Mixed Methods research

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An Introduction to Mixed Methods Research prepared for presentation to post graduate students at the University of Canterbury

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Mixed Methods research

  1. 1. Mixed Methods Research Arindam Basu Prepared for PG Meeting, University of Canterbury, http://arinbasu.wordpress.com
  2. 2. Three Scenarios • Inter-professional Training • Colorectal Cancer Screening • Teaching of Telehealth to Physicians How Can Qualitative alone, Quantitative Research alone, or a combination meet the needs of research questions pursued?
  3. 3. Interprofessional Education • Different Professions, Same Trainees • Different Professionals Train the Same People • How does one learn about effectiveness of the education process? • Whose Perspective? (Trainers? Trainees? External Stakeholders?) • How Do We Measure Outputs? • Can Everything Be Measured?
  4. 4. How Does One Measure the Effectiveness of Inter-professional Training?
  5. 5. Screening For Colorectal Cancer • Colorectal Cancer is a leading cause of cancer and kill people • If this cancer can be detected when it the tumour is very small and localized, then it can be safely removed • That detection is done using a stool test called guaiac test. • What’s the best strategy? Source: http://www.medicinenet.com/colon_cancer/article.htm
  6. 6. What Does One Measure? The Patient (Suffering, Convenience, How Easy) Ministry of Health (Payer) How Economical? How Many False Cases for reasons of logistics How Many People should be Screened To Identify One case? The Physician (Provider) How best will the screening test perform? Sensitivity? Specificity?
  7. 7. What is the Effectiveness of Telehealth Training for Physicians? Trainees (Physicians) Stakeholders (MoH) Trainers (Teaching Physicians)
  8. 8. The Truth Out There (Descriptive Data, Relationships) The Participants Who Contribute to the Truth Seeking Process * Patients •Members. Public • Preconceptions • Life Story ... The Investigator Who Investigates “The Truth” • Belief • Previous Ideas • “Need” for “Positive” Findings
  9. 9. The Truth Out There (Descriptive Data, Relationships) 1. Rule Out Chance 2. Control for Confounding 3. Eliminate Bias 4. Test for Causality (where Needed) Quantitative Research Dissociates the Investigator from His “Biases” The Participants Who Contribute to the Truth Seeking Process * Patients •Members. Public • Preconceptions • Life Story ... The Investigator Who Investigates “The Truth” • Belief • Previous Ideas • “Need” for “Positive” Findings
  10. 10. The Truth Out There (Descriptive Data, Relationships) The Participants Who Contribute to the Truth Seeking Process * Patients •Members. Public • Preconceptions • Life Story ... Qualitative Research: integration between the Researcher, Resear chee , Researched The Investigator Who Investigates “The Truth” • Belief • Previous Ideas • “Need” for “Positive” Findings
  11. 11. The Truth Out There (Descriptive Data, Relationships) Quantitative Research The Participants Who Contribute to the Truth Seeking Process * Patients •Members. Public • Preconceptions • Life Story ... Qualitative Research The Investigator Who Investigates “The Truth” • Belief • Previous Ideas • “Need” for “Positive” Findings
  12. 12. The Reality (Interprofessional Education Improves Student Outcomes ) Survey of trainees Items on questionnaires Tallying Numbers Quantitative Research The Participants Who Contribute to the Truth Seeking Process * Students narrate their experiences Qualitative Research The Investigator Who Investigates “The Truth” • Belief • Previous Ideas • “Need” for “Positive” Findings
  13. 13. The Reality (Telehealth Education through distance improves care process) Pass/Fail Statistics Student Performance Carbon Saving Quantitative Research Trainees tell their Stories on how well They did and what they felt Qualitative Research The Investigator Who Investigates “The Truth” • Belief • Previous Ideas • “Need” for “Positive” Findings
  14. 14. The Reality (Telehealth Education through distance improves care process) Pass/Fail Statistics Student Performance Carbon Saving Quantitative Research Trainees tell their Stories on how well They did and what they felt Qualitative Research The Investigator Who Investigates “The Truth” • Belief • Previous Ideas • “Need” for “Positive” Findings These Diverse Views of the World Are Reconciled in Mixed Methods Research
  15. 15. In Mixed Methods Qualitative Quantitative Sequential (Could Be Reversed) Qualitative Quantitative Concurrent, this Can Happen At the Same Time
  16. 16. Balance Between Three How Much Quantitative Versus Qualitative? What is the Sequence? Is it Partially or Fully Mixed Methods?
  17. 17. Research Cycle Conceptualize (Proposal) Collect Data Collect Data Interpret Data Analyze Data
  18. 18. Typology of Mixed Methods
  19. 19. An Example from a Recent Study
  20. 20. Reporting of a Mixed Methods
  21. 21. Reporting of Mixed Methods (Continued …)
  22. 22. Conclusion • • • • • • • Qualitative + Quantitative = Mixed Methods Qualitative: subjective, perspective dependent Quantitative: objective, neutral view of truth Mixed: Captures “Truth” both ways Sequential or Concurrent Full or Partial Dominant or Non-dominant
  23. 23. References Borkan, J. M. (2004). Mixed Methods Studies : A Foundation, 4–6. doi:10.1370/afm.111.wo Onwuegbuzie, A. J., & Turner, L. A. (2007). Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 112–133. doi:10.1177/1558689806298224 Leech, N. L., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2007). A typology of mixed methods research designs. Quality & Quantity, 43(2), 265–275. doi:10.1007/s11135-007-9105-3 Lingard, L., Albert, M., & Levinson, W. (2008). Grounded theory , mixed methods , and action research, 337(August), 459–461. doi:10.1136/bmj.39602.690162.47 O’Cathain, A., Murphy, E., & Nicholl, J. (2007). Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study. BMC health services research, 7, 85. doi:10.1186/1472-6963-7-85 Sale, J. E. M., & Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate : Implications for Mixed-Methods Research, 43–53.

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