Scheduling and Quality of    Services (QoS)Advanced Telecommunication Network             (ET5187)                   by   ...
Review Scheduling• Scheduling and Qos : Qontrolling input to output• Packet Classification : Same Class (FIFO/LIFO)  or Di...
Review QoS• QoS as Technological Lever : over installed  resources or controlling traffic in the network• QoS as Commercia...
Upper Bound Method• Used for solving CAC (Call Admission Control)  problem• Some assumption :  o Each arrival process sati...
Upper Bound Method (Cont.)• Queue count is maximum difference between  inflow and outflow (λk and μk)• If queue > 0, class...
Upper Bound Method (Cont.)• Remarks on upper bound method :     • Zero packet loss only guaranteed for admitted       pack...
Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS)    Differ from fair policy including minimum service rate and    excess capacity allo...
Generalized Cμ-rules (Gcμ rules)    Powerful, dynamic scheduling rule which view QoS from    different angle such as poss...
Generalized Cμ-rules (Gcμ rules)    With “lagrange” optimization problem, the solution defines    as mapping g intepreted...
QoS (Quality of Services)
Differentiated Services (DiffServ)• Threat each class differently on per-hop behaviour  (PHB)• Class differentiation rathe...
Differentiated Class• IP DSCP format:• Two different PHB Class, except BE (Best Effort) :  Expedited Forwarding (EF) = vi...
DS Class: Expedited Forwarding (EF)• Absolute dedicated BW independent from other• Guaranteed BW for providing low packet ...
DS Class: Assured Forwarding (AF)• “No Free Lunch”, better service for one class,  expense of other service• 4 Class with ...
Shortcut Routing to MPLS• Traditionally Internet routing create problem,  because size of route, per-packet lookup  burden...
Layered Routing• Top level routing by IP (OSPF), route between  nodes by ATM layer Routing (I-PNNI)• ATM change the path b...
Flow Driven Shortcut• Short messages use CL (connectionless)  because connection setup costly• Long duration high-traffic ...
Topology Driven Shortcut• Special ATM-VC setup to “shortcut” number of  router• Integrated switch & router individually de...
Multiprotocol Label Switching               (MPLS)• TDP (Cisco) & LDP (IETF) : signaling protocol  for routing to “shortcu...
Multiprotocol Label Switching          (MPLS) continue..• Separated control and forwarding with Traffic  Engineering (TE) ...
Generalized MPLS (G-MPLS)• Extension of MPLS for other packet switched  as IP packet• TDM/Optical Lamda can be formed• Red...
Generalized MPLS (G-MPLS)              Summary• LMP assigned to manage critical network by  mapping time slot, lambda, or ...
Generalized MPLS (G-MPLS)         Example                 IP Network (left) and                 SDH Network (right)       ...
ReferencePiet Van Mieghem, “Data Communication Networking”,  Delft University Technology, Amsterdam, 2006.
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Advanced networking scheduling and QoS part 2

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Advanced networking scheduling and QoS part 2

  1. 1. Scheduling and Quality of Services (QoS)Advanced Telecommunication Network (ET5187) by Aris Cahyadi Risdianto 23210016
  2. 2. Review Scheduling• Scheduling and Qos : Qontrolling input to output• Packet Classification : Same Class (FIFO/LIFO) or Different Class (Lost/Delay Sensitive, Class)• Queuing System : Scheduling control• Loss Sensitive Scheduling : HoL, PBS, POB, RED• Buffer size : small assured delay, but loss cell• Delay Sensitive Scheduling : Upper Bound Method
  3. 3. Review QoS• QoS as Technological Lever : over installed resources or controlling traffic in the network• QoS as Commercial Lever : sub-optimal controlling resources = loss revenue• QoS : performance, availability, reliability and security (L3 QoS inspired by ATM)• Evolution architecture : Integration IP and ATM (Dual-Mode, I-PNNI, Ipsilon, IETF-MPLS)• RSVP : IP Signaling Protocol, Path and Reservation Messages• IntServ : guaranteed and controlled-load service
  4. 4. Upper Bound Method• Used for solving CAC (Call Admission Control) problem• Some assumption : o Each arrival process satisfies with certain business constrain o Service time for cell/packet is deterministic and proportional o Scheduling rule is used to generate QoS for class k with minimal μk ("fair" rule to prevent blocking another class getting served)
  5. 5. Upper Bound Method (Cont.)• Queue count is maximum difference between inflow and outflow (λk and μk)• If queue > 0, class served by minimal rate (μk)• Number of queue bounded by burstinest σk provided if λk ≤ μk• Buffer size bounded by sum of burstinest all flows, so loss can be guaranteed• Maximum delay bounded by burstinest divide by inflows, so delay can be guaranteed
  6. 6. Upper Bound Method (Cont.)• Remarks on upper bound method : • Zero packet loss only guaranteed for admitted packet (satisfied with burstinest constrain), if not packet will be lost • Delay guaranteed are deterministic because all stochastic assumed to be bounded or deterministic• Upper Bound Method more optimal than N*D/D/1 queuing for scenario where N not identical and independent CBR resources
  7. 7. Generalized Processor Sharing (GPS) Differ from fair policy including minimum service rate and excess capacity allocation Provide inherent fairness (measurable amount resource reserved for each class based on weight Work-conserving discipline, ideal for small amount of data from I different jobs
  8. 8. Generalized Cμ-rules (Gcμ rules) Powerful, dynamic scheduling rule which view QoS from different angle such as posses delay function as monetary cost Founded from 3 fact in the Queuing theory:  Total workload invariant for work-conserving scheduling rules  Class workloads “live on the faster time scale” than total workload process  Well behaved heavy traffic limit systems, class workload process “Converges” Distribute total workload over different class to minimize delay cost rate at each point
  9. 9. Generalized Cμ-rules (Gcμ rules) With “lagrange” optimization problem, the solution defines as mapping g intepreted as switching curve of Gcμ-rules parameterized by scalar W
  10. 10. QoS (Quality of Services)
  11. 11. Differentiated Services (DiffServ)• Threat each class differently on per-hop behaviour (PHB)• Class differentiation rather than flow differentiation (more scalable)• Provide QoS more natural than IntServ which inline with Internet• Bandwidth Broker use to managed inter-domain resources for providing end-to-end QoS
  12. 12. Differentiated Class• IP DSCP format:• Two different PHB Class, except BE (Best Effort) : Expedited Forwarding (EF) = virtual leased line or point-to-point connection Assured Forwarding (AF) = better best efforf
  13. 13. DS Class: Expedited Forwarding (EF)• Absolute dedicated BW independent from other• Guaranteed BW for providing low packet loss, low latency and low jitter• Implement with Priority Queue and Strict Policing• EF behavior : departure rate EF traffic must equal or exceeded configurable rate• Guaranteed BW means excess traffic must be discarded (strict policing)
  14. 14. DS Class: Assured Forwarding (AF)• “No Free Lunch”, better service for one class, expense of other service• 4 Class with 3 class each based on drop preferences• Level forwarding assurance based on resource allocation, load offered and drop preference• Implement with weighted Round-robin (WRR), Weight Fair-Queue (WFQ), and drop technology (RED/WRED)
  15. 15. Shortcut Routing to MPLS• Traditionally Internet routing create problem, because size of route, per-packet lookup burden network, bottleneck• Solution : Eliminate L3 processing by L2 packet forwarding (Shortcut Routing)• IP over ATM : mixed CL(connectionless)/CO (connection oriented) for best effort traffic• 3 Approach : flow driven, topology driven, and Explicit shortcut
  16. 16. Layered Routing• Top level routing by IP (OSPF), route between nodes by ATM layer Routing (I-PNNI)• ATM change the path based on available resources, OSPF rediscover low weight link regularly => Hop- by-hop path different next-hop nodes• More vulnerable to loop, L2/L3 routing loop is hidden at both L2/L3• Transient loop for CO/CL environment• I-PNNI the ultimate solution, but the standard never finished
  17. 17. Flow Driven Shortcut• Short messages use CL (connectionless) because connection setup costly• Long duration high-traffic use CO (connection- oriented) for header efficiency• Pareto Law : 20% flows are long and constitute of 80% bytes• Decision between router and switch is complicated• Ipsilon Switching : decision based on Ipv4 header (TCP = switch, UDP = route)
  18. 18. Topology Driven Shortcut• Special ATM-VC setup to “shortcut” number of router• Integrated switch & router individually decide to shortcut• Sources and destination path stored in “shortcut” forwarding table• CO/CL forward together with QoS differentiation• The approach is Cisco Tag-Switching
  19. 19. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)• TDP (Cisco) & LDP (IETF) : signaling protocol for routing to “shortcut” based on MPLS tag• Support explicit routing to provide QoS constrain routing• Based on LDP, construct label forwarding table (LIB), similar to ATM VPI/VCI• Adopt label stack approach, up to 3 labels including “push”, “pop”, and “swap”
  20. 20. Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) continue..• Separated control and forwarding with Traffic Engineering (TE) can mapped into label• Flexible to form FEC to build VPN for any other medium didnt support labelling• Traffic Engineering : redirect, balance and restoration the path• “Forwarding with the clue”, the clue give next- hop downstream router, the current router end-up with IP lookup
  21. 21. Generalized MPLS (G-MPLS)• Extension of MPLS for other packet switched as IP packet• TDM/Optical Lamda can be formed• Redesign MPLS protocol and optical switching without optical-electronic conversion• Extend control plane for legacy equipment: Simplification O&M Efficiency and Faster Higher Flexibility
  22. 22. Generalized MPLS (G-MPLS) Summary• LMP assigned to manage critical network by mapping time slot, lambda, or port into label• Extension to OSPF for advertising availability of optical resources• Enhance IP signaling RSVP to setup LSP accross• Scalability features such as hierarchical LSPs
  23. 23. Generalized MPLS (G-MPLS) Example IP Network (left) and SDH Network (right) Each SDH has link capacity of 2 Mbps Three different configuration originate by GMPLS switching in the SDH nodes
  24. 24. ReferencePiet Van Mieghem, “Data Communication Networking”, Delft University Technology, Amsterdam, 2006.

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