New due date for Project #2: Wednesday, October 27 .
Grades on Project #1, your reflection, and your homework up to Week 6 will be distributed to you by Friday at 11:59pm . I am giving myself a strict deadline on this. If I don’t send your grades to you by then, I will buy this class pizza next week.
General rules for using sources
Use sources as concisely as possible, so your own thinking isn't crowded out by your presentation of other people's thinking, or your own voice by your quoting of other voices.
Never leave your reader in doubt as to when you are speaking and when you are using materials from a source .
Always make clear how each source you use relates to your argument.
… is when you duplicate the source exactly .
We use them when the author’s words are so impressive that to put them into our own words would lessen their impact.
We use them when the author’s words are so precise that to put them in our own words would impact their meaning.
We use them when the author’s words are so concise that you would need twice as many words to paraphrase the passage or relay its meaning.
Two formats: brief quotations and block quotations
Introduce quotes with commas, colons, the words “said that,” et cetera
Quotation punctuation should reproduce the original.
If there is a quote within a quote, use single quotation marks.
Your introduction to the quote should be grammatically correct with the quote itself.
In paraphrasing, the writer restates primarily in his or her own words all the relevant information from a passage, without any additional information suggesting the writer agrees or disagrees with the source.
Paraphrases must be cited . (do you know why?)
It is important in a paraphrase NOT TO MIMIC THE SENTENCE STYLE AND STRUCTRE OF THE SOURCE. The paraphrase is your own words .
In a paraphrase, it is sometimes necessary to use key words from the source, but those words, because they are taken directly, need to be indicated as such. Use quotation marks.
Presents only the main ideas of a source, leaving out examples and details.
Is in YOUR OWN WORDS. IF YOU USE WORDS FROM THE SOURCE, YOU HAVE TO PUT THOSE INTO QUOTATION MARKS.
Allow you to bring large amounts of information into your writing in a concise manner.
Summaries must be cited . (why?)
What doesn’t need citation?
Common knowledge - If most readers, like yourself, would likely know the information, you do not need to cite a source for it. (for example, the earth moves around the sun, Tokyo is a city in Japan, etc.)
Facts available in many sources - If a number of textbooks, encyclopedias, almanacs, etc. include the information, you need not cite a source for it.
Your own ideas and discoveries - After all, your instructor is most likely looking for original ideas and propositions.
What ALWAYS needs to be credited or cited?
Any direct quotation - The exact words quoted must be placed in quotation marks.
Paraphrases and summaries that present background information, present facts not commonly-known, and explain various positions/opinions on your topic need to be credited.
Arguable assertions - When an author presents a point or opinion, regardless of its truth, credit him/her.
Statistics, charts, tables, and graphs put together by someone else need to be credited.
Croutons: Good on salad, not in papers
Women are often viewed as either sex objects or housewives. “The housewife, pathologically obsessed by cleanliness and lemon-fresh scents, debates cleaning products and worries about her husband’s ring around the collar” (Kilborne 122).
Kilborne says that women are often misrepresented and that they are always shown as either sex objects or housewives who are pathologically obsessed by cleanliness and cleaning products. “The housewife, pathologically obsessed by cleanliness and lemon-fresh scents, debates cleaning products and worries about her husband’s ring around the collar” (122).
How to avoid crouton quotes
* Incorporate essential words and phrases into your own writing.
Kilborne says that women are often misrepresented and that they are always shown as either sex objects or housewives who are focused on “cleanliness and lemon-fresh scents” and “[their] husband’s ring around the collar” (122).
How to avoid crouton quotes
* Incorporate the text of the quote using words such as “that” or by using a colon.
Jones argues that “there are those who believe that most of the families receiving public assistance are lazy and they continue to have children as a means to increase the amount of their AFDC benefits” (4).
Kilborne says that women are often portrayed as a common stereotype: “the housewife, pathologically obsessed by cleanliness and lemon-fresh scents, debates cleaning products and worries about her husband’s ring around the collar” (122).
How to avoid crouton quotes
* Paraphrase or summarize the information.
Kilborne says that women are often misrepresented and that they are shown in two ways. First, they are seen as sex objects. Other times, they are viewed as housewives. The latter are viewed as women who worry about cleanliness and spend time discussing cleaning products (122).
JUST SAY NO! (TO CROUTON QUOTES)
In-Text or Parenthetical Citation: What is it?
A note within the text which connects the piece of information cited to its source. It consists, usually, of the author’s last name and the page number, or, when there is no author, the name or title of the source.
Believe it or not, parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages have a relationship. Parenthetical citations provide a way for the reader to trace the citation back to the source it came from, which you provide on the Works Cited page. That is why they have to match what is on the Works Cited page EXACTLY.
The general rule is that whatever is first in the particular entry on the Works Cited page goes in the parenthetical citation. Articles that are in quotation marks need to be in quotation marks in the parenthetical citation, author names need to be listed just as they appear on the Works Cited page, et cetera.
Kitty, Hello. A Dark Burden of Cute: The Autobiography of Hello Kitty . New York: Harper, 1999. Print.
(“Hello Kitty is”)
“ Hello Kitty is a Bad Influence.” Cat Watch . 2006. International Crazy Cat Lady Society. 30 Apr. 2006 <http://iccls.org/catwatch/hello.html>.
Some Sample In-Text Citations
Author named in YOUR text: If you name the author, you don’t have to put the author’s name in the parenthetical—just the page number.
Freelance financial analyst Hello Kitty called this emerging US economy the “happy cherry popsicle market” (3).
Author NOT named in YOUR text: If you don’t name the author, you must but the author’s name in the parenthetical along with the page number.
In 1997, the Truman poll reported that 55% of adults in the United States think Hello Kitty is “essential for life,” compared to only 36% in 1994 (Solomon 4).
Work by an unnamed author: Use a shortened version of the title that includes at least the first important word.
A review in The New Yorker of Hello Kitty’s new album focuses on the shape of the artist’s hair bow (“Sushi” 25).
More than two authors: Use first author’s name and et. al.
Freelance financial analysts called this emerging US economy the “happy cherry popsicle market” (Kitty et. al. 3).
Quotations longer than four lines : When a quote is longer than four lines, it becomes a block quotation. This means that it has to have a particular format.
One movie critic highlights a unique challenge to creating “authentic” Hello Kitty films:
To be sure, it’s not easy to make a good Hello Kitty movie. Rather than dwell on the particular offenses of, say, Hello Kitty Princess Tale , Snow White Kitty , or the peerless Hello Kitty In Space , let’s cut to the root problem: It’s the voice. Even for our finest actors, the Hello Kitty voice is Everest: an irresistible, but insurmountable, challenge. (Chandler)
Punctuating and Formatting In-Text Citations (MLA Style)
Parenthetical citations with DIRECT QUOTES: Quotation marks go before the parenthetical; punctuation goes after, unless there is a question mark or exclamation mark in the quote.
Many find contemporary toy stores hectic and overpowering: “we seem to spend all our time searching for peace of mind through Hello Kitty bicycles and video games” (Jackson 287).
Parenthetical citations with PARAPHRASES or SUMMARIES: Punctuation goes after the parenthetical.
The number of Hello Kitty food products carried by grocery stores in the United States has increased each year (“Triumph of Kitty”).