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South america


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  • 2. Some facts about the continent:
    • S. America ranks 4th in terms of area, after Asia, Africa & N. America.
    • 3. In terms of population the continent ranks 5th after Asia, Africa, Europe & N. America.
    • 4. It consists of 13 independent countries and 6 dependencies.
    • 5. The largest country is Brazil and the smallest country is Suriname.
    • List of dependencies in the continent:
    • 6. Aruba (Netherland)
    • 7. Falkland Islands (UK)
    • 8. French Guiana (France)
    • 9. Bonaire (Netherland)
    • 10. South Georgia & South Sandwich Islands (UK)
    • 11. Curacao (Netherlands)
    • 12. The independent countries of the continent are Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Chile, Ecuador, Suriname, Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago.
  • Geography of S. America
    South America can be divided into 5 physiographic divisions. They are as follows:
    The Andes
    Brazilian Highlands
    Guiana Highlands
    The Amazon basin
    The Deserts
  • 13. The Andes:
    • Run from NW Venezuela to the southern tip of Tierra Del Fuego.
    • 14. The mountain was formed by the subduction of the Pacific plate beneath South American plate.
    • 15. It is the world’s longest and second highest mountain range.
    • 16. The length of the mountain range is 7000 km and the width is 500 km approximately
    • 17. It is a fold mountain
    • The highest point of the mountain range is Mt. Aconcagua, which is 6962 m high.
    • 18. The Andes is divided into three sub regions. They are:
    • 19. Northern – Venezuela, Columbia, & Ecuador
    • 20. Central– Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia (altiplano)
    • 21. Southern– defines the border between Chile & Argentina (South of Santiago the mountains are lower)
    • 22. There are several important cities situated within the Andean region. They are Bagota, Santiago, Cusco, La Paz, Merida & Quito.
  • Lake Titicaca
    • Lake Titicaca is a mountainous lake found in the border of Peru & Bolivia.
    • 23. By volume it is the largest lake of the continent.
    • 24. It is the highest commercially navigable lake of the world.
    • 25. It is situated at an altitude of 3811 m.
    • 26. There are 42 islands in the lake and some if which are densely populated.
    • 27. It serves as an inland drainage for about 27 local rivers.
  • The Brazilian Highlands
    • It is of the most important physiographical region of the continent, occupying an area of about 5,000,000 sq. km.
    • 28. The highland is also know as Brazilian Plateau.
    • 29. The entire plateau is made up of basaltic lava. However the present landscapes are the product of intense erosional activities.
    • 30. The NE and SW extension of the highland measures 3500 km.
    • 31. The highest point of the plateau is Pico da Bandeira (2891 m)
    • 32. The entire highland falls inside the country of Brazil.
    • The plateau is often divided into three parts:
    • 33. Atlantic Plateau: The most densely populated area of the highland.
    • 34. Southern Plateau: the region is covered with tropical rainforest. Part of it consists of fertile soil, which is also knows as purple land.
    • 35. The Central Plateau : Majority of the area is under grassland.
    • 36. The NE corner of the plateau is known as Plateau of Borborema and the western section if the highland is called Plateau of Mato Grosso.
  • Guiana Highlands
    • It occupies the area of Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana. Apart from these countries, a part of it with Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil.
    • 37. The shield is made up of Greenstone, Quartzite, Sandstone, Conglomerate and Shale.
    • 38. The highland is classified into three regional groups. They are:
    • 39. Guiana Highland Proper (Venezuela) Mt. Roraima (2810 m)
    • 40. The Tumuc-Humuc Mountains (Guyana & Suriname) Juliana Top (1280 m)
    • 41. Chiribiquete Plateau
    • 42. The region is very sparely populated.
    • 43. Here we can find the famous Angel Falls on R. Kerep. (979 m)
  • The Gran Chaco Region
    • The Gran Chaco region is a lowland in the Rio de la Plata river basin .
    • 44. This area is a hot and semi arid region, occupying areas of Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil.
    • 45. This region is also known as Chaco Plain.
  • Llanos
    • Llanos is a tropical grassland situated in between the northern Andes and Guiana Highland.
    • 46. It occupies few million square km of Venezuela and Colombia.
    • 47. This region is characterized by seasonal flooding, which can be as high as a meter.
    • 48. The principal river draining this region is R. Orinoco.
    • 49. The people working here as cow boys are locally known as Llaneros.
    • 50. Now a days, the grasslands are being cleared for agricultural purposes.
  • Deserts
    Atacama Desert:
    • Occupies the area of Chile, Argentina, Peru and Bolivia
    • 51. It is the driest desert of the world.
    Patagonian Desert:
    • It is situated in southern part of Argentina.