smallest instinct about when to die.” (IBE: 21) It points a finger to his notion of neglecting the relations and to neglect relations means to neglect one’s social duty and moral responsibility. After the completion of Jack’s interview with Lady Bracknell, Jack addresses Algernon’s Aunt as a ‘Monster’ and ‘Gorgon.’ At this juncture he does not move at Jack’s being abused his own aunt. On the contrary he admits, “My dear boy, I love hearing my relations abused.” (IBE:21) He leads the double life and pretends to be what he is not merely to get rid of his duties and for the sake of his pleasure and enjoyment. He disguises as Jack’s wicked brother Ernest and takes the benefit of Jack’s absence and rushes to see Miss Cardew. When Jack catches him and rebukes him, instead of accepting his unforgivable deeds he says, “My duty as a gentleman has never interfered with my pleasures in the smallest degree.” (IBE:37) Algernon escapes to the country, where he presumably imposes on people who do not know him in much the same way he imposes on Cecily in the play, all that seeming to demonstrate him a fraud. Jack’s imaginary, wayward brother Ernest is a device not only for escaping social and moral obligations but also one that allows Jack to appear for more moral and responsible than he actually is. The cigarette case incident compels him to confess, “Well, my name is Ernest in town and Jack in Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 157
  • 175. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 the country.”(IBE: 8) At Algernon’s insistence and at his question of being asked to him that why you pretend to be Ernest in town and Jack in the country, he admits, “When one is placed in the position of guardian, one has to adopt a very high moral tone on all subjects. It’s one’s duty to do so.”(IBE: 9) Jack not only pretends to be something he is not, that is completely virtuous, but also routinely pretends to be someone he is not. This sort of deception suggests a far more serious and profound degree of hypocrisy. When Jack fabricates his brother Ernest’s death to win Gwendolen and to conceal the false, he imposes that fantasy on his loved ones. He rounds out the deception with costumes and props, and does his best to convince the family that he is in mourning. Through these various enactments of double lives, Wilde suggests the general hypocrisy of the Victorian mindset. The characters adopting deceitful lives, their deceptions, restrictions and assumptions suggest a strict code of morals that exists in the Victorian society but Wilde is not concerned with the question of what is and is not moral. In fact, he brutally makes fun of the Aristocratic Victorian’s ideas on morality as a rigid body of the rules. Victorian manners and appearance are demonstrated in the girlish musings of Cecily. When she hears that Jack’s ‘wicked’ brother Ernest is around, she is intensely desirous of meeting him. She confesses to Algernon, “I hope you haven’t been leading a double life, pretending to be wicked and being really Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 158
  • 176. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 good all the time. That would be hypocrisy.”(IBE: 30) The thought of meeting someone who lives outside the bounds of prudery and rules is exciting to little Cecily. Using the name Ernest both for Algernon and Jack to lead secret life is ironic because no one is being dutiful earnest and leading the life of deception. At the time of departing from Algernon, spending very brief space of time with him, Cecily proves herself trivial and superficial in the following statement, It is always painful to part from people whom one has known for a very brief space of time. The absence of old friends one can endure with equanimity. But even a momentary separation from anyone to whom one has just been introduced is almost unbearable. (IBE: 38) Cecily unlike Gwendolen too craves appearance and style. She believes that Jack’s brother is a wicked man and though she has never met such a man the idea sounds romantic. She toys with rebelliously and romantically pursing the “wicked brother” but she has full intentions of reforming him to the correct and appropriate appearance. Both women despite their differences are products of a world in which ‘how’ one does something is more important Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 159
  • 177. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 than ‘why’. To both the women, appearances play the key importance in their lives. Gwendolen craves appearance and desires to marry a man named Earnest simply because of the name’s connotation. “And my ideal has always been to love someone of the name Ernest. There is something in that inspires absolute confidence.”(IBE: 14) Gwendolen can’t even see that the man calling himself Earnest is befooling her with an extensive deception. Her own image consciousness blurs her judgement. Gwendolen is caught up and obsessed with the name, can be observed in the following statement. “Ernest has a strong, upright nature. He is the very soul of truth and honour. Disloyalty would be as impossible to him as deception.”(IBE: 45) One cannot ignore her obsession when she herself confesses in front of Jack, “Your Christian name has as irresistible fascination. The simplicity of your character makes you exquisitely incomprehensible to me.”(IBE: 24) The confession is quite contradictory as it has been admitted to a person who is leading pure life of deception. Her obsession reaches to the extent that she denies saying, “There is very little music in the name Jack, if any at all indeed. It does not thrill. It produces absolutely no vibration.”(IBE: 15) Gwendolen even pities a woman who is married to a man called John and in her view, the only really safe name is Ernest. In the figure of Gwendolen a Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 160
  • 178. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 young woman is obsessed with the name, Ernest and not with the actual earnestness itself. Unlike Gwendolen though Cecily is unspoiled, her ingenuity is belied by her fascination with wickedness. She is too obsessed with the name Ernest, but wickedness is primarily what leads her to fall in love with Jack’s imaginary brother whose relation is wayward enough to intrigue her. When Algernon tries hard to convince her to hide his deceptive life and to accept the name Algernon, she at the greatest height of sincerity shatters him saying, “I might respect you Ernest I might admire your character, but I fear that I should not be able to give you my undivided attention.” (IBE: 42) Here, she sounds quite sincere in her confession. Cecily is so obsessed with her imaginative existence regarding the name Ernest that she hardly remembers her culture, education and decency when she confronts Gwendolen to claim Ernest that actually does not exist. It becomes evident in the dialogue, “To save my poor, innocent, trusting boy from the machinations of any other girl there are no lengths to which I would not go.” (IBE: 48) Here Wilde has snatched away the masks that both the women put on at the very initial stage of their meeting. Wilde satirized Victorian society’s preoccupation with surface manifestation of virtue in the most superficial displays of decent behavior. “The Earnest” joke is set up to establish the whole concept of moral duty and to criticize and satirize the concept of Aristocratic Victorian morality. Gwendolen’s opening statement Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 161
  • 179. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 in the Act III indicates how eager she is for reconciliation towards the lie spoken to them by Jack and anxious to find any reason at all that the males are regretting over their deeds though they are not in fact. “The fact that they did not follow us at once into the house, seems to me to show that they have some sense of shame left.” (IBE: 54) Her eagerness also reveals how willing she is to deceive herself about Jack. The fact that men do not follow the women is morally natural but Gwendolen projects the matter with moral interpretation. As the man did not follow them, the reason is they might be ashamed of themselves. However it is quite obvious in the play that they are not at all ashamed. Cecily even underscores the irony of Gwendolen’s insane logic remarking, “They have been eating muffins that looks like repentance.”(IBE: 54) Both women by hook or by crook want to believe themselves that the men are truly sorry for what they have done. The double standards of men and women, social judgments and the status of woman in play exhibit the Victorian upper class and its snobbery. Such are the characters who put a premium on sobriety and honesty, are either hypocrite or else have the rug pulled out from under them. Wilde wants to convey the fact that truly moral is really the opposite of earnestness. What Wilde actually satirized through the main protagonist of the play is the general tolerance for hypocrisy in conventional Victorian Upper Class society and their Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 162
  • 180. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 morality. Jack uses his outer ego Earnest to keep his honourable image intact. Earnest enables Jack to escape the boundaries of his real life and act as he would not dare to reveal his real identity. Earnest provides a convenient excuse and disguise to Jack. And Jack feels no qualms as well as regrets about invoking Earnest whenever needed. Jack wants to be seen as upright and moral but he does not care what lies he has to tell to his loved ones in order to be able to misbehave. Until he seeks to marry Gwendolen, Jack uses the name Earnest as an escape from real life but Gwendolen’s fixation on the name, obligates Jack to embrace his deception in order to pursue the real life he desires. Jack has always managed to get what he wants by using Earnest as his fall back and his own lies eventually threatened to undo him. Algernon also invents fictional character named Bunbury, to postpone his real life. Algernon is constantly being summoned to Bunbury’s death bed which conveniently draws him away from tiresome and distasteful social obligations. Bunbury provides Algernon with a way of indulging himself while also suggesting great seriousness and sense of duty. Algernon not only acknowledges his wrong doings but also revels it. One of the Wilde’s satiric targets is romantic sentimental love, which he ridicules by having the women fall in love with a man because of his name rather than more personal attributes. It seems that the reason, the two women want to marry a man Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 163
  • 181. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 named Earnest is because of the meaning of the word “Earnest”. It means to be serious in interaction, purpose, showing depth and sincerity of feeling. However, in the play many faces of Earnest are anything but not honest. Wilde makes fun of the idea of leading double life by the character which is simply a means by which they liberate themselves from the repressive norms of society. Jack considers his encounter with the truth at the end unfortunate one when he comes to know that he has indeed been both “Earnest” and “Ernest” during the years of his leading a deceptive life and thereby deceiving his surroundings, relatives, amount a complex moral paradox. “Gwendolen, it is a terrible thing for a man to find out suddenly that all his life he has been speaking nothing but the truth, can you forgive me?” (IBE: 68) His apology to Gwendolen conveys that the character who embraces triviality and wickedness are the ones who may have the greatest chance of attaining seriousness and virtue. One of the play’s paradoxes is the impossibility of actually being either Earnest or moral while claiming to be so. In a way, Jack becomes his own fiction and his real life proves nothing but deception to him at the end. In other words Oscar Wilde did not dive very deeply below the surface of human nature, but found to a certain extent lightly, that there is more on the surface of life than is seen by the eyes of most people; he believed as much in veneer as in deep, untarnishable colour. Ultimately the Researcher agrees with Rickett’s Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 164
  • 182. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 comments on Wilde that, “Wilde might have become a great playwrightcertainly a great maker of artificial comedy. The Importance of Being Earnest bears witness to that” (Rickett, 149) Works Cited : Primary Source: 1.Wilde, Oscar. The Importance of Being Earnest. Ed. Ramaswamy A. Chennai: Macmillan India Press, 2004.Print. Secondary source: 1.Archibald , Henderson. “The Theatre of Oscar Wilde”. Overland Monthly(1907): 9-18.Print. 2.Bentley, Eric. The Playwright as Thinker. New York: Reynal and Hitchcock, 1946. Print. 3. Ellmann, Richard. Oscar Wilde: A Collection of Critical Essays. NewDelhi: Prentice hall of India, 1980.Print. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 165
  • 183. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 4. Gregor, Ian. The Sewanee Review; Rev. of Comedy and Oscar Wilde, The Johns Hopkins University Press, spring. 1966: 501-521. Print 5. Hankin, John. “The Need For an Endowed Theatre in London”. Fortnightly Review (1908): 791-802.Print. 6. Rickett, Arthur. A History of English Literature, New Delhi: USB Publisher’s Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 2004.Print. 7. Raby, Peter. “Wilde’s comedies of Society” (1997):144-159.Print. About the Author Ms. Kavita Vansia is an Assistant Professor of English at Shri P.H. Umrao College of Arts and Commerce, Kim, Surat, Gujarat. She earned her M.A. in 2005 from Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat and M.Phil in 2008 from Center Of Indian Diaspora and Cultural Studies, Hemchandracharya North Gujarat University, Patan. Her areas of interest are Diasporic studies, American literature and Indian English Literature. She has participated in many International/National/State level seminars, workshops, and conferences. She has also contributed research papers in reputed peer reviewed journals. She has been teaching to UG and PG students since 2006. At present, she is doing her research work on Indian Literature in English and Indian Diaspora. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 166
  • 184. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-10: Cartoon Analysis : A Technique for Classroom Interaction ToC Shamsha Emanuel Waymade College of Education Vallabh Vidyanagar Abstract The research explores the use of concept cartoons for assessing student teachers’ understanding of environmental education as well as utilizing the cartoons in teaching learning process. Moreover, the research conducted proves that the conceptual cartoons can be used to teach environmental concepts as well as evaluate student teachers’ clarity about environment related concepts. Introduction Books, cartoons, movies, and video games provide engaging opportunities to get both environmental education and non-environmental education students excited about the subject. Cartoon analysis tasks not based on a cognitive deficit model and can themselves provide a stimulus for learning. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 167
  • 185. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The paper reports are based on a set of tasks given to the student teachers in classroom at a Teacher Education College. The experimental group comprised of student teachers offering the environmental education course at the College. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Review of related literature Studies in the past have revealed that many student teachers do not have a conceptual clarity and skills related to science (Carre, 1993) and would be likely to perform badly on any initial examination of their subject knowledge. Many of them also enter teacher training courses with negative attitudes to science subjects, often perceiving themselves as “failed learners” in this subject (Parker and Spink, 1997). Yet, the student teachers after getting jobs teach environmental education in school! Cartoon based tasks enable the learners to think and go beyond the textual information. Research in past has also indicated that concept cartoons could be effective for elicitation of ideas and that they tended to have a positive impact on learner motivation and involvement (Keogh and Naylor,1999). Concept cartoons were therefore used as a mechanism for the initial audit of the student teachers’ scientific understanding. Moreover a study finding indicated that 69% student teachers thought that using the concept cartoons helped them to think differently about the situations and to begin the process of restructuring their understanding. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 168
  • 186. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The study further indicated that that the concept cartoons provided useful questions helped student teachers to be more open-minded and gave learners new ways of looking at the situations (Brenda and S.Naylor, 2000). In another study by Filiz K(2005) concept cartoon approach was introduced as a teaching and learning approach, which took account of constructivist views on learning in science. Also, a number of concept cartoons were created and used in various primary environmental education classes in an attempt to find out the potential benefits of teaching via concept cartoons. Concept cartoon approach is one of the teaching methods offered. Researchers who used the method in science teaching claim that teaching via concept cartoons minimizes classroom management problems and provides a manageable way to base teaching on each individual student’s ideas (Naylor & McMurdo, 1990; Keogh, Naylor, & Wilson, 1998). In concept cartoon teaching, alternative ideas, which include the scientifically acceptable one, regarding a scientific phenomenon are presented in a form of cartoon-style drawing in a poster. Ideas are put forward by cartoon characters in a discussion format. Then, the learner is invited to join the debate with the cartoon characters. Research methodology Objectives of the research were: 1. To find the opinions of the students towards the cartoon analysis task. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 169
  • 187. International Online eJournal 2. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 To find the effectiveness of cartoon analysis as a model for assessment as well as teaching and learning in the classroom. Research questions The study focused on answering three major research questions. They are mentioned below. 1. What are the opinions of student teachers towards concept cartoon and cartoon analysis? 2. Can cartoon analysis be used in teaching learning process? 3. Can cartoon analysis technique be used as an assessment tool in classrooms? Method A set of concept cartoons related to environmental concepts were downloaded from the internet. Then, a set of instructions were prepared by the teacher educator in order to enable the student teachers understand the cartoon observation and analysis task. All the concept cartoons were related to environmental issues and problems namely resource depletion, pollution and climate change. These cartoons were printed on a paper and the analysis task was assigned to the student teachers in pair work. The student teachers were instructed to relate the cartoon to the environmental principles and interpreted the cartoons. Data collection and data analysis The tools used for data collection were focused group discussion, opinionnaire and response sheet of students. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 170
  • 188. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The data analysis was done qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Content analysis technique was used to analyze data qualitatively and percentage analysis used to analyze data quantitatively. . Findings 98% of the student teachers found it difficult to analyze the cartoon independently. It was observed that the student teachers constantly stared at each other as well as teacher educator in order to seek help! In addition, while interacting with the teacher educator during the focused group discussion it was observed that 75% of the concept cartoons were misinterpreted. However after seeking guidance and hints from the teacher educator the students began writing on their response sheet. The data analysis of the response sheet revealed that students had difficulty in the cartoon observation task. However, 95% managed to explain the concept partially. The post task feed back included comments of the students. The comments included statements like “It is a difficult task”, “I could not explain the concept depicted in cartoon completely” and “I got confused”. However, the student teachers expressed that after getting help and guidance from the teacher educator they could explain the cartoon situation/ scientific concept. In addition comments like “Difficult but enjoyable task” and “user friendly way of learning science” were made by the student teachers. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 171
  • 189. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The study also signifies that the use cartoon analysis task enabled the student teachers to think ‘out of the box’ i.e. beyond the textual information. Student teachers had to think, discuss, question and observe during the entire session and there by remained active in class. 95% of the student teachers thought that using the concept cartoons helped them to think differently about the situations and to begin the process of restructuring their understanding. The task gave the students opportunities to think open-mindedly and creatively. All of the student teachers held positive views about the value of the concept cartoons as a teaching approach. They mentioned that this technique can be used for guiding discussion and identifying starting points for investigation. The activity was an elation activity and provided the opportunity to reflect, express and learn. Thus, the study also signifies that cartoon analysis task can be used as an assessment mechanism. The task provides scope for assessing the understanding and application abilities of the student teachers. The study suggests that the cartoon observation cum interpretation task provides opportunities to seek subjective responses as well as helps teachers to judge the students’ concept clarity. Hence such tasks it could be used in open book examinations. The cartoon analysis technique appears to be potentially valuable in both summative as well as formative assessments. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 172
  • 190. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 References. Carre, C. (1993) Performance in subject-matter knowledge in science. In N. Bennett and C. Carre (Eds.) Learning to Teach. London: Routledge. Denzin, N.K. (1970) The Research Act in Sociology: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods. London: The Butterworth Group. Department for Education and Employment (1998) Circular 4/98. Teaching: High Status, High Standards. London, DfEE. Keogh, B. & Naylor, S. (1997) Starting Points for Science. Sandbach, UK: Millgate House. Keogh, B. and Naylor, S. (1999) Concept cartoons, teaching and learning in science: an evaluation. International Journal of Environmental education Education (in press). Parker, J. and Spink, E. (1997) Becoming Environmental education Teachers: an evaluation of the initial stages of primary teacher training. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 22 (1), 17-31. Keogh & S. Naylor(2000) The use of concept cartoons as an auditing tool in initial teacher training Rosemary Feasey: University of Durham Filiz K. (2005) Effectiveness of Teaching via Concept Cartoons from the Point of View of Constructivist Approach. http://cimm.ucr.ac.cr/formaciondeeducadores/Teaching_training/Kabapinar,20F Iliz.%20Effectiveness%20of%20Teaching%20via%20Concept%20Cartoons%20from %20the%20Point%20of%20View%20of%20Constructivist%20Approach.%20Mayo% 202005.pdf Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 173
  • 191. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 About the Author: Shamsha Emanuel is a teacher educator at Waymade College of Education. She teaches at the B.Ed. Advanced and M.Ed. courses. She has pursued post graduate degrees in Analytical Chemistry from University of Pune and Education from M.S. University of Baroda. Presently she is pursuing her doctorial degree in Education from Sardar Patel University and has cleared NET and GSET lecturer-ship examinations. She has presented conceptual papers and research work at various conferences and seminars at state, national and international levels. She has publications in the field of teacher education, science education and women studies. She has authored two books namely Preparing Scientists in Classrooms: A teacher’s manual and Shaping attitude of student teachers towards community work as well as co-authored two books namely They Struggled and Developing Worksheets . In addition, several paper publications and two minor research projects are to her credit. Her areas of interest and research are science education, community work, women studies, elated learning methods and environmental education. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 174
  • 192. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-11: We, Technology and Puppets: Who’s Who? ToC Ms. Jelam Hardik Abstract Recently, the front page of a leading newspaper caught my eyes. Half of the page had a photograph of a man (can be ‘any’ or ‘every’ man, as was without a face) (may be a torso), and the identity card on his pocket read, Visitor Pass Visitor’s Name : Husband To Meet : Wife & Kids Time : Weekend How far have we reached?! Can we call this growth? Is this progress? Is this advancement? We are living in a fast paced world. Everything around us move, change very quickly. We, humans, seem to be in race with Nature. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 175
  • 193. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 And doubtlessly, we are good performers. We have invented lots of new things. Technology is one of such efforts to conquer this quick-moving world. Our journey is from Pager to PC, and is still on. How much does the technological advancement affect us? We are not sure . . . Let us peep into our own lives and see what good and bad is packed in . . . Why don’t we begin with something very positive?!! We have a very beautiful concept in Indian Culture: “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam”. We believe in the concept of the Earth (can be understood as the World or the Universe) being one family. . Had there not been technology, it would not have been possible. Computer and the Internet are such inventions. Let’s assume if I happen to be far from my native place and from my family members, in what ways do I keep in touch with them? Earlier we used to make calls; long distance calls, which charged or cost very high. Then we got mobile phones. We could talk to each of our dear ones or could send SMS to them the moment we wanted to. We even grew further with Skype, broadly the Internet. Now from whichever part of the world, we can not only talk, but can also see each other...! How miraculous. .! Thanks to technology . . .! I will go back to the idea of the world being one family. This relationship is not limited to our own family; mother, father, sister or grandparents. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 176
  • 194. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 It stretches further to n-number of people, due to social networking sites like facebook, orkut, twitter. Here we get to know the people with same interests, fields and attitudes. Our circle grows bigger, not only in terms of quantity, but also of quality. Business too is not left behind in this race with the business networking sites like Zing and Linked-in. We know the things happening around us very quickly. If some natural calamity occurs, we do feel for the people of that place, and we may extend a helping hand to those in need. Various sites are mines of information. They, like banks, are ready to credit a lot in our intellectual databanks. We receive and reinvest this information in our friends. The process of sharing and exchanging new ideas bring people closer to each other. Idea mapping multiplies our awareness. Virtual games are even techno-miracles. They increase creativity and reasoning skills. All this can be used to support people solve their problems. At this point, I can’t help remembering our scriptures which portray Suras and Asuras, Devas and Danavas. There can’t be light without darkness. We can’t negate the same about technology: Cell phones are being used wrongly. Some unknown persons find our contact numbers and misuse them the way they plot to. They try and build fake relationship by wishing, and so harassing and embarrassing us. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 177
  • 195. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The same problem is with the use of the Internet, especially the social networking sites. Some persons, disguised as friends, collect most of our information and then start abusing it. Collegians, youngsters are crazy about all such sites. In fact, they are mad about it. Due to immaturity they become victims by allowing some unknown people to become their friends. Cyber crimes are not new to us. We have cases of cyber rapes and cyber killings. Youngsters think that the more cyber friends they have, the smarter they are. And this misconception brings them misfortune. Video games or virtual entertainment has created a new world in children’s mind. By any means they want to be the winners. Some games promote them to win even by killing any person. .! And for the sake of winning, children do all such things. The only thing in their mind is ‘to win’. This imparts wrong values to their lives. They don’t respect others’ feelings, not even their existence! Selfcenteredness is one more drawback. Apart from this, the time kids spent on these games would have been spent with their grand parents, parents or siblings. In the life of adults or working people, we observe Computer Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). This has led to various psychological issues. The pressure they feel at their working place or at their home working on the system generates stress, which obviously results in tensed relationships. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 178
  • 196. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The use of laptop causes infertility. Couples start blaming each other. And so we have tangled or broken relationships. We have the technology present in all the fields. This, of course, decreased physical work, but created a lot of posture related problems. We work for many hours as we are paid more. But this salary does not come to our rescue, when our own relations are at stake. Physical separation brings in line mental dissatisfaction. And even after a lot of money in our bag, there is a vacuum in our life…Our heart is sad, unhappy . . . No time for our kith and kin! Would sending ‘love’ through mobile or net reach its destination.?! It is we, who are the right persons to change and mould our lives. The wise, judicious use of technology has all the potential of creating heaven. WE only make hell and heaven. Technology is like a genie. It is there to say ‘ Tathaastu ‘ or ‘so be it’ . . . It brings whatever we ‘order’ it to. Why then, curse it…?!! Note on the Author: Ms. Jelam Hardik is MA with English from Gujarat University and has Post Gradate Certificate in Teaching of English from prestigious English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad (erstwhile CIEFL). In her long spanning career spread over 13 years, she has dealt with almost all dimensions of English teaching including general English, examination preparation, English for academic purposes and English for business. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 179
  • 197. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Jelam is British Council certified trainer for IELTS. She is an expert verbal facilitator for CAT, XAT, GMAT, MAT, Bank PO, company recruitment and other competitive exams. She has broad experience in developing English teaching products focusing on various target groups ranging from school children to business professionals. Apart from interest in teaching; Jelam is a Gujarati Sugam Sangit Artist and holds Visharad (gradation) in Hindustani Vocal. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 180
  • 198. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-12: Social Thinking in Modern Sanskrit Literature ToC Dr. Sanjay Pandya No creator can go ahead his era. That’s way we call literature is the mirror of society. According to Dr. Shridhar Bhaskar Varnaker. In this modern Literature, the creator of Sanskrit Literature glance at the writer actively of historical subject and trying to bring, something new subjects. In this field that we can see from their criticism and description. In the dark impression of western Literature. We can see the real picture of our society also. At that time we need some great changes in our society also. In beginning prose style was been change and reach near the reality. After that translated Literature is also appeared. . Varnaker Shreethar Bhasker Dr. - Aravachin Sanskrit sahitya Etihas, Prachya Vidhya Vidhyalaya, 1992, P, No. 430 Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 181
  • 199. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Afterwards Sanskrit creator also put his first foot steps on it. Poem means imagination most of creator came from those rigid beliefs. Poem got new mode and subjects from taking the inspiration of various countries, various zone, the different or various situations of the word and the incidents which happen around us. Thus after our independence the lot of work as at done on realism and people’s awareness Poets after 1950 gave their great devotion in the field. ,MSTg+:I N]Q5lZ6FDo ;J"ZFRFZo • ;[ÉI],Z:I N]Q5lZ5FSo RFJlSJFNo • • ;DFHJFN:I N]Q5lZDlT E|Q8FRFZo • ;FdIJFN:I N]Q5lZ6FDo ;J"lJGFXo • • In this stanza poet describes. How society was being suffered because of constitutional morals. No Ideal moral has been developed yet now. One poet of 1994 is presented the reality life. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 182
  • 200. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 jIFWFGF GFDFlG 5lZJT"G 5|FÃG]IlgT • D'UIF0l5 GÉ;:SZ6DlWUrKlT • lSgT] D'U:I D'tI]D'UIFIFo O,Dl:T • Thus, the result is already decided that is the death of deer. Only the hunter will be changed of the manners or the method will be changed but the destiny of deer is already decided. Hand is the way that protect from life’s struggler of human lives. It is the symbol of creation, because of dearness, an explication, mental agony. Manhimself entrapped in his own cob weds. Sometimes to catch the train, sometimes to pacify the hungers the hand behind the lustful desire. The hand of poor people which search of spiritual ligure but this hand always lost everything which also one poet put in this line. ˆT[Ø] C:T[Ø] HLJGZ[BF G ;lgT S[J,Fo ;lGT D'tI]Z[BFo • Dr. Rajendra Nanavati also describes this thing. “Yet it must be admitted that allusive style brought a universal contact into the Sanskrit Poverty. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 183
  • 201. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The details of global cultures find an unoberusive and smooth incorporation into Sanskrit diction which attains new flexibility and a new meaningful transparency. These characteristics are new in the Sanskrit poetry.” Almost present actor becomes the realist. Every poet’s thinking of around them. It is the natural thing. ,SFIFDŸ ˆSM lJELØ6M0l5 VF;LT • Poet describe this stanza because of the annoy from bad condition of our country. Though we say that the state of Ravana is very cruel but we also like man as Vibhishana there but in this era we can not get man like him. Poet expresses his worry about environment which exploit day by day because of materialism and mechanism. 5|N}Ø6D]ÉT5JG:I HF,[ JGˆlZlTDF AâM0l:T • Poet compels his ‘EFJSo˜ to turn his inner side put his all great desire of love, emptiness and frustration. lS G D}<I DD{TFJN4 5t:G[CDFÃG]IFDŸ m Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 184
  • 202. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Poet is tired from the likeness of pollution in the present condition. I+ T+ N'xIGT X}SZFo S]ÉS]ZF ZF;EF. GUZ lGlZ, 5|lTEFlT 5|Fl6;U|CF,I;DD[I • ‘DFJF˜ l5|IF HGo 5N[ 5N øLJlgT 5|N]Ø6Zl;SFo 5N[ 5N[ lGGFN S]J"lgT • • ˆTFN'ZM0XMEG[0l5 GUZ[ ;B[ • ;J[" HGFo ;FGgN GgNlgT • • The people who are known as secularist of social the secularism. They create havoc in the name of culture in whole India. All the rulers forgot their self-proud country’s or patrivitism of becoming observance of wealth, authority and lustful desire. ‘VB0FY"D+M5N[Xo˜ ‘p5N[XSF Vl5 :IFlEDFGX}GIFo BDØlUTIo zL ;¿F;[É; J|TWFZF ˆJ • If the people of village suffering from an ordinary dieses they go far and far in search of doctor. Yet we got independence still 58 years ago. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 185
  • 203. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 U|FD[Ø] ;],E GFl:T RF{ØWDF{ØWF,IDŸ • ‘0F¶É8ZM˜ N],"EM I+ N}Z UgTjID[J R • • That is not enough that our present spiritual teacher teaches us without any style or any preparation and getting big salary but they give tuition and earn more money. VwIF5G G HFGFlT 7FT GM0wIIG TYF • XF,FIF J[TG 7FT U'C[ 7FT R 8I}XGDŸ • • We can say in this way … also. 5|LtIF lJ5], 5|F.5I J[TGDŸ • IF G SZMlT R DFI" 5}6'DŸ • • To achieve big salary and give nothing or put it half is the stiglna for any employer. We can not see the progress of India because of the many problems of entire India. One modern poet expresses this felling in this way. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 186
  • 204. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 HFlTJFNF TYF WD"JFNM0YJF jIlÉTJFN GG] EJMlgglgãTo • SÚSFZL ;NF N[XCFlG5|No ˆSTF ZFl.8IF ;J"YF 5F<IFTFDŸ • • In these days, people put any reasons that we can not ignore any mass promotion in schools. Poet satire on these things. HIlT T[0lWS ‘DF;5|DMXGDŸ˜ :Jl5lT XFZNF X`JN+ lC • p5ZL JU"N XFlgTNFIS zDlJNZFS ‘DF;5|DMXGDŸ˜ Here poet follows that ‘UM5LULTDŸ˜ But he blow or criticise on this modern education. It is management. It is style or its arrangement. The death of Mahatma Gandhi has not been completed more than 60 years but people take advantages on his name one poet describe this poor condition in this line. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 187
  • 205. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 INZ[l8IM v TSl, BNZI:+HFT 5L0F G D[0l:D IlN ;J"D]5[lÙT TTŸ • ˆTG] DF NClT XMØ65Ll0TFGF l5^0[G 5]lÚD]5IFlgT DD{J E'tIFo • • Here we mean the thoughts of not only Gandhi but our leaders become more healthily from the exploitation of poor people. So poet feels great sorrow and explains his feeling in this way. V,FNLGo q UFgWLDCFEFUFGF VHFIF N]uWFI SFDIT[ :D SFDIT[:D PPP SFDIT[:D PPP In this ‘VFbIFlISF˜ poem, poet describe description of poor people what is the condition of ordinary people. We can see in the poem. ‘lN,CLGUZDŸ˜ which is on the base of our capital Delho. :Jl;CtJ lJ:D'tI l:YTFo lRl+Tl;CF ‘;TID[J HIT[˜ .lT G X'6JlgT4 G 59lT4 G UH"lgT • Here poet said that lion became weak and lost their strength. In real sense our rulers also lost their strength in their summit meetings every where we feel Juklness in stead of strength. Violence, killings, castism, dispired poet to write some like these. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 188
  • 206. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 DFGJM DFGJ WFTIlT DFGJTFClgT DFGJo lSDl:T m If the centre of faith is quite limited than it becomes heavy on others that way Dr. Kalanath Shastri says that- VFW]lGS ;:S'T SlJ G[ lX<54 KgN VF{Z SFjI lJnF S[ :TZ 5Z lH; 5|SFZ G}TGTF SF 5|DF6 lNIF C{ p;L 5|SFZ EFJvAMW SL GJLGTF EL 5|lTOl,T SL C{ • IC EFJvAMW Ù[+LI EF.6FVM SL ;F{NI" R[TGF ;[ 5|lTOl,T CM SZ VFTF C{ • IC :JFEFlJS EL C{ • 5|TI[S SLJ V5GL EFT'EFØF D[ CL ;F{NI" AMW ;lRT SZTF C{ • p;[ VlEjIÉT VJxI CL l£TLI EFØF IF l5T'EFØF s;[Sg0 ,{uJ[Hf ;[ N[TF C{ • XFIN CL VFH lS;L SL DFT'EFØF ;:S'T CM • .; N'lÚ;[ Ù[+LI EFØFVM SF EFJvAMW sVF{Z AC]WF XaN ELfVFH S[ SlJ SL ;:S'T SlJ SL lGl T CL VFW]lGS EFZTLI EFØFVM ;[ VFI[UL CL • TEL TM NlÙ6 S[ SlJIM D[ NlÙ6 SL EFØFVM SL X{,L VF{Z AUF, S[ SlJIM D[ AUFL H{;L X{,L SL 5|TLlT CMTL C{ • SEL SEL ˆ;L X{,LIF VGHFT[ D[ ìNIlGlCT CL HFTL C{ • Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 189
  • 207. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The state wise loveliness is always shown in specify or additional case of Gujrati poet. It is look like a pollen of a flower. S'ØLJ,o q 5]~ØFYL" C,[G I]ßHT[ q 5|FZaW ;C J5lT q ìNI A,[G l;ŒlT q N]oBFlG S]T'6{o ;C S]gTlJ q X:I[G ;C :JÃGFG 5|ZMCIlT q T:I GT:SgWIMZl:T q N[X:I `J:TG ;}IM"NIo • • So it is natural that this is a amazing mixture of those three things. How can we put female singer alone from that. Dr. Uma Deshpande is the first poetess in modern Sanskrit. When expressed garba ‘D^0,UFG˜ of Gujarat in to Sanskrit. CM AFl,S4 D^0,[ GM G'tI[4 HFT:G[CF ,l,TF ;F G'tIlT ;]QDF GG] JLÙF6LIF 5ÍF • • INLG]N]:JÃGFI;[ TJ TNF XIG[G lSDŸ • INF G 5|FÃIT[ DFU"o plRTo TNF UDG[G lSDŸ • • :D'lT v p,}B[ AF, lGtI S]ÎIGTL jIYF • Va]Z[BFIFDGU",[J lS,ngTL jIYF • • Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 190
  • 208. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 In all these three gazal poems. We can see the great impact on 1985. We can not ignore the brightness of the brave people of Gujarat JI ;J"NF ;FæNFG[0lT;ßHF • G T[ 5'ø5FN I5]o :TMSDF+DŸ • • Gujrati people are always great donors in the time of Calamity in any problems. This things is also reflected in this lines also. tJ lRlgTSF0:ID]BZFTZ,F 5|XFgTF ~8L 5]ZF65|lYTF EHZM lGtIDŸ • tJ ‘0FJZL˜ U6I;[00W]lGSF S,0S GFZLHG:I lJØI[ S]~Ø[ lJDX"DŸ • • Here are word ‘Dowery’ is very attractive word for us which is coming from Navasari district one Gujarat. Uncle believes that it is the imputation for us. One thing is clarify here that this imputation is not spread in gujarati yet how. Here picture of able bodied is created of in this poem. ‘S'lØSFZo HUT:I TFTo˜ this feelings is behind this poem. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 191
  • 209. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 ‘C[ :JHG˜ is one of his poem also. One stanza from it line. SMl5 SYI[TŸ R{+DF;M0I :JHG | Gujrati people are always known for his hospitality. In the month of ‘Chaitra’ people are free so they give their good hospitality. Let’s see one line like this. SYI SYI ;lB | hl8lT l:YTM0C • zMT] S6" NTJF • In the singing poem, there is good mixture of style. Musical Sound tune. ˆlC ˆlC A|ïl6 EãSFl, s@f SFl, SFl,GL IMlUGL GlGNGL Z[ PPP ˆlC4 The tune of this ‘Garba’ is like that folk song. ‘Ek Vanjari Zulana Zultite’ and ˆlC ˆlC is look like that is the Gujrati musical style. 5|Fù6DwI VCM N[ NLÃIT[ Z[ Eù,D^05ZFHZFHM NL5DF,L Z[ PPP The tune of this garba is also look, like that folk song. ‘Khetar Vachee Kevado ra…’ Mandalgan means ‘Garba’ is the greatest festival og Gujarat culture. We can see the devotion is there music is them, and dance is also there. One song of that bird which is flying in the sky of freedom. GL,UUGJÙl; qD]ÉTlJCUF .J q ACDF;DŸ E|D6ZTo q E|D6:I GF;LTŸ S lxRT5Yo q UFI UFI D]ÉT[o ULT 5|XFgTCìNI[ q E|D6ZTM0CDF;D[S,I[ • • Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 192
  • 210. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Mandalgan means ‘Garba’ is the greatest festival og Gujarat culture. We can see the devotion is there music is them, and dance is also there. One song of that bird which is flying in the sky of freedom. GL,UUGJÙl; qD]ÉTlJCUF .J q ACDF;DŸ E|D6ZTo q E|D6:I GF;LTŸ S lxRT5Yo q UFI UFI D]ÉT[o ULT 5|XFgTCìNI[ q E|D6ZTM0CDF;D[S,I[ • • May be it is look like that Gujrati song. ‘O nil Gaganana Pankhida…’ The reflection of state wise food any style is also shown in Sanskrit Poetry. BFNG ÙLZXS"ZFI}5DŸ VFZMCG NMl,SIF TLY[" • ‘BLZ˜ is the most famous sweet of Gujrati style. Sometimes Gujarat believe are also arranged in our imagination which is look like butterfly. :JÃG Bl^0T q SFR v J,I;D q W},F{ 5lTTDŸ q ìNo S[l,0M:SM5[ q N]oB XTWF •• In modern poems we can see the picture of dependent women in independent India. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 193
  • 211. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 I+ :+L6F GIG;l,, SFDIgTo l5XFRFo • SFDF;ÉTFo lSDl5 lSDl5 DgNS'tI RZlgT •• GFZL6F N]N"XF 5ZI lRT D[ CPP lXT ;NF • lS jIYFIF NNŸ ,FEo lZYlTxR PPP EI;S],F •• While some times some poets also attack on the self from house. Our poet also criticises on it. N[X[ :JTG+[ HGGL :JTG+F • SGE'6 ;FNZD+ ClgT • :JIF{JGFI4 :J;]BFI 5]+ G :TGI5FGFI R ;F 5|;gGF •• N[X[ :JTg+[ HGGL :JTg+F l5TF :JTg+o 5|6Io :JTg+o • U[C[ :JTg+[ UDG :JTg+DŸ DFUL" D]ÉTF DW]5Fo 5|DTFo •• Foeticide or killing of embryo this type of new problems also we can see here. The birth of girl child is never welcomed in any ancient or our recent culture. IlN SgIF U'C[ HFTF NMØM DFT]:T] S T[ • IlN 5]+ l5TF JLZ DCFT[HFo W]ZgWZo •• Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 194
  • 212. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The women who live in the Village their condition is also not good. VwIIG G S]J"lgT U|FD[Ø] G{J ;F l:YlTo • U'CSFI[Ø] G{5]^I TF;F 5]ßIlDJ E}DF{ •• ;Z,F SMD,F AF,Fo lXÙFTLÙFlJJlH"TF • G 5xIlgT SNF G[+[ 5|UlTzLD]B5|EFDŸ •• U'C[ HgD U'C[ D'tI]o U'C[Ø] ;S, ;]BDŸ • U'C tIÉtJF G UgTjIlDlT lJRFZ6F ITo •• HgDTM DZ6 IFJNŸU'CSFI["Ø] S[J,DŸ • lGIMHIlgT IF WgIF GD:SZMlDTFo ;NF •• Ig+Jt5|R,gTLC 5lZRF,GSD"l6 • lGIMHIlgT IF WgIF GD:SZMlT ;FNZDŸ •• Ig+JTŸ 5|R,lgT IF;gTFGMt5FNSD"l6 • N]Bo;gT]l,TFo ;lgT GD:SZMlD ;FNXDŸ •• Here we can see the condition of modern women which is described naturally balance and quite real. One side, one lady cross boundry line and done remarkable job all the ladies from our country got good progress which is also remarkable. Which others who never see the school n their whole life and ding their pixed and external job of progeny and died only the thing which has changed is the birth place and death place. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 195
  • 213. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Foot Note.:1 Varnaker Dr. hreethar Bhasker – Aravachin Sanskrit Sahitya, Etihas, Prachya Vidhya Vidhyalaya, 1992, P. No. 430 2 As it is, P. No. 27 3 VluGCM+L4 klQFZFH v ;ÉI],Z Rd5} 5[.H G #$ 4 DFWJ 0M CQF"N[J v D'UIF 5[ Z_ 5 JCL4 5[ (! 6 Nanavati, Dr. Rajendra – Journal of Orintal Vol. 36, June 1987, P. No. 314 7 DFWJ 0M CQF"N[J v D'UIF 5[ !& 8 JCL4 5[ Z* 9 DFWJ 0M Zl;S v ;DIFlgTS[4 5F`J" 5|SFXG4 VDNF4 5[ Z% 10 JCL4 5[ Z* 11 JCL4 5[ !! 12 5^0F4 0M ZJLgãS]DFZ v XTN,D 5[ Z(% 13 XF:+L4 0M ˆ 0L v JS|MnFlG4 5[ ## 14 5F9S4 0M JF;]N[J v SlJ S[ 5F;;[4 15 HMQFL4 0M 5|7F v ;FDgI:IDŸ 16 XFC4 UMlJgN,F, ; ZLTF l+J[NL v VW]GF 5[ Z* 17 5F9S4 0M lSXMZRã o ; ZLTF l+J[NL VW]GF 18 DFWJ4 0M CQF"N[J v lGQS|FgTF ;J[" 5[ (% 19 JCL4 5[ (% 20 XF:+L4 0MP S,FGFY v VFW]lGS ;:S'T ;FlCtI ˆS jIF5S N'lQ85FT4 5|SF .,FCFAFN ;U|CF,I 5[ #_ 21 DFWJ4 0MP CQF"N[J v lGQS|FgTF ;J[" 5[ !#! 22 VFRFI"4 0M DMlCGL v ;FdDG:ID 5[ ZZ 23 JCL4 5[ !# 24 JCL4 5[ Z$ 25 HFGL4 0M HIN[J v 5FlZHFTD H}G4 !))# 5[ #! 26 58[,4 0M Zl;S v DFT',CZL 5[ !( 27 DFWJ4 0M CQF"N[J v lGQS|FgTF ;J[" 5[ Z() 28 JCL 5[ !(* Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 196
  • 214. International Online eJournal 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 VluGCM+L4 klQFZFH v VFuG[I 5[ *& JCL4 5[ (_ 5^0F4 0M ZlJgãS]DFZ v 5|lTwJlG 5[ &! l+J[NL4 3GxIFD v G}TGSFjI:5gNGD 5[ !Z( HFGL4 CQF"NF ; HXJTL NJ[ 5[ $* 5^0F4 0M ZJLgãS]DFZ v XTN,D 5[ &# JCL 5[ !__ JCL 5[ Z_ JCL 5[ ZZ JCL 5[ !&( JCL 5[ !&& About the Author: Dr. Sanjay N.Pandya is working as a lecturer with Shri M.N.Kampani Arts and Shri A.K. Shah Commerce College, Mangrol. He has obtained Ph.D .degree from Saurashtra University in the year-2007.About 11 of his research papers are rewarded at state and national level conferences. He has to his credit of publication of more than 50 papers. He has also authored half a dozen books. His area of interest includes Philosophy, Vedantshashtra, Upanishads and modern Sanskrit literature. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 197
  • 215. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-13: Creative Writing and Multimedia ToC R. Janaky Freelance Writer Vadodara Abstract According to Henry Luce “It's easier to teach a poet how to read a balance sheet than it is to teach an accountant how to write.” Here, we of course refer to the lofty forms of literature which are supposed to be the chosen profession of only a few. When teaching writing skills, one is faced with the daunting task of inculcating in the student a sense of the importance of communicating correctly with due reference to correct grammar and clarity. But there is another aim that the English teacher has or should have i.e. the need to make her/his students aspire to a little more than bread and butter. A little bit of jam on the topping always makes for an interesting combination. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 198
  • 216. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The research paper that I have brought before you seeks to address three questions 1. What kind of creative writing is taught at the middle and secondary school and what is the attitude of the students to the same? 2. What are the avenues open for English teachers in the field of multimedia for the teaching of writing skills? 3. How can we best integrate this newly available technology into a meaningful, feasible classroom situation especially in the context of my state i.e. Gujarat? The State Board and Central Board have specified 20-30 marks for the writing skills section i.e. roughly 20 -30% weightage is given to this section. This section primarily deals with creative writing aspects like Diary writing, Reports, essays, letters and even an e mail. There are well laid guidelines for grading the different skills and even detailed formats which need to be followed in order to get the required grades. Apart from these questions, the last question in the CBSE X std. English paper allows for a meaningful creative experience as the student has to imagine what could have happened after the story ends. Though a part of the literature section the answer is usually in the format of a letter or a diary entry and thereby lies in the purview of creative writing. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 199
  • 217. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 All this is, of course, is common knowledge. What we do need to know is the way students react to the writing skills section. Through the use of a questionnaire, a survey was conducted regarding the responses to creative writing. 29 students attempted the questions out of which 15 were boys and 14 girls. The students of standard X are affiliated to Gujarat Board. Some of the questions featured were * Do you prepare for the writing skills section of question paper? * How many periods are devoted to the development of writing skills? * Do you often translate an idea or example from your mother tongue into English? *Are you allowed to submit your writing assignment in the form of a PowerPoint? *Do you think that there are some students who are God gifted and express ideas beautifully? * Do you surf the Internet for a writing skill assignment? If so, for how much time? * Which features do you spend your time on? • Blogging * Face book • Twitter *Chatting Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 200
  • 218. International Online eJournal • Twitter Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 *Chatting • * Surfing * Surfing (For entertainment) • (For academics) Do you wish to write as effectively in English as other students? The responses to the questions, though limited in terms of the number, threw some interesting insights which I would like to share with this august company. The positive aspects were: students realize the importance of writing effectively, more than one period is devoted to the writing skill course and the relevance of reading newspapers is felt by almost all the students. In fact 27 out of 29 were aware that reading news papers is beneficial and 24 wanted to write effectively in English. In response to the question whether writing well was an inherent quality the results were divided. 15 students felt that hard work, vocabulary, interest etc determine the way one is able to express oneself effectively. 1 had left the question blank and 13 vetoed for the opinion that writing “well” was a prerogative of a handful. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 201
  • 219. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The one aspect that bothered me the most was that only 6 out of 29 students bothered to use the net for a writing skill assignment whereas 25 students use the internet for more than an hour per day. Internet is used only for surfing for entertainment, chatting or the face book. There is nothing wrong in that except that we as educators have to guide our students towards more useful gains from the net. A concerted effort is required to wean our students away from harmful use of technology to a more meaningful direction. One interesting aspect was, that 17 students ticked ‘yes’ to the question if they were allowed to submit assignments in the form of a power point. So, we have to look at technology as a two way mirror. One, how can a teacher use technology to upgrade his/her classes. Two, how can a student use multimedia to submit his/her work. A teacher today cannot live in an island and ignore the multiplicity of a techno savvy world. What are the problems faced by teachers today? One, we have a very basic problem of inadequate infrastructure. Two, even if, we have the resources, teachers are not aware of the technological aids available or in fact they may not be sufficiently trained to avail these facilities. Three, a teacher is bogged down by time constraints, trying to finish the syllabus, juggling between parents, management and a smart student body. What is the hapless teacher supposed to do? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 202
  • 220. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The key factor, here is, to start a silent but sure revolution in the mind. The perspective has to be changed. Whose perspective? Yours, mine and ours. I quote : The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn What we require today is a team of dedicated teacher trainers. Nay, I will not call them trainers; I will use the term teacher support programmers. A team of experienced experts, who will endeavor to bridge the gap between teachers and technology, will be needed to take up the cudgel and to support and enhance the learning process. We are surrounded by technology and so are our students. It is imperative that we incorporate this mammoth body into meaningful learning avenues. As educators we feel the need to be a part of this 21st century revolution but we see technology as an add on and not as a tool towards a better environment for the teaching-learning process. Here I quote extensively to drive home my point. According to Viet Thanh Nguyen, University of Southern California. What is multimedia? A medium is 1. a means of communication or expression, and 2. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 203
  • 221. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 A condition or environment in which something may function or flourish. Therefore, multimedia in my definition is the use of multiple means of communication or expression that enables a more flexible and creative environment of learning and intellectual growth. Multimedia, in the way I am using it here in the context of teaching, is therefore primarily a pedagogical strategy for both teachers and students; it is secondarily a set of technological or creative tools--we can call them tactics in service of the strategy. What this definition emphasizes, then, is the need for teachers to define the strategic goals in their course for which multimedia is necessary, and then to define what tactics or tools must be used to achieve such goals. These tactics or tools may be computer-based programs that enable the manipulation of image, sound, and text; or they may be the more “traditional” forms of media like performances, installations, or the graphic arts. Hence, we can say that if our goal is to make the students a) to like expressing their ideas creatively b) to gain competence in using the language skillfully especially in the written form c) to be able to generate new hitherto unheard of ideas thereby forwarding the march of an advanced civilization then we need to look at the various tools available. We have to study, pick out relevant tools, and discard unwanted tools or complicated ones which may not be conducive to out socio cultural setup and then proceed to use them in judicious ways in meaningful classroom situations. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 204
  • 222. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Just as we remove unwanted dirt from the surface of potatoes, we need to do an indepth study of the resources available and then take them into the classroom. Half baked experiments and just a surface study may actually boomerang and can lead to negative results as we are dealing with students who are going through a very sensitive period between childhood and adulthood. As an English Teacher Trainer for developing Writing skills for Middle and Secondary school students I have selected a few of the really relevant, useful and easy to operate technological tools for the same. Let us have a look- Essay Map.mht ABC's of the Writing Process - Prewriting - Hatching New Ideas!.mht Pupil Profile Generator - Everybody Writes - Exploring writing beyond the classroom.mht RoadGame.mht Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 205
  • 223. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Apart from these tools which need internet connection we have Blogging as a very important recent technological advance. According to an article published in MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching titled Blogging across the Disciplines: Integrating Technology to Enhance Liberal Learning, I quote: Like online threaded discussion groups, blogs are an easy way to engage in dialogue on the web outside the classroom. The availability of several blog providers such as Google’s blogger.com, LiveJournal.com, and WordPress.com make it free and easy to set up, manage, and update blogs frequently and without additional support. By using blogs “students become familiar with blogging, a tool now used by an everincreasing number of employers to support routine operating. Since blogs are a fairly recent pedagogical tool, new scholarship has emerged that point to its benefits in the classroom. The ability of students and faculty to easily update an online journal promotes blogging as a new form of communication to enhance class discussion and to create a community outside the classroom. Flatley (2005) argues that the technological medium provides a space where students can interact with one another, and it can open up the classroom space Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 206
  • 224. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 "where discussions are continued and where every student gets an equal voice" (p. 77). In addition, blogs can promote collaboration (Flatley, 2005; Williams & Jacobs, 2004; Oravec, 2002). Blogs in the classroom are sometimes used as “online diaries” where students write about their own experiences or share their ideas related to course topics. However, the power of a blog comes when others interact with an individual’s posts, creating a forum for discussion and conversation. However, I have a confession to make. Even after going through this tool for classroom purposes, I did not include it in my teacher training workshops. The challenges were a. How de we create a classroom bloggers’ community when at least 5-10% students may not have personal computers or an Internet connection? b. Will the teacher authorized blogging create any undesirable messages on the blog leading to a repercussion from the parent body? c. Can we take the idea of a blog and create a group discussion body within the school premises? d. Can we ignore such a powerful tool as it will definitely help the shy student who may come up with more ideas in this computer mediated discussions? Bi-annual Can we rely on the proper functioning& Multi-media eJournallimitation of the tool, given the Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary of our systems, and base a lesson plan on it? page 207
  • 225. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Can we rely on the proper functioning of the tool, given the limitation of our systems, and base a lesson plan on it? I do not profess to claim that I have the answers and hope that the questions will generate a healthy and interesting discussion. I do hope to equip myself with all the technical nuances in the near future. Now, this leads to my third question regarding the integration of these technological tools into a meaningful classroom situation. Any teacher, irrespective of being in the four Metros or a smaller city, has a workload of about 28- 35 periods per week. Add to this, the English teacher, is looked up to as the sole resource person for the newsmagazine, cultural programmes, interschool competitions and even bulletin boards. Where and how do you find time and the energy to upgrade yourself with the latest methodologies? In the beginning of the academic year, a teacher plans her annual syllabus. Even the writing skills component is covered in this planning and I suggest that we tap this resource as a viable avenue for integrating multimedia tools with creative writing tasks. A typical Lesson Plan would be as follows Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 208
  • 226. International Online eJournal Sr.No. 1. Month April Writing Skill Essay Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Topic Resources The influence of Media 2. April Report A significant rise in number crimes the of against old people Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 209
  • 227. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The last column i.e. resources has been added by me. Now, it is in this column that one can choose the kind of multimedia tool that one wants to use for an interesting interactive classroom situation. With each such skill, the teacher can decide as to the type of tool required and even garner support from the computer department for the smooth functioning of the class. A close collaboration between the computer teachers and the English faculty is needed for this endeavor. During the yearly planning, a teacher can also list the tools that will be required to make his/her teaching more effective. Given below is an example of lesson plan worksheets which are available on the net and can be used for training in report writing. Come Aboard A Raft The Rafting Challenge.mht Essay Map.mht ABC's of the Writing Process - Prewriting - Hatching New Ideas!.mht Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 210
  • 228. International Online eJournal Bi-annual Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 211
  • 229. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 There are a number of tools available but the teacher has to use her discretion as to which one to use in favor of others. As an example, the topic: Influence of media can be very effectively introduced with a Blogging community or even a movie production by two groups of students dealing with the positive and negative aspects of media. On the other hand, a diary entry can easily be made interesting with the interactive technology called RAFT or simply –Come aboard a raft. Here, RAFT stands for: Role, Audience, Format and Topic. In fact I read one of the most interesting writing assignments on this site where a young student takes on the role of a mother frog and writes a letter to her tadpoles as to the rules of living and code of conduct to be followed outside their well. Conclusion As a teacher trainer, I worked on various aspects of writing skills with the available technology and have trained teachers for the same. The practical implications of these methodologies will be assessed only after a review session. As such I am waiting for the feedback and the challenges faced by the teachers in a real classroom situation. But the enthusiasm and confidence of the teachers makes me hopeful that the endeavor will have a rippling effect in the classroom situation. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 212
  • 230. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 BIBLIOGRAPHY * Judith D. DeRolf,(1995), “English Communication through practical experiences” Kanto Gakuin University Yokohama, Japan Originally published in Kanto Gakuin Daigaku Kogaku Bu Kyoyo Gakkai No. 24, March 1995. * Multimedia as Composition: Research, Writing, and Creativity ,Posted February 17th, 2009 by Viet Thanh Nguyen, University of Southern California . *Angelique Davi ,Mark Frydenberg, Girish J. Gulati,(2007) “Blogging Across the Disciplines: Integrating Technology to Enhance Liberal Learning” MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching. *Why Open A Creative Writing Course with Multimedia Experiments Posted on March 1, 2008 by bgblogging * Kuang-wu Lee , “English Teachers' Barriers to the Use of Computerassisted Language Learning” Johnny [at] hcu.edu.tw Hsuan Chuang University (Hsinchu, Taiwan) The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 12, December 2000. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 213
  • 231. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 About the Author: A free lance Teacher Trainer and writer, R.Janaky specializes in textbook writing for ESL learners. With an M.Phil degree in English literature from MSU Baroda, she taught in a reputed school for over twelve years. She also got an opportunity to set up a Language Laboratory in a school in Noida. As a senior school teacher, she took on many challenges like being the school magazine editor and the inter-school coordinator. In 2009, R.Janaky left the school job to pursue research in developing writing skills in school students. She has trained over 50 teachers in creative writing by developing a workable module spanning three sessions, each comprising 2hours. In 2010, R.Janaky also stepped into developing textbooks for primary classes in association with a leading publisher of India. She has read a paper in H.M Patel Institute of English, Vidyanangar, on –Creative Writing and multimedia. Her article on Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter has been recently published in ELT Weekly’s third issue of 2012. Currently, she is busy studying the international curriculum as far as teaching of English is concerned. She is also preparing an article on CCE for a national conference. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 214
  • 232. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-14: Law and Order: The Story of the Rulers and the Ruled ToC Siddharth Chaturvedi university scholar Dr Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University, Lucknow(UP), India. Abstract The present work strives to delve into some aspects of the “legal” history of India. However, at the very outset, I would like to state that this work doesn’t take into account the history of the modern system of administration of justice, which of course draws the origin of its existence from the Constitution of India. Instead, this article looks at the origins from which the Constitution itself derived inspiration for the establishment of the contemporary judiciary. The article is divided into three parts and each part corresponds broadly to the ancient, medieval and modern periods of the history of India, respectively. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 215
  • 233. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Each part deals with the framework of justice that was prevalent in the kingdoms that dominated various periods of the Indian history. This article starts with the regulations prescribed during the Vedic Age and ends at the discussion of the unjust laws with which the British ruled India. The sources of the information presented in this article include the writings of the scholars of the respective periods. So there is mention of scholars like Sage Manu, Kautilya, Al-Beruni and also of prolific writers like R. K. Narayan and Bhisham Sahani. It is hoped that the journey into the realms of Indian history will provide food for thought regarding the legal development in India. PART I: THE CHRONICLES OF JUSTICE IN ANCIENT INDIA If the king did not inflict punishment untiringly on evil doers the stronger would roast the weaker, like fish upon a spit…. The whole world is controlled by punishment, For a guiltless man is hard to find…. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 216
  • 234. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Where dark and red-eyed Punishment walks the land, destroying sinners, the people are not harassed, if he who inflicts it is discerning. The words above, as stated by Manu, reflect the significance of punishment for the wrongdoer. If one has committed a wrong, he will have to pay for it, and this payment would often be in the form of punishment. According to Al-Beruni , the famous Turkish scholar who accompanied Mahmud of Ghazni to India, the system of justice in India was based upon the principle of doing good and avoiding the incidence of wrongs. And this was indeed a celebrated principle, something which can be approved of, on the basis of morality. However, for those who were misguided, and to whom the above mentioned principle will not mean much in the ordinary course of life, will have to be punished, and that too severely, if needed, to reform their personality and their conduct. Forms of punishment in Ancient India The scholars in Ancient India, from Manu to Kautilya have prescribed various punishments with regard to the nature of the offence committed. With the prevalence of the caste system, justice was administered on the basis of the caste of the offender and the offended. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 217
  • 235. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 When theft was committed, the punitive measures were decided depending on the degree of the crime. Thereafter, either the harshest punishment was given or the convict was let off with a moderate reprimand .At times, he was fined or was forced to make amends in public and then he would be laughed at. If a brahmin was found to have stolen some valuable article, the king would order him to be blinded. Sometimes, even his limbs could be cut off. A kshatriya would be punished for the same offence by cutting off his limbs, but he was not blinded. Perhaps this was done because the brahmins were highly revered and hence a harsh punishment inflicted on a brahmin would deter other people from committing the crime. Thieves from other castes were given capital punishment. Adultery would often be punished by banishment of the offender from the State, and this would apply to both the men and the women. Also, acts like killing a cow, being drunk were also punished, and that too severely. During the Later Vedic period, punishment for caste-related offences became rigid with the increase in the rigidity of the caste system itself. Consider this: If a brahmin had eaten for a long time in a shudra’s household, he would be banished from his caste forever. System of administration of justice According to Megasthenes, the Greek scholar in the court of Chandragupta Maurya, there was no written form of law, Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal Bi-annual page 218
  • 236. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 System of administration of justice According to Megasthenes, the Greek scholar in the court of Chandragupta Maurya, there was no written form of law, probably because the rate of crime was very negligible and the traditions and custom guide the people. The opinion of Megasthenes may not entirely be taken to be true, however it is significant. We know that Kautilya( also known as Chanakya and Vishnugupta), the prime minister to Chandragupta Maurya has provided a number of laws in his book Arthashastra. Al-Beruni, however elaborated on the Hindu system of justice. He mentions judges, so it may be assumed, that more or less, there was a system for adjudication of disputes. According to some sources, the Gupta administration went even far ahead with a clear classification of disputes into civil and criminal cases. For example, theft was considered a crime whereas breach of contract was adjudged as a civil matter. According to Al-Beruni, if, at the time when the case would be presented before the courts, there would be no written documents, the cases would be disposed on the basis of the evidences of the witnesses. Normally, it was to be ensured that the minimum number of witnesses be four. And the judge would adjudicate upon a case only after he had verified the evidences that were produced by the witnesses. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 219
  • 237. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Witnesses and the persons against whom the offences were alleged, had to take oaths before the judge. And sometimes these oaths would be very ordinary (if they are compared with the modern justice system). However some very peculiar forms of oath have also been mentioned by Al-Beruni : (1) the alleged offender had to drink poison, (2) he could be pushed into a river and,(3) he could be made to touch hot red iron bar, etc. It was believed that if he was not guilty, he would come out unharmed even after being subjected to these “tortures”. At the first sight, these practices may seem inhuman, as they surely are, and even absurd. However, there was the psychological element behind this practice. If the alleged offender was actually guilty he would confess his crime in face of these tortures notwithstanding the fact that the innocent people may still not be spared. PART II: THE ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE IN MEDIEVAL INDIA Notwithstanding the existence of the smaller kingdoms of India, the medieval history of India is widely recognized to be dominated by the whims and fancies of the Islamic rulers. India has a strange record of law and order in those days, replete with the absolute and arbitrary powers of the head of the state on one hand, and with a string of novel judicial reforms, on the other. The Islamic rulers of the time, ranging from the Sultans of Delhi to the mighty Mughals, traced their family roots back to Central and West Asian communities. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 220
  • 238. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Often, this led to their personal beliefs that they were in India to further the message of the Prophet Muhammad and subjugate the ‘infidels’ (non Muslims, mainly the Hindus) in the course of propagation of Islam. They considered it as their moral obligation to quash the religious beliefs of the Hindus, and teach them the Almighty’s will. In this context, it will be of immense relevance to mention the names of the rulers like Ghiyasuddin Balban, Alauddin Khalji, Aurangzeb and the like, whose personal religious hatred and distrust reflected in the laws and in the process of administration of justice. A dialogue, written by Ziyauddin Barani, between Qazi Mughis of Bayana and Sultan Alauddin Khalji is worth mentioning here. The dialogue may have been a fictitious piece of writing, but some of the points mentioned therein may be of significance. In this dialogue, one of the questions the Sultan put to Qazi Mughis, related to the ordinance of the sharia concerning the Hindu kharaj-paying class, meaning the village leaders, khuts, chawdhris and muqqadams. The Qazi, quoting a part of a Quranic verse-“Until they pay the jiziya readily, being brought low”added that the Hindus should be forced to pay their revenue in abject humility and extreme submissiveness; for the Prophet Muhammad had ordained that Hindus must either follow the true faith or else be slain, or imprisoned and their wealth and property confiscated. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 221
  • 239. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The ruler immune to religious bias-Akbar Nevertheless, rulers like Akbar were an exception to this trend of law making being affected by eccentric behavior of the head of the state. The avowed principle of Akbar was universal toleration (sulh-i-kul). Akbar believed it to be illegal to interfere in others’ religious beliefs. He considered the problem mainly from a humanitarian point of view. And perhaps this was the very reason that his idea of matrimonial alliances with the Rajputana clan, which was a Hindu community, was successful and aided his political ambitions. Fallacies in law during Akbar’s reign Notwithstanding the religious reforms introduced by Akbar, it is worth mentioning here that certainty in law was lacking in Akbar’s legal system. According to the sources, (1) no regular judicial service existed (except in so far as the Qazies formed such) and, (2) each governor or the other person in authority did what he pleased, subject to the risk of imperial displeasure. (3)No code existed, and (4) no written judgments were delivered. (5) Officers were instructed to pay little heed to witnesses or oaths, and to rely rather on their own discernment and knowledge of human nature. Capital Punishment in Medieval period In Akbar’s regime, capital punishment was inflicted on discretion (of the authorities), and might assume any form. Around 1344, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 222
  • 240. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq of Delhi sought Barani’s advice regarding capital punishment for the following seven offences: (1) apostasy (2) willful murder of the king’s loyal subjects (3) adultery by a married man with someone else’s wife, (4)proven treason against the ruler, (5) leading rebellions and insurrections, (6) cooperation with the Sultan’s enemies and supplying intelligence and weapons, and (7) such acts of disobedience as were a threat to the kingdom. The significant fact to be noted here is that the nature of most of the foregoing acts is not such that would qualify for infliction of capital punishment normally, but this is where the concentration of absolute power with the ruler led to what a ‘reasonable’ person may today consider as injustice. It may be worthwhile to note here that the rulers often manipulated the words of the sacred texts to justify the atrocity that they inflicted on their subjects. This may have been a significant mode of propaganda which helped them to muster support and hence diminish the possibilities of rebellions. And if religion wouldn’t be an adequate means of justification, “necessity” would suffice as a defence. As an example, it would be of use to revert to the dialogue between the Sultan and Qazi Mughis. Here, the Sultan asked Qazi Mughis whether the harsh penalties imposed by him(such as castration of the married male adulterer, casting drunkards and liquor salesmen into wells especially dug for them, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 223
  • 241. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 and so on) were against the sharia. The Qazi replied that the Prophet ahadis and the ulama fatwas did not allow the ruler to impose (such) harsh penalties. The Sultan’s reaction to this is worth mentioning, in the light of his policy of public propaganda. He claimed that his punishments were intended to deter the rebels and the bellicose and were designed to save the lives of thousands of Muslims who were slaughtered each time a rebellion was suppressed. He was not concerned with the agreement of his laws with the sharia, he said, nor with his own punishment on Judgment Day. His main concern was the interest of the State. In all it may be concluded (as it would already have been obvious) that the Medieval period in India was not impressive at all when it came to law and order situation. We have a lot of lessons to learn, with only a few of them to incorporate and implement. The basis for religious rift was laid down with the application of biased laws and this is the main factor which posed a hindrance to efforts at uniting the peoples of India against repeated invasions of the foreign forces. Instead of facilitating peaceful coexistence, the arbitrary laws of the time created mutual distrust and a feeling of personal insecurity among the common citizens. Law was there without any order, and with this background , India entered into the modern age with the biggest blow of submission to the British might and subsequently, a revolution in 1857 which failed to achieve its immediate object . Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 224
  • 242. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 PART III: THE INJUSTICE DURING THE BRITISH REIGN I impeach him in the name of the people of India, whose rights he has trodden under his foot and whose country he has turned into a desert. Lastly in the name of both the sexes, in the name of every age, in the name of every rank, I impeach the common enemy and oppressor of all. The words mentioned above have been taken from Edmund Burke’s eloquent speech that he delivered during the impeachment of Warren Hastings (who served as the first Governor General of India) back in England. These words have two-fold significance. Firstly, these words reflect the way the British officials exploited Indians in the name of law and order and for this breach of trust, these officials were often prosecuted in England. Even Robert Clive, who was instrumental in expansion of British power in India, was put on trial for corruption charges (when he had left India, his Indian fortune was worth € 401,102 ). Though he was acquitted, he committed suicide in 1774. The second significance flows from the first. It implies that the British administration followed “double-standards” when it came to applying law and maintain order. Though they would not tolerate corrupt officials and unjust laws in England, there were no special measures taken to establish similar system in India. Often, as law students, we come across the principles of common law. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 225
  • 243. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 And the manner the principles of common law have been propounded it seems that the English people had always supported the cause of justice. However, the source mentioned above and a few more that will follow, illustrate the fact that the colonial rule in India had law and order only on paper, and in practice, the Indians were being subjected to the worst of the laws that had ever prevailed in the country. Cellular Jail- the apex of injustice in British Raj The Cellular Jail in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, also known as the dreaded Kaala Paani speaks of those dreadful days that the Indian prisoners (often the ones who fought for Indian independence) had to spend in isolation, in the worst of conditions which a human being could be subjected to. The way the British officials treated the prisoners in the Cellular Jail violated all the norms that flow from the “inalienable human rights”-rights which were being contemplated by numerous learned scholars in the West and had captured the imagination of so many people. It would be worthwhile to mention here the “rule of law” that was prevalent in those times, when it came to Cellular Jail. It is learnt that when the political prisoners were sent to Cellular Jail, they were told that their punishment would last 20 years. However, many cases came up where the prisoners had spent 35 years in the Jail but they hadn’t been freed. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 226
  • 244. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Most of the prisoners were often told, on completion of their punishment term, that they would be kept imprisoned for 5 more years “to observe their behavior”. Now does this seem “lawful, just and reasonable”? Weren’t the 20 years of imprisonment long enough to serve the purposes of “observation of the prisoner’s activities”? These questions certainly cast doubts on the credibility of the “rule of law” doctrine that is said to have guided the British in the course of their development. No lawyer, not even the State prosecutor, was allowed in Andaman & Nicobar islands. The British Chief Commissioner and the Chief Magistrate were the sole law dispensing authorities. And since the voice of the prisoners couldn’t be well represented, it were often the whims of these officials that decided the fate of these prisoners. Though the conditions of Cellular Jail were worse than the Indian ones, when it came to “awarding” punishments, the same provisions of the law would be used that was applicable in the Indian mainland. So it was not the law that bound the authorities, but the authorities binding the law according to their whims and fancies. Sometimes, not being able to bear the torture that was being meted out to them, some of the prisoners would try to flee away and would often hide in the forests. In these cases, the British officials would act most unreasonably, thereby ordering the fled prisoners to be caught and beheaded. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 227
  • 245. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 R. K. Narayan brings out the unjust element of the British Raj One of the greatest literary figures of India, R. K. Narayan unveiled the unjust British Raj in his essay When India Was A Colony . He makes a mockery of the British law of equality by narrating an incident of 1924. A young student was in need of urgent medical help but he wasn’t admitted in the General Hospital, Madras just because there was no vacancy in the Indian ward even though there was one in the European ward. Following this there was a huge uproar in the Madras Legislative Assembly. Satyamurthy, one of the Indian patriots and certainly, a reasonable man, raised his voice against the unjust laws that were governing the country during that period. He said: Then, sir, the last sentence is: “On the day in question, there were five vacant Indian beds and seven cases were admitted”. Now, we are all told that we ought not to be racial in this country: We ought to rise above racial prejudice and that we ought to be cosmopolitan. I try my best to be like that, but my best at time fails when I am reminded that in my country, in our own Indian hospitals maintained by the Indian tax-payer’s money and run, above all by an Indian minister, there should be beds which should be called “nonIndian” beds. Why, in the name of common sense, why? Have you ever heard, Mr. President, of any country in the world except ours where beds are being maintained for patients on racial considerations? Do you find in England beds for Indians in those English hospitals specially maintained at the expense of the taxpayer? Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 228
  • 246. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Do you know what it means, Mr. President? You may go in mortal illness to the General Hospital-I trust you will not-(laughter)- but if you had to go, although all the available European beds be vacant, you will not be taken in because you are an Indian, whereas a fifth-rate European without a name can be admitted and given a European bed because he has the European blood. Can flesh and blood stand this? Is it right? I should like to know from the Honorable Minister, why he maintains in this country at the expense of the tax-payer this racial distinction in hospitals? It seems to me that the time has arrived when we must speak up against this… The Salt Satyagraha-when Indians broke the unlawful law In 1930, Mahatma Gandhi announced the “would-be-famous” march to Dandi to break the unjust law that ensured the colonial government’s monopoly on the production of salt. This was a profound event in the struggle for Indian independence, because the Indians had risen against the excessiveness that was being meted out to them. The best part of this movement was the fact that the means of protest were absolutely peaceful and hence lawful even when the British “found them illegal”. The colonial laws were always unreasonable, and the salt tax law was an example. Mahatma Gandhi wrote, describing the unwarranted law: The volume of information being gained daily shows how wickedly the salt tax has been designed. In order to prevent the use of salt that has not paid the tax which is at times even fourteen times its value, the Government destroys the salt it cannot sell profitably. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 229
  • 247. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Thus it taxes the nation’s vital necessity; it prevents the public from manufacturing it and destroys what nature manufactures without effort. No adjective is strong enough for characterizing this wicked dog-in-the-manger policy. From various sources I hear tales of wanton destruction of the nation’s property in all parts of India. Maunds if not tons of salt are said to be destroyed on the Konkan coast. The same tale comes from Dandi. Wherever there is likelihood of natural salt being taken away by the people living in the neighborhood of such areas for their personal use, salt officers are posted for the sole purpose of carrying on destruction. Thus valuable national property is destroyed at national expense and salt taken out of the mouths of the people. The salt monopoly is thus a fourfold curse. It deprives the people of a valuable easy village industry, involves wanton destruction of property that nature produces in abundance, the destruction itself means more national expenditure, and fourthly to crown this folly, an unheard-of tax of more than 1,000 per cent is extracted from a starving people. This tax has remained so long because of the apathy of the general public. Now that it is sufficiently roused, the tax has to go. How soon it will be abolished depends upon the strength of the people. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre-When the world came to know of the “law and order” under the British Raj! If anyone believes that the British were just, then there may be two possibilities. Either they are unaware of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre of 1919, or they are simply giving away baseless arguments, for what happened on Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 230
  • 248. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 April 13, 1919 could simply not be ignored, and in fact, this event struck the greatest of all blows on the “civilized” British regime. The “civilized” British had killed thousands of innocent “savage” Indians who had just gathered peacefully in the Bagh to protest against the colonial government, within the restraints of the law. Even the people back in England criticized the colonial government for its excesses on the Indians. And this is what the British newspaper Daily Herald had to say on the mass killings that happened in Amritsar: The first detailed account of the April shootings at Amritsar, in the Punjab, shows it to have been one of the most bloody massacres of modern history. Of the various stories of imperial oppression and the revolt against it by the subject racesof the British Empire which we print today, the most amazing and stupefying in its naked horror is that of the massacre of Amritsar… According to the report of General Dyer’s evidence, over 400 Indians were killed and 1,500 wounded by the deliberate firing on a crowd of 5,000 who were listening to a speech. No blacker or fouler story has ever been told. General Dyer is reported as admitting that the crowd might have gone peacefully and without bloodshed, and that his motive for the slaughter was merely that the crowd would in that case have come back again and laughed, and he would have made a fool of himself. According to his reported evidence, he admits that, with incredible indifference to human suffering, the British authorities left the wounded unattended in the streets. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 231
  • 249. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 This, we presume, was done in order to teach men and women, of a different civilization and a different religion, what a beautiful and merciful thing Christianity is, and how sacred we British hold the law of Him who said that we were to love our enemies. The British, by their unjust laws, defied the purposes of the debate that had probably originated in their country regarding the definition of law. The illustrious scholars of law had contemplated so many explanations as to what law is, and often these characterizations were carefully looked into, to ensure that law didn’t become the instrument for the absolutists to spread terror and commit inhuman acts. However, the imperial government crossed all its limits and justice seemed to be lost in the midst of the oppression by the rulers of the ruled. CONCLUSION History always teaches us lessons. Indian history, as we saw previously, is replete with the whims and fancies of the rulers that ruled us. In the exercise of their absolute powers, these rulers often created draconian laws. Of course, exceptions have been there, but more or less, the common Indian man has always had to suffer gross injustice at the hand of the rulers. The reason was the fact that the common man was not allowed to participate in the process of making of laws which ultimately affected him. This formed the backdrop of the Constitution of the independent India because our freedom fighters realized that a government will be effective only if it is based on the people’s consent. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 232
  • 250. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Only those laws would be practically applicable which would have been made by the people. These principles of the Indian Constitution were a stepping stone in the making of India as a welfare State. The element of discretion that was earlier allowed to the absolute rulers was replaced by a democratic process of deliberation and discussion. This paved the way for a new India. However, there are many hurdles to cross before India can truly become a welfare State. And one of those hurdles is that of corruption that is rampant in the country. An effective law, coupled with strong public will, is required to eradicate this evil completely. We are, in fact, witnessing changes in the political system. The states like Delhi and Bihar have taken a step further with the introduction of laws that have “enabled” the people. Bihar Special Courts Act 2009 and Right of Citizen to Time Bound Delivery of Services Act 2011 are the examples of such laws. It is hoped that this work has contributed in its own way by providing a glimpse into the history of India, so that we could understand the way the laws developed in our country, the way “law” came to be defined in India, primarily as an instrument of the ruler to carry forward his own interests (rather than of the public). If we could effectively learn the lessons that the history wants to teach us, we may be able to contribute in our own way in the shaping of “good” law in our nation. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 233
  • 251. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 REFERENCES 1. Al- Beruni. Bharat (Hindi).New Delhi: National Book Trust.2005. 2. Khanna, K.C.As They Saw India(Hindi).New Delhi: National Book Trust.1990 3. Our Pasts-III, Textbook in History for class VIII, N C E R T 4. Sharma, Ramcharanlal.Kala Pani Ka Etihasik Dastavez(Hindi).New Delhi: National Book Trust. 2005. 5.Krishnan, S. Malgudi Landscapes:The Best of R.K. Narayan. New Delhi: Penguin Books. 1992. 6. Themes in Indian History Part III, Textbook in History for Class XII, New Delhi: N C E R T .2010.p.357 7. Sahni, Bhisham. Jallianwala Bagh. New Delhi: National Book Trust.2005. 8. Rizvi, S. A. A.The wonder that was India I.London:1987. 9.(Siddharth Chaturvedi is a student of B.A., L.L.B.(Hons.) at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University,Lucknow) About the Author: Siddharth Chaturvedi is a student of B.A., L.L.B.(Hons.) at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya National Law University,Lucknow ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 234
  • 252. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-15: English Proficiency -A Step towards Sustainable Community Development in Small Cities ToC Ms. Ritu R. Agarwal Lecturer in English J.Z.Shah Arts & H.P. Desai Commerce College, Near St. Utran (W.R.), At. &PO. Amroli-Surat, Gujarat 394107, India Abstract The students and youth coming from small cities have the conviction and dedication to make it big but generally the deterring factor is their command of English language. What is needed is a right approach blended with a planned strategy coupled with both short term and long term goals. The command of English is considered an important means for providing communities with access to empowering resources for the nation’s future. There are three dynamics which can be said to be of importance today in community development and that is three E’s; English, Education and Empowerment. The paper aims to present two main strategies to bring in a paradigm shift in the perception of the people towards the language which has been recognized as official language. First is the Snake and Ladder strategy and the Continuous improvement – the “Kaizen” way.. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 235
  • 253. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 "The world … needs hundreds of thousands of young people equipped with the vision, moral stamina, and intellectual depth necessary to rebuild neighborhoods, towns and communities around the planet." – David Orr INTRODUCTION English, the word in itself is suggestive and it opens so many possibilities. As the competition soars and the economy progresses, with it comes many new things but possibly what cannot be ignored is the significance of this universal language which has helped in binding the people and also to an extent helped in transforming this world into a place where people can share, explore and decipher the meaning in communication. Languages have a characteristic of their own and the most striking trait of English language has been its inherent quality of assimilation and the way it has come to be accepted with so many new varieties and kinds. Without delving into the deeper aspects of the influences which has shaped and modified English, what is important is that it has become an effective tool for global unification, business transaction, economical analysis, commercial correspondences, media publicity, personal accomplishments, technology mediated learning. In view of the current situation of the world, it is not a hidden fact that India ranks second among the nations which have English speakers next only to US and the Dragon is trying to slowly catch up since it wants to progress on every front and they have already set targets to achieve English proficiency. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 236
  • 254. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The inspiration or the source of the current paper actually lies in this very fact. Why can’t the small cities of India too adopt this approach and promote their youth? The students and youth coming from small cities have the conviction and dedication to make it big but generally the deterring factor is their command of English language. Educational qualifications is in consonance with the demands of the job but when it comes to facing interviews and group discussions, faltering and fumbling is common. Users of English language may not be affluent English speakers. Therefore what is needed is a right approach blended with a planned strategy coupled with both short term and long term goals. Major Constraints The major constraints in achieving the targets in the small cities of India can be outlined as follows: 1. Mindset of the people 2. Lack of financial resources 3. Lack of skilled Man-Power 4. Fanatic attitude and narcisstic love for mother tongue 5. Lack of proper environment for using the language 6. Family pressure and social constraints The command of English is considered an important means for providing communities with access to empowering resources for the nation’s future. English is no longer viewed as a mere language but infact it is: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 237
  • 255. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 1. A vehicle for driving and turning one’s aspirations into realities. 2. A sword to fight the challenges of the modern times. 3. A web which can help to expand one’s network. 4. An Elysium to fight struggles and attain happiness. This brings us to an Acronym “SEWA” which if literally taken would mean HELP and English is a language which empowers and enables people the world over. Therefore a huge responsibility lies on the people who teach this language. It cannot be taught just as one subject but emphasis has to be laid on developing in the students a skill to acquire this language for the sake of their development and for this it is extremely important that they shed off their inhibitions .The choice they make today will affect their future and what they learn today would shape their tomorrow. There are three dynamics which can be said to be of importance today in community development and that is three E’s; English, Education and Empowerment. English is a way of lending equality and also creating equal opportunities thus leading to economic development. Jeanne Hibbard and Don Harker have written, “Everything and everyone is connected in one way or another, as part of a living system. Although we cannot know which communities would be sustainable by 2050, we can think about the character of communities that are likely to succeed.” Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 238
  • 256. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Sustainable community Development and English English would promote sustainable community development as people would earn respect and it would bring the people closer from different geographical regions. We need to be wiser while using English as a resource. The progress of the metropolitan cities can be attributed to the fact that the percentage of people who speak English fluently is large and therefore their possibilities of employment opportunities are more and varied. Students with high language proficiency are highly sought in the job market. Therefore the need of the hour is that the cities which are developing and economically stronger should invest now in developing the language proficiency skills and aim for the future profit and provide ample scope for growth. Leverett (2004, p. 1) has demonstrated how three distinct phases of modern English teaching have emerged in the 20th and 21st centuries with the use of phonetics, the acceptance of the scientific approach to language teaching, and the recent dominance of the communicative educational approach. Schick and Nelson (2001, p. 302) concur that the past 40-50 years have led to a shift in EFL education toward an oral proficiency model designed to help students achieve language skills for communicating their thoughts and feelings in common situations. The language is also no longer seen as serving the interests of a particular country or promoting specific ideologies, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 239
  • 257. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 but simply serves global and local needs as a language of wider communication (Gray, 2003, p. 24). At the state level the initiative should be taken at the grass root level. It has been an observation that students coming from other mediums have a good knowledge of grammar of the language as compared to the English medium students but their problem lies in actual usage of it. An emerging trend to focus teaching methods on what students can do with the English language as opposed to a technical knowledge of language and grammar is therefore required. Education and the teaching of English is one means of empowering people within a community so that they have more options available for the future. Create Awareness Set goals and targets Awards and Stimulate and harness Help and bring Recognitions enthusiasm for the reforms environment Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 240
  • 258. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Suggestions At the State Level Following steps can be taken at the state level: Making the study of English language compulsory from Std.I Implementing a crash course for teachers of Pre-Primary and primary schools in Phonetics and spoken English as teachers are the role models for the learners Making it compulsory for English literature students of Post-graduate (English Medium) to carry out a minimum 15 hour training program for students in spoken English for undergraduate students . And they may be paid a stipend of Rs.500 /- for their services. Road shows Webinars Industry and University partnership Tele-conferencing and videoconferencing by eminent resource persons CALL –Computer Assisted Language Learning At the Individual level A teacher can promote this by adopting a 5 step approach as they are the main decision-makers at the classroom level who shape and modify the English curriculum based on their particular students’ needs. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 241
  • 259. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Selecting at least 10 to 15 students every year and working with them in refining their use of language Helping at least one student to pass TOEFL or IELTS test Encouraging students to be tech savvy Keeping a goal for future and thus creating an action plan. Instead of citing excuses that in India with such large classes making students learn something is next to impossible, it is better to help oneself. A well known author Owsley County has given the term “Action Team” for this particular venture. Encouraging innovativeness The paper aims to present two main strategies to bring in a paradigm shift in the perception of the people towards the language which has been recognized as official language. Strategies First is the Snake and Ladder strategy which has its inception in the game but conveys a serious message. Odds and problems are bound to strike one like a serpent but what is needed is a persistent endeavour to strive and reach the top with the ladder of English language and achieve success and development. One would agree that a common goal of community development is higher standard of living and greater economic growth and enhanced communication skills is a means to secure a placement. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 242
  • 260. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Another is the Continuous improvement – the “Kaizen” way: For better and enhanced tracking, typical legends or watch-points can be used. To be most effective kaizen must operate with three principles in place: 1) Consider the process and the results together to identify those actions that impact the results. 2) Systemic thinking of the whole process and not just that immediately in view (i.e. big Picture, not solely the narrow view) in order to avoid creating problems elsewhere in the rocess 3) A non-judgmental, non-blaming (because blaming is wasteful) approach and intent will allow the re-examination of the assumptions that resulted in the current process The road to improvement is never far off. Only what is needed is the first step. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 243
  • 261. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Works Cited: 1. http://www.english- heritage.org.uk/upload/pdf/Sus_Comm_overview05.pdf last accessed on 06/07/2008 2. http://www.livingroutes.org/programs/p_ecotourism.htm last accessed on 05/06/2008 3. http://www.asian-efl-journal.com/March_07_js.php last accessed on 05/05/2008 4. http://www.kaizen.com last accessed on 05/05/2008 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_English- speaking_population last accessed on 04/05/2008 6. http://tesol-india.ac.in/EnglishTeachingIndustry/en/india-worlds- second-largest-english7. speaking-country last accessed on 04/06/2008 http://www.glvchina.com/english/teachers/ping3.php last accessed on 06/07/2008 8.http://www.nasscom.in/Nasscom/templates/NormalPage.aspx?id=51761 0 last accessed on 6/07/2008 Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 244
  • 262. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 About the Author: Ritu Agarwal has earned her Master’s in English from Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat. She also has a Post Graduate Certificate in Teaching English from Ciefl, Hyderabad. She has presented and participated in various national and international conferences. She has also represented India in UK / Wales as part of the Group Study Exchange Program sponsored by Rotary International. Ritu was a member of the NAAC Steering Committee and is currently working as a Sr.Gr. Lecturer in J.Z.Shah Arts & H.P.Desai Commerce College, Amroli – Surat, has more than 13+ years of teaching experience. ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 245
  • 263. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Article-16: Marketing Ethics: Issues & Problems ToC Dr. Kailashben P. Damor, Associate Professor Department of Commerce and Business Administration, Saurashtra University, Rajkot-Gujarat-360005. Abstract Due to the globalization of markets and production processes, an ever increasing number of marketers and business people have to deal with ethical issues in cross-cultural settings. In this article, main approaches in marketing ethics have been reviewed for ethical analysis and decision making in international settings. The purpose of this article is to present some guidelines that can serve as a guide for global marketers in the important areas for marketing ethics. It is supposed to assist marketers in their efforts to behave in an ethical fashion. It is assumed that, local conditions of international markets may be different; but the some global marketing ethics principles should be applicable to all markets. It is proposed that a uniform code of ethics should be created by WTO and UN organizations to solve diverse cultural differences to arrive at cooperative strategies in international marketing. This paper constitutes with three phase which are as follow: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 246
  • 264. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 1. Introduction of the topic 2. What is Globalization 3. Ethical Issues in International Marketing Keywords: Globalization, Business ethics & international marketing ethics. I. Introduction Globalization and International Marketing Ethics Problems are closely related to each other. Increased globalization resulted in many problems including ethical ones. From 1950 to 2000, world trade expanded almost 20-fold, far outstripping world output, which grew by six and a half times (WTO, 2001). In this expansion, exports and foreign direct investment has played an increasing role in the global economy. Even small businesses are increasing their cross border investments. In general, the average yearly outflow of FDI increased from about $25 billion in 1975 to a record $1.3 trillion in 2000 (UN, 2001). These mean that millions of business people working abroad in different geographical, political, International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 26 (2009) 94 legal, social and cultural environments. It is easy to guess that different environments have created many problems, including ethical problems, for international marketing personnel at home and abroad. Especially during the past 55 years, technological improvements in transportation, communication and information processing and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 247
  • 265. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 internet made great contribution to the development of globalization. If this trend continues, the prophesies of Levitt, about globalization, in 1960`s, will become reality in 2020`s. To manage this trend fairly, it is advisable to create universal ethical norms, rules and regulations. II. What is Globalization? History of Globalization Globalization is a process that has been going on for the past 5000 years (Tehranian, 2005), but it has significantly accelerated since the demolishing of the Soviet Union in 1991. The many meanings of the word “globalization” have accumulated very rapidly and recently, the verb “globalize” was first attested by the Merriam Webster Dictionary in 1944. In considering the history of globalization, some authors focus on events since the discovery of the America in 1492, but most scholars and theorists concentrate on the much more recent past (www.globalpolicy.org). But long before 1492, people began to link together disparate locations in the world into extensive systems of communication, migration, and interconnections. This formation of interaction between the global and the local has been a central driving force in the world history. Roughly, Economic Globalization means that world trade and financial markets are becoming more integrated. According to Friedman (1999), globalization is: ”The inexorable integration of markets, nation states, and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 248
  • 266. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 technologies to a degree never witnessed before- in a way that is enabling individuals, corporations and nation-states to reach around the world farther, faster, deeper and cheaper than before, the spread of free-market capitalism to virtually every country in the world. On the other hand, a great number of economists assert that globalization, as an on-going historical process that reached its apex toward the end of the 20th century. This process leads to the increasing integration of the production of goods, services, ideas, culture, communication and environmental pollution on a world-wide scale, imparting locality of populations and labor. B. Dimensions of Globalization Globalization is an umbrella term and has some dimensions. It can be related to every fields of daily life. For instance, a marketing staff versus an engineer could interpret globalization in different ways. Dimensions are as follows (www.globalpolicy.org) • Economics – related to globalization in trade, money, corporations, banking, capital, • Political – science, governance, wars, peace, IGOS, NGOS, and regimes, • Sociology-communities, conflict, classes, nations, agreements, • Psychology-individuals as subjects and objects of global action, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 249
  • 267. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 • Anthropology- cultures overlapping, adapting, clashing, merging, • Communications- information as knowledge and tools-internet, • Geography- Everything provided it can be anchored in space. Each of these social sciences looks at a special aspect of the whole system of interdependent parts that constitutes our world system. Each discipline constructs a concept of globalization that reflects its special point of view: Consider how it relates its focal concerns to the contemporary world system. According to Kongar, globalization has three dimensions. These are political, economic, and cultural aspects of globalism (www.kongar.org). Political dimension denotes that after collapsing of the Soviet Union, the U.S. of America has become the superpower and the single authority of the new world order and security. On the other 95 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 26 (2009) hand, economic dimension of the globalization denotes the economic sovereignty and domination of international capital globally. As the third dimension of globalization, cultural aspect denotes two unrelated results of this phenomenon: One of them is globalism of the consumer behaviors, such as consuming similar food, clothes, entertainment and similar products in any aspects of daily life. The second dimension is the micro-nationalism; too much freedom for citizens results in destruction of the unitary structures of independent states, such as Yugoslavia and Iraq. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 250
  • 268. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 C. The Emergence of Global Institutions In international business, globalization has several facets, including the globalization of markets and globalization of production (Hill, 2004: 7-8). The globalization of markets refers to the merging of historically distinct and separate national markets into one huge global markets. On the other hand, the globalization of production refers to the sourcing of goods and services from locations around the globe to take advantage of national differences in cost and quality factors of production (such as labor, energy, raw materials, land, and capital). As markets globalize and an increasing proportion of business activity transcends national borders, institutions need to help manage, regulate, and police the global marketplace, and to promote the establishment of multinational treaties to govern the global business system. During the past 55 years, a number of important global institutions have been created to help perform these functions. These institutions include the “General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade” (GATT) and its successor, the “World Trade Organization” (WTO); the “International Monetary Fund” (IMF) and its twin sister, the “World Bank “; and the “United Nations” (UN). All these institutions were created by voluntary agreement between individual nation-states, and their functions are enshrined in international treaties (Hill, ibid: 9). These organizations have many important Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 251
  • 269. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 roles in creating international business ethical rules and regulations. Especially, The World Trade Organization is primarily responsible for policing the world trading system and making sure nation states adhere to the rules laid down in trade treaties signed by WTO member states. Now it has over 145 nations, and the last member is the Republic of China. The WTO is also responsible for facilitating the establishment of additional multinational agreements between WTO member states. D. Drivers of Globalization From the economical point of view, two macro factors seem to underlie the trend toward globalization (Frankel, 2000). The first is the decline in barriers to flow of goods, services and capital that has occurred since the end of World War II. The second factor is technological change, particularly the dramatic developments in recent years in communication, information processing, and transportation technologies. Everybody knows the importance of the role technological innovations and developments in globalization, on the other hand, “declining trade and investment barriers” with the help of GATT and WTO is as important as the first one. During the 1920s and 30s, many nations erected formidable barriers to international trade and foreign direct investment. International trade occurs Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 252
  • 270. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 when a firm exports goods or services to consumers in another country. Foreign direct investment occurs when a firm invests resources in business activities outside its home country. Many of the barriers to international trade took the form of high tariffs on imports of manufactured goods. The typical aim of such tariffs was to protect domestic industries from foreign competition. Ultimately, this practice depressed world demand and contributed to the Great Depression of the 1930s (Hill, ibid: 11). Having learned from this experience, the advanced industrial nations of the West committed themselves after World War II to removing barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital between nations (Bhagwati, 1989). This goal was protected and realized in the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade. Under the umbrella of GATT, nine rounds of negotiations among member states have worked to lower barriers to the flow of goods and services. The impacts of GATT agreements on average tariff rates for manufactured goods were formidable. If we give a figure, average tariff rates International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 26 (2009) 96 have been fallen significantly since 1950, from average 30-40 percent to 3.9 percent in 2000 (The United Nations, 2001). In order to nullify this tariff rate, Regional economic integrations have been created. Such as, European (EU), North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA), Free Trade Area of the America (FTAA), Association of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 253
  • 271. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) are important attempts to achieve economic gains from the free flow of trade & investment between neighboring countries. The most successful regional economic cooperation is the EU. The Single European Act sought to create a true single market by abolishing administrative barriers to the free flow of trade and investment between EU countries. In the near future, it is expected that the EU will become a political union like the USA (Swann, 1990). E. Global Business Strategies of a Global Company Theodore Levitt (1983: 92-102) has argued that, due to the advent of modern communications and transport technologies, consumer tastes and preferences are becoming global, which is creating global markets for standardized consumer products. However, this position is regarded as extreme by many commentators, who argue that substantial differences still exist between countries (Douglas and Wind, 1987). As local companies increasingly engage in cross-border trade and investment, managers need to recognize that the task of managing an international business differs from that of managing a purely domestic business in many ways. First of all, the differences come from the simple fact that countries are different. Countries differ in their cultures, socio-economic and political systems, legal Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 254
  • 272. International Online eJournal systems and levels of economic development. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Despite widespread globalization, still there are many big and enduring differences between the countries (Hill, ibid:. 19-37). Differences between countries require different marketing approaches. For example, marketing a product in Brazil may require a different approach than marketing the product in Australia or Malasia. Managing U.S. Workers might require different skills than managing Japanese workers; maintaining close relations with a particular level of government may be very important in The Republic of China and irrelevant in Germany. As a global firm, sometimes, it is impossible to advertise a standardized advertising message in different countries. Because of differences in cultural and and legal environments, for instance, it is illegal to use any comparative advertising in Germany (Cateora & Graham,2005: 483). Advertising on television is strictly controlled in many countries, e.g., in Kuwait, the government controlled TV network allows only 32 minutes of advertising per day, in the evening (Sunil Erevelles and his colleagues, 2002). In order to compete in the international environment, firms can use four basic entry strategies: an international strategy, a multi-domestic strategy, a global strategy, and a transnational strategy (Bartlett and Ghoshal, 1989). Firms pursuing an international strategy transfer the skills and products derived from distinctive competencies to foreign Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 255
  • 273. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 markets, while undertaking some limited local customization. Firms pursuing a multi-domestic strategy customize their product offering, marketing strategy, and business strategy to national conditions. Firms pursuing a global strategy focus on reaping the cost reductions that come from experience curve effects and location economies. Finally, firms pursuing a transnational strategy involve a simultaneous focus on reducing costs, transferring skills and products, and boosting local responsiveness. Implementing this strategy is very difficult because of simultaneous pressures coming from cost reductions and local responsiveness. F. Is Globalization Good for Everybody? International Monetary Fund (IMF) asserts that as globalization has progressed, living conditions have improved significantly in virtually all countries. However, the strongest gains have been made by the advanced countries and only some of developing countries. 97 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics Issue 26 (2009) That the income gap between high-income and low-income countries has grown wider is a matter for concern. And the number of the world`s citizens in abject poverty is deeply disturbing. But it is wrong to jump to the conclusion that globalization has caused the divergence, or that nothing can be done to improve the situation. In contrast: low-income countries have not been able to integrate with the global economy as quickly as others, partly because of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 256
  • 274. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 their chosen policies and partly because of factors outside their control. No country, least of all the poorest, can afford to remain isolated from the world economy. Every country should seek to reduce poverty. The International community should endeavor-by strengthening the international financial system, through trade, and through aid-to help the poorest countries integrate into the world economy, grow more rapidly, and reduce poverty. That is the way to ensure all people in all countries have access to the benefits of globalization. In order to manage globalization process fairly, international reform efforts and democratic transnational institutions should be created and empowered. To reach such an objective UN-supported commission of 28 leaders produced influential 1995 report “ Our Global Neighborhood” and 1999 report “ The Millennium Year and the Reform Process” proposes to strengthen global governance without creating world government, while respecting the “rights of people and the role of civil society. III. Ethical Issues in International Marketing What is Marketing Ethics?? Ethics is a branch of philosophy that studies morals and values. Interest in ethics and ethical codes has been around for a long time. Centuries ago, Aristotle referred to character, which he called “ethos”, as the most potent means of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 257
  • 275. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 persuasion (Lane Cooper, 1960). He also identified elements of virtue as “justice, courage, temperance, magnificence, magnanimity, liberality, gentleness, prudence, and wisdom”. In Roman times, the emperor Justinian was the first to incorporate ethics into the legal system and to establish schools to educate lawyers concerning ethics morality, and law. Napoleon established a code of thirty-six statutes based on the concept that all citizens, regardless of circumstances of birth or social stature, should be treated fairly and equally. Indeed, every civilization has recognized the need for establishing laws and codes to guide human relationship and behavior (Metcalfe, 2003: 74). Ethics studies the differences between right and wrong, and through these studies philosophers have developed several theories. Some major ethical theories are egoism, intuitionism, exoticism, rationalism, and utilitarianism. Egoism is the belief that people should only look at how the consequences of an action affect them. Intuitionism is the belief in an immediate awareness of moral value. Emotivism is the belief that ethical decisions are expressions of emotion. Rationalism focuses on the metaphysical aspects of ethics. Utilitarianism in ethics considers how moral actions produce the greatest overall good for everyone. So, marketing ethics is the area of applied ethics which deals with Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 258
  • 276. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 the moral principles behind the operation and regulation of marketing. Some areas of marketing ethics (ethics of advertising and promotion) overlap with media ethics. Ethics in advertising and promotion •Issues over truth and honesty. In the 1940s and 1950's, tobacco used to be advertised as promoting health. Today an advertiser who fails to tell the truth not only offends against morality but also against the law. However the law permits "puffery" (a legal term) The difference between mere puffery and fraud is a slippery slope: "The problem... is the slippery slope by which variations on puffery can descend fairly quickly to lies." See main article: false advertising. •Issues with violence, sex and profanity. Sexual innuendo is a mainstay of advertising content (see sex in advertising), and yet is also regarded as a form of sexual harassment. Violence is an issue especially for children's advertising and advertising likely to be seen by children. •Taste and controversy. The advertising of certain products may strongly offend some people while being in the interests of others. Examples include: feminine hygiene products, hemorrhoid and constipation medication. The advertising of condoms has become acceptable in the interests of AIDS-prevention, but are nevertheless seen by some as promoting promiscuity. Some companies have Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 259
  • 277. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 actually marketed themselves on the basis of controversial advertising - see Benetton. Sony has also frequently attracted criticism for unethical content (portrayals of Jesus which enfuriated religious groups; racial innuendo in marketing black and white versions of its PSP product; graffiti adverts in major US cities). • Negative advertising techniques, such as attack ads. In negative advertising, the advertiser highlights the disadvantages of competitor products rather than the advantages of their own. The methods are most familiar from the political sphere: see negative campaigning. Delivery channels • Direct marketing is the most controversial of advertising channels, particularly when approaches are unsolicited. TV commercials and direct mail are common examples. Electronic spam and telemarketing push the borders of ethics and legality more strongly. • Shills and astroturfers are examples of ways for delivering a marketing message under the guise of independent product reviews and endorsements, or creating supposedly independent watchdog or review organizations. For example, fake reviews can be published on Amazon. Shills are primarily for message-delivery, but they can also be used to drive up prices in auctions, such as Ebay auctions. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 260
  • 278. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 The use of ethics as a marketing tactic Business ethics has been an increasing concern among larger companies, at least since the 1990s. Major corporations increasingly fear the damage to their image associated with press revelations of unethical practices. Marketers have been among the fastest to perceive the market's preference for ethical companies, often moving faster to take advantage of this shift in consumer taste. This results in the expropriation of ethics itself as a selling point or a component of a corporate image. •The Body Shop is an example of a company which marketed itself and its entire product range solely on an ethical message, although its products were deceptively characterized and its history was marked by misrepresentations. "The Body Shop's only real product is honesty..." (Jon Entine in an ethics audit of the company). However the story of the Body Shop ended with increasing criticism of a gap between its morals and its practices. •Green wash is an example of a strategy used to make a company appear ethical when its unethical practices continue. •Liberation marketing is another strategy whereby a product can masquerade behind an image that appeals to a range of values, including ethical values related to lifestyle and anti-consumerism. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 261
  • 279. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 International Online eJournal "Liberation marketing takes the old mass culture critique — consumerism as conformity — fully addresses into it, account, and acknowledges solves it. it, Liberation marketing imagines consumers breaking free from the old enforcers of order, tearing loose from the shackles with which capitalism has bound us, escaping the routine of bureaucracy and hierarchy, getting in touch with our true selves, and finally, finding authenticity, that holiest of consumer grails." (Thomas Frank) Frameworks of analysis for marketing ethics Possible frameworks: •Value-oriented framework, analyzing ethical problems on the basis of the values which they infringe (e.g. honesty, autonomy, privacy, transparency). An example of such an approach is the AMA Statement of Ethics. •Stakeholder-oriented framework, analysing ethical problems on the basis of whom they affect (e.g. consumers, competitors, society as a whole). •Process-oriented framework, analysing ethical problems in terms of the Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 262
  • 280. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 categories used by marketing specialists (e.g. research, price, promotion, placement). • None of these frameworks allows, by itself, a convenient and complete categorization of the great variety of issues in marketing ethics. Power-based analysis Contrary to popular impressions, not all marketing is adversarial, and not all marketing is stacked in favour of the marketer. In marketing, the relationship between producer/consumer or buyer/seller can be adversarial or cooperative. For an example of cooperative marketing, see relationship marketing. If the marketing situation is adversarial, another dimension of difference emerges, describing the power balance between producer/consumer and buyer/seller. Power may be concentrated with the producer (caveat emptor), but factors such as over-supply or legislation can shift the power towards the consumer (caveat vendor). Identifying where the power in the relationship lies and whether the power balance is relevant at all are important to understanding the background to an ethical dilemma in marketing ethics. Is marketing inherently evil? A popularity anti-marketing stance commonly discussed on the blogosphere and popular literature is that any kind of marketing is inherently evil. The Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 263
  • 281. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 position is based on the argument that marketing necessarily commits at least one of three wrongs: •Damaging personal autonomy. The victim of marketing in this case is the intended buyer whose right to self-determination is infringed. •Causing harm to competitors. Excessively fierce competition and unethical marketing tactics are especially associated with saturated markets. •Manipulating social values. The victim in this case is society as a whole, or the environment as well. The argument is that marketing promotes consumerism and waste. See also: affluenza, ethical consumerism, anti-consumerism. Specific issues in marketing ethics Market research •Ethical danger points in market research include: •Invasion of privacy. •Stereotyping. Stereotyping occurs because any analysis of real populations needs to make approximations and place individuals into groups. However if conducted irresponsibly, stereotyping can lead to a variety of ethical undesirable results. In the AMA Statement of Ethics, stereotyping is countered by the obligation to Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 264
  • 282. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 show respect ("acknowledge the basic human dignity of all stakeholders"). Market audience Ethical danger points include: •Targeting the vulnerable (e.g. children, the elderly). •Excluding potential customers from the market: selective marketing is used to discourage demand from undesirable market sectors or disenfranchise them altogether. Examples of unethical market exclusion or selective marketing are past industry attitudes to the gay, ethnic minority and obese ("plus-size") markets. Contrary to the popular myth that ethics and profits do not mix, the tapping of these markets has proved highly profitable. For example, 20% of US clothing sales are now plus-size. Another example is the selective marketing of health care, so that unprofitable sectors (i.e. the elderly) will not attempt to take benefits to which they are entitled. A further example of market exclusion is the pharmaceutical industry's exclusion of developing countries from AIDS drugs. Examples of marketing which unethically targets the elderly include: living trusts, time share fraud, mass marketing fraud and others. The elderly hold a disproportionate amount of the world's wealth and are therefore the target of financial exploitation. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 265
  • 283. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 • In the case of children, the main products are unhealthy food, fashion ware and entertainment goods. Children are a lucrative market: "...children 12 and under spend more than $11 billion of their own money and influence family spending decisions worth another $165 billion", but are not capable of resisting or understanding marketing tactics at younger ages ("children don't understand persuasive intent until they are eight or nine years old"). At older ages competitive feelings towards other children are stronger than financial sense. Other vulnerable audiences include emerging markets in developing countries, where the public may not be sufficiently aware of skilled marketing ploys transferred from developed countries, and where, conversely, marketers may not be aware how excessively powerful their tactics may be. See Nestle infant milk formula scandal. Another vulnerable group are mentally unstable consumers. The definition of vulnerability is also problematic: for example, when should endebtedness be seen as a vulnerability and when should "cheap" loan providers be seen as loan sharks, unethically exploiting the economically disadvantaged? Ethics in advertising and promotion Constitution Ethical pitfalls in advertising and promotional content include: Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 266
  • 284. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 • Issues over truth and honesty. In the 1940s and 1950's, tobacco used to be advertised as promoting health. Today an advertiser who fails to tell the truth not only offends against morality but also against the law. However the law permits "puffery" (a legal term) The difference between mere puffery and fraud is a slippery slope: "The problem... is the slippery slope by which variations on puffery can descend fairly quickly to lies." See main article: false advertising. • Issues with violence, sex and profanity. Sexual innuendo is a mainstay of advertising content (see sex in advertising), and yet is also regarded as a form of sexual harassment. Violence is an issue especially for children's advertising and advertising likely to be seen by children. • Taste and controversy. The advertising of certain products may strongly offend some people while being in the interests of others. Examples include: feminine hygiene products, hemorrhoid and constipation medication. The advertising of condoms has become acceptable in the interests of AIDSprevention, but are nevertheless seen by some as promoting promiscuity. Some companies have actually marketed themselves on the basis of controversial advertising - see Benetton. Sony has also frequently attracted criticism for unethical content (portrayals of Jesus which enfuriated religious Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 267
  • 285. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 groups; racial innuendo in marketing black and white versions of its PSP product; graffiti adverts in major US cities). •Negative advertising techniques, such as attack ads. In negative advertising, the advertiser highlights the disadvantages of competitor products rather than the advantages of their own. The methods are most familiar from the political sphere: see negative campaigning. Delivery channels •Direct marketing is the most controversial of advertising channels, particularly when approaches are unsolicited. TV commercials and direct mail are common examples. Electronic spam and telemarketing push the borders of ethics and legality more strongly. •Shills and astroturfers are examples of ways for delivering a marketing message under the guise of independent product reviews and endorsements, or creating supposedly independent watchdog or review organisations. For example, fake reviews can be published on Amazon. Shills are primarily for message-delivery, but they can also be used to drive up prices in auctions, such as Ebay auctions. The use of ethics as a marketing tactic Business ethics has been an increasing concern among larger companies, at Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 268
  • 286. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 least since the 1990s. Major corporations increasingly fear the damage to their image associated with press revelations of unethical practices. Marketers have been among the fastest to perceive the market's preference for ethical companies, often moving faster to take advantage of this shift in consumer taste. This results in the expropriation of ethics itself as a selling point or a component of a corporate image. •The Body Shop is an example of a company which marketed itself and its entire product range solely on an ethical message, although its products were deceptively characterized and its history was marked by misrepresentations. "The Body Shop's only real product is honesty..." (Jon Entine in an ethics audit of the company). However the story of the Body Shop ended with increasing criticism of a gap between its morals and its practices. •Green wash is an example of a strategy used to make a company appear ethical when its unethical practices continue. Liberation marketing is another strategy whereby a product can masquerade behind an image that appeals to a range of values, including ethical "Liberation marketing takes the old mass values related to lifestyle and anti-consumerism culture critique — consumerism as conformity — fully into account, acknowledges it, Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 269
  • 287. International Online eJournal addresses it, and solves it. Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Liberation marketing imagines consumers breaking free from the old enforcers of order, tearing loose from the shackles with which capitalism has bound us, escaping the routine of bureaucracy and hierarchy, getting in touch with our true selves, and finally, finding authenticity, that holiest of consumer grails." (Thomas Frank) Ethical Trade-off faced by the Marketers: Marketers must be aware of ethical standards and acceptable behavior. This awareness means that marketers must recognize the viewpoints of three key players: the company, the industry, and society. Since these three groups almost always have different needs and wants, ethical conflicts are likely to arise. Ethical conflicts in marketing arise in two contexts : First, when there is a Social Values Consumer Social issues Dissatisfaction And resolution Of conflict Between Standards and Perceived Performance Consumer Perceptions Of Performance Actual Marketing Business Performance Part I–Social Responsibility, Ethics & Marketing International Marketing Conference on Marketing & Society, 8-10 April, 2007, IIMK 21 difference between the needs of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 270
  • 288. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 the three aforementioned groups ( the company, the industry, and society) a conflict may arise. Second and ethical conflict may arise when one’s personal values conflict with the organization. In either case, a conflict of interest is a possible outcome An example of the first type of conflict is the tobacco industry. Cigarettes have for many decades been a lucrative business. So, cigarette and tobacco marketing have been for companies and good for the tobacco industry. Many thousands of people around the world are employed in the tobacco industry. So, the world economy has been somewhat dependent on cigarettes and tobacco. However, cigarettes are harmful to society. There is documented proof that cigarette smoking is harmful to health. This is an ethical conflict for cigarette marketers. An example of the second type of conflict, when one’s personal values conflict with the organizations occurs when a leader in the company seeks personal gain (usually financial profit) from false advertising. “Cures” for fatal diseases are one type of product that falls into this category of ethical conflict: In their greed to make a profit, a marketer convinces those who may be dying from an incurable disease to buy a product that may not be a cure, but which a desperately ill person (or members of his or her family) may choose to purchase in an effort to save the dying family member suffering. Promoting and marketing such products violates rules of marketing ethics. Ethical dilemmas Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 271
  • 289. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 facing marketing professionals today fall into one of three categories: tobacco and alcohol promoting, consumer privacy, and green marketing. Standards for ethical marketing guide business in efforts to do the right thing. Such standards have four functions: to help identify acceptable practices, foster internal control, avoid confusion, and facilitate a basis for discussion. Ethical Problems in International Marketing The moral question of what is right or appropriate poses many dilemmas for domestic marketers. Even within a country, ethical standards are frequently not defined or always clear (Cateora and Graham: 142). The problem of business ethics is infinitely more complex in international marketplace, because value judgments differ widely among culturally diverse groups. That which is commonly accepted as right on one country may be completely unacceptable in another. Giving business gifts of high value, for example, is generally condemned in the United States, but in many countries of the world gifts are not only accepted but also expected.. Upon examination of existing ethical frameworks in the field of international marketing from a macro marketing perspective, it is argued that marketers cannot always rely on universally accepted ethical norms, such as hyper norms or core values that have been suggested by a deluge of marketing literature (Dunfee, 1995; Dunfee, Smith, and Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 272
  • 290. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Ross, 1999: 14; DeGeorge, 2000). Some basic moral values could be used in evaluating international marketing ethical issues. Violations of basic moral values in international marketing settings should be accepted as ethical problems. After studying the literature related to international marketing, it is easily seen that most of the marketing ethics studies involve the use of scenarios as research instruments and relate to the following marketing sub-disciplines (Armstrong, 1992: 167): market research, retail management, purchasing management, advertising management, marketing management, industrial marketing, and marketing education. Few studies relate to International Marketing Ethics have been most prominent (Armstrong and Everett, 1991:61-71; Armstrong, Stening, Ryands, Marks, and Mayo, 1990: 6-15; Armstrong, 1992). Major International Marketing Ethical Problems derived from applied researches by Armstrong (Ibid) are presented with their short definitions as follows: •Traditional Small Scale Bribery- involves the payment of small sums of money, typically to a foreign official in exchange for him/her violating some official duty or responsibility or to speed routine government actions (grease payments, kickbacks). •Large Scale Bribery- a relatively large payment intended to allow a violation of the law or designed to influence policy directly or indirectly (eg, political contribution. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 273
  • 291. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 •Gifts/Favours/Entertainment- includes a range of items such as: lavish physical gifts, call girls, opportunities for personal travel at the company`s expense, gifts received after the completion of transaction and other extravagant expensive entertainment. •Pricing – includes unfair differential pricing, questionable invoicing – where the buyer requests a written invoice showing a price other than the actual price paid, pricing to force out local competition, dumping products at prices well below that in the home country, pricing practices that are illegal in the home country but legal in host country (eg, price fixing agreements). •Products/Technology – includes products and technology that are banned for use in the home country but permitted in the host country and/or appear unsuitable or inappropriate for use by the people of the host country. •Tax Evasion Practices - used specifically to evade tax such as transfer pricing (i.e., where prices paid between affiliates and/or parent company adjusted to affect profit allocation) including the use of tax havens, where any profit made is in low tax jurisdiction, adjusted 101 International Research Journal of Finance and Economics - Issue 26 (2009) interest payments on intra-firm loans, questionable management and service fees charged between affiliates and /or the parent company. Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 274
  • 292. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 •Illegal/Immoral Activities in the Host Country – practices such as: polluting the Environment, maintaining unsafe working conditions; product/technology copying where protection of patents, trademarks or copyrights has not been enforced and short weighting overseas shipments so as to charge a country a phantom weight. •Questionable Commissions to Channel Members – unreasonably large commissions of fees paid to channel members, such as sales agents, middlemen, consultants, dealers and importers. •Cultural Differences – between cultures involving potential misunderstandings related to the traditional requirements of the exchange process (e.g., transactions) may be regarded by one culture as bribes but be acceptable business practices in another culture. These practices include: gifts, monetary payments, favours, entertainment and political contributions. •Involvement in Political Affairs- related to the combination of marketing activities and politics including the following: the exertion of political influence by multinationals, engaging in marketing activities when either home or host countries are at war or illegal technology transfers (Armstrong, Ibid). Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 275
  • 293. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Conclusion: It is accepted that globalization is an unavoidable process and will progress forever. All business that firms desire to compete successfully in international environment, should obey to legal and ethical rules and regulations. To behave in an ethically and socially responsible way should be a hallmark of every marketer`s behavior, domestic or international. It requires little thought for most of us to know the socially responsible or ethically correct response to questions about breaking the law, destroying the environment, denying someone his or her rights, taking unfair advantage, or behaving in a manner that would bring bodily harm or damage (Cateora and Graham, Ibid). Actually, the difficult international marketing issues are not the obvious and simple right-or wrong ones. In many countries the international marketer faces the dilemma of responding to many situations where there is no local law, where local practices forgive a certain behavior, or the company willing to “ do what is necessary” is favored over the company that refuses to engage in practices that are not ethical. In many countries, laws may help define the borders of minimal ethical or social responsibility, but the law is only the basis above which one`s social and personal morality is tested. In the U.S.A., in general, legal sanctions prevent marketers from doing nethical transactions. The problems related to international Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 276
  • 294. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 marketing ethics are not important problems in U.S. domestic market; but in international settings, especially differences in culture creates some ethical dilemmas. Ethically thinking is responding to situations that deal with principles concerning human behavior in respect to the appropriateness and inappropriateness of certain communication and to the decency and indecency of the intention and results of such actions. In other words, ethics are distinctions between right and wrong. Businesses are confronted with ethical decision making every day, and whether employees decide to use ethics as a guiding force when conducting business is something that business leaders, such as managers, need to instill. Marketers are ethically responsible for what is marketed and the image that a product portrays. With that said, marketers need to understand what good ethics are and how to incorporate good ethics in various marketing campaigns to better reach a targeted audience and to gain trust from customers. Marketing ethics, regardless of the product offered or the market targeted, sets the guidelines for which good marketing is practiced. When companies create high ethical standards upon which to approach marketing they are participating in ethical marketing. To market ethically and effectively one should be reminded that all marketing decisions and efforts are necessary to meet and suit the needs of Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 277
  • 295. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 customers, suppliers, and business partners. Ethical behavior should be enforced throughout out company culture and through company practices. Perhaps the best guide to good international marketing ethics is the examples set by ethical business leaders (J. Byrne, 2003). DeGeorge (Ibid) proposes to Ethically thinking is responding to situations that deal with principles concerning human behavior in respect to the appropriateness and inappropriateness of certain communication and to the decency and indecency of the intention and results of such actions. In other words, ethics are distinctions between right and wrong. Businesses are confronted with ethical decision making every day, and whether employees decide to use ethics as a guiding force when conducting business is something that business leaders, such as managers, need to instill. Marketers are ethically responsible for what is marketed and the image that a product portrays. With that said, marketers need to understand what good ethics are and how to incorporate good ethics in various marketing campaigns to better reach a targeted audience and to gain trust from customers. Marketing ethics, regardless of the product offered or the market targeted, sets the guidelines for which good marketing is practiced. When companies create high ethical standards upon which to approach marketing they are participating in ethical marketing. To market ethically and effectively one should be reminded Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 278
  • 296. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 that all marketing decisions and efforts are necessary to meet and suit the needs of customers, suppliers, and business partners. Ethical behavior should be enforced throughout out company culture and through company practices. Reference: Armstrong, R. W. (1992), “An Empirical Investigation of International Marketing Ethics: Problems Encountered by Australian Firms, Journal of Business Ethics, 11:165. Armstrong, R. W. and Everett, J.E.(1991), The Dimensions of Ethical Perceptions in Marketing, Asia Journal of Marketing, Vol.1, December,61-71. Armstrong, R.W.,Stenig, B.W., Ryands, J.K.,Marks, L. and Mayo, M.(1990), “International Ethics: Problems Encountered by Australian Firms”, Asia Pacific of International Marketing, pp., 6-15. Bartlett C. A. and S. Ghoshal (1989), “Managing across Borders: The Transnational Solution”, Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Byrne, J. (2003), “Goodbye to an Ethicist,” Business Week, February 10, 2003. Bhagwati, J.(1989), “Protectionism”, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 279
  • 297. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Cateora, P. R. And J.L. Graham (2005), International Marketing, 12th edition, New York: Mc Graw Hill/Irwin. Chonko, L. (1995), “Ethical Decision Making in Marketing”, CA: Sage. Cooper, L. (1960), (ed.), “The Rhetoric of Aristotle”, NY: Appleton Century Crofts Inc. [10] DeGeorge, R. T. (2000),”Ethics in International Business-A Contradiction in Terms?”, Business Credit, September 1, 2000, Vol:102, Issue:8, p.50 Douglas, S., and Y. Wind (1987), The Myth of Globalization,…NY: www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mcb/036/2001, April 13, 2005. Dunfee, T. W.,N. C. Smith, and W. T. Ross (1999), “Social Contracts And Marketing Ethics”, Journal of Marketing, July 1999, p. 14. Erevelles, Sunil etall (2002), “Advertising Strategy in China: An Analysis of Cultural And (Geneva: WTO, 2001). ToC Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal page 280
  • 298. International Online eJournal Vol.-III, Issue - 6 August 2011 Read Spark online at : www.sparkejournal.com Mail your feedback, queries, contributions on/to Spark International Online eJournal at : feedback@sparkejournal.com Spark eGroup Membership (absolutely free !!!) (723 members till the date) Get email alerts on the upcoming academic events, research and publication oriented news, call for papers for publication and a lot more that really benefits the entire academic fraternity. Simply mail your membership request at : spark_ejournal@googlegroups.com The Editors Spark International Online eJournal (ISSN 0975 – 7929) Bi-annual Multi-lingual, Multi-disciplinary & Multi-media eJournal ToC page 281