Background Infrastructure Usage Utilization is not cost effective. Total cost can be reduced by sharing network resources Cloud Solutions (Cloud Computing, etc) do not take infrastructure as concern. Always take network connectivity for granted and do not approach considering QoS  Requirement of connection between components respecting service requirements. Virtualized service platform respecting all service requirements, e.g. as expressed by interactive real-time services, on transport layer 
Definition ”A promising approach to cover individual and dynamic resource provision while keeping strong individual QoS requirements and optimizing the overall resource usage” , Oberle . "A technique for isolating computational and network resources through virtualization to allocate them to a logical (virtual) network for accommodating multiple independent and programmable virtual networks" , Nakao . ”A mechanism for running multiple networks, which are customized to a specific purpose, over the shared infrastructure” , Miyamura .
Key Features Segmentation: allows several different services to share a physical link with given specific QoS properties Isolation: No crosstalk between applications in resource sharing caused by program crashes, sniffing, attacking, etc Encapsulation: enables services developers to design service specific on the overlay networks at a high level of abstraction, and then disburden them fromdealing with highly complex physical network infrastructures. Aggregation: possible to build virtually elarged resources (clustered resources or resources pool)
ISONI Architecture ISONI : Intellegent Service Oriented Network Infrastructure ISONI characteristic: Reduce complexity for roll-out new services Separate management hardware resources from services Upper Part : VSN (Virtual Service Network) provided by service developer Lower Part : Real Resources, VMU (Virtual Machine Unit) and link between VMU
CABO Architecture CABO : Concurrent Architecture Better than One Divide ISP into two distinct entities: infrastructure providers (provide physically) service providers (provide agrement) Physical Resources shared by subdividing physical to virtual for both node and links Bandwidth and delay guaranteed by arbritate access to shared resources (CPU, memory, and bandwidth) End host can run multiple virtual network from different service provider
Network Control Mechanism One-Hop Source Routing Based on Routing overlays Route to intermediate node, relay to destination by ordinary IP routing, forwarding by tunnel Simple control and scalable Adaptive network control mechanism Attractor selection based VNT based on environmental changes adapation Regulatory and metabolic reactions consider as optical and service overlay network
Resource Allocation Static Approaches Basic Algorithm Traffic constraints based algorithm Splitting and Migration of Paths Dynamic Approaches DaVinci Miscellaneous Approaches Autonomic Systems based Control Theoretic based systems
ET 6803 Special Topics of OpticsPROOF OF CONCEPTS
VNET on HEN Consist of 110 computers and single non-blocking gigabit etherne switch with constant latency Node and Link Virtualization Technologies for Instantion Rely on XENs Paravirtualization for hosting virtual machines Physical Node compose substrate (PIP) NOC of VNP connect to dedicated management node XML Schema describe resource spesification for Node and Links
VNET on HEN Two option node virtualization : VM created and booted as guest domain VM resources allocated by PIP upon request Virtual node connection using Ipv4-in-IPv4 Tunnel Two NIC drivers of XEN : DomU (Back-end) : part kernel space of guest OS Dom0 (Front-end): physical domain inc, physical NIC Back-end and Front-end correspons with Bridging (XEN default) or Click Topology created using VLAN and Virtual links by switch- daemon based on request
VINI on PlanetLab PlanetLab : large physical infrastructure and provide virtualization Vserver of the node (Slice) for experiment isolation Tight control of resources (CPU or Bandwidth per slice) CPU scheduler ”fair share”, Linux Hierarchical Token Bucket (HTB) ”fair share and minimum rate guarantees” VNET module for track and multiplexes incoming and outgoing traffic UML (User Mode Linux) allow each virtual node access multiple network device (user-space in a slice)
VINI on PlanetLab Linux TAP/TUN driver modification to send and receive packet on the overlay Single TUN/TAP interface (same IP address) used by multiple processes (different slices) simultaneously IIAS (Internet In A Slice) : example network architecture for evaluate existing routing and forwarding mechanism IIAS employs Click Software Router (forwarding engine), and XORP routing protocol suite (control plane) XORP run in UML kernel process, FIB implemented in Click Process outside UML Next Development GpENI-VINI : MyPLC (VINI resources manager) and IIAS (interface and link provisioning tools)
Reference1) Karsten Oberle, Marcus Kessler, Manuel Stein, Thomas Voith, Dominik Lamp, Sören Berger, "Network Virtualization: The missing piece", ICIN, 2009.2) Akihiro NAKAO, "Network Virtualization as Foundation for Enabling New Network Architectures and Applications", IEICE, March 2010.3) Takashi Miyamura, Yuichi Ohsita, Shin’ichi Arakawa, Yuki Koizumi, Akeo Masuda, Kohei Shiomoto, and Masayuki Murata, "Network Virtualization Server for Adaptive Network Control", ITC Specialist Seminar, Hanoi, 2009.4) Panagiotis Papadimitriou, Olaf Maennel, Adam Greenhalgh, Anja Feldmann, Laurent Mathy, ”Implementing Network Virtualization for a Future Internet”, Hoi An, Vietnam, 2009.
Reference5) Panagiotis Papadimitriou, Olaf Maennel, Adam Greenhalgh, Anja Feldmann, Laurent Mathy, ”Network Virtualization Architecture: Proposal and Initial Prototype", VISA, Spain, 2009.6) Nick Feamster, Lixin Gao, Jennifer Rexford, "How to Lease the Internet in Your Spare Time".7) K. Tutschku, T. Zinner, A. Nakao, P. Tran-Gia, "Network Virtualization: Implementation Steps Towards the Future Internet", Electronic Communications of the EASST Volume 17, 2009.8) Aun Haider, Richard Potter, Akihiro Nakao, "Challenges in Resource Allocation in Network Virtualization", ITC Specialist Seminar, Hanoi, 2009.
Reference9) Ramkumar Cherukuri, Xuan Liu , Andy Bavier, James P.G. Sterbenz, and Deep Medhi, "Network Virtualization in GpENI: Framework, Implementation & Integration Experience", IEEE/IFIP International Workshop, Ireland, 2011.10) Andy Bavier, Nick Feamster, Mark Huang, Larry Peterson, Jennifer Rexford, "In VINI Veritas: Realistic and Controlled Network Experimentation".