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  1. 1. African union ORIGIN FLAG EMBLEM The Organisation of African Unity (OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine (OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. It was disbanded on 9 July 2002 by its last chairperson, South African President Thabo Mbeki, and replaced by the African Union by the Sirte Declaration to boost and accelerate the African unity and efforts of integration in the context of the challenges posed by globalization.
  2. 3. Map of the African Union with suspended states highlighted in light green.
  3. 6. <ul><li>To promote and protect human and peoples' rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and other relevant human rights instruments; </li></ul><ul><li>To establish the necessary conditions which enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and in international negotiations; </li></ul><ul><li>To promote sustainable development at the economic, social and cultural levels as well as the integration of African economies; </li></ul><ul><li>To promote co-operation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of African peoples; </li></ul><ul><li>To coordinate and harmonize the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic Communities for the gradual attainment of the objectives of the Union; </li></ul><ul><li>To advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, in particular in science and technology; </li></ul><ul><li>To work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent . </li></ul>
  4. 8. Peace and Security Council (PSC) --By decision AHG/Dec 160 (xxxvii) of the Summit of Lusaka, July 2001, a decision was made for the creation within the African Union of the Peace and Security Council. The Protocol establishing the PSC is in the process of ratification. Pan-African Parliament A Pan-African Parliament is an organ created to ensure the full participation of African peoples in governance, development and economic integration of the Continent. The protocol relating to the composition, powers, functions and organization of the Pan-African Parliament has been signed by Member States and is in the process of ratification. ECOSOCC The Economic, Social and Cultural Council is an advisory organ composed of different social and professional groups of the Member States of the Union. The Court of Justice A Court of Justice of the Union shall be established and statute defining the powers and functions of the court is under review.
  5. 10. Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo , is the President of Equatorial Guinea, and the current Chairperson of the African Union . Jean Ping , is a Gabonese diplomat and politician who is currently the Chairperson of the Commission of the African Union. Idriss Ndele Moussa is the President of the African Union's Pan-African Parliament.(PAP) Administrative Centres Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Midrand, South Africa
  6. 14. History This regional organization came into prominence during the 1970s, in the backdrop of the Arab-Israeli conflict and marked the beginning of oil diplomacy. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 resulted in a strong Arab opinion against the West. The Yom Kippur War prompted the OPEC to initiate an embargo against all states supporting Israel in its struggle agaginst Israel. The rise of Sran nationalism and the series of clashes with Israel in 1946 and in early 1970s induced the Arab leaders to make use of oil as a weapon to teach the West a lesson. When the US and West European states began to supply Israel with huge quantities of arms, which helped them to withstand Egyptian and Syrian forces, infuriated the Arab world and they imposed the 1973 oil embargo against the United States and Western Europe . OPEC realized its potential and the significance of oil as a weapon and thereafter raised the price of oil per barrel. Finally, long term price levels were normalized due to the pressure of Saudi Arabia, the richest member of OPEC. The West had learnt a lesson from this crisis. It is from this time onwards that the OPEC rose to international prominence and it acquired a major say in the pricing of crude oil on world markets. Under such circumstances OPEC held its First Summit of OPEC Sovereigns and Heads of State in Algiers in March 1975. Oil crises --Iranian Revolution in 1979, Iran-Iraq war 1980s, 1990s—pricing crisis due to sanctions against Iraq to export oil & 1998---2008 global melt down—concerted effort needed but engulfed in crisis.
  7. 15. OPEC Management The OPEC Conference is a high level body and below is the Board of Governors. Below the Board of Governors is the OPEC Secretariat which is a permanent inter-governmental body. The Secretariat, which has been based in Vienna since 1965, provides research and administrative support to the MCs. The Secretariat also disseminates news and information to the World at large. The official language of the Secretariat is English. The Departments are:: The Office of the Secretary General The Research division The Data Services Department The Petroleum Market Analysis Department The Energy Studies Department The Public Relations and Information Department The Administration and Human resources Department
  8. 16. OPEC headquarters in Vienna Masoud Mir Kazemi Secretary General, OPEC
  9. 20. Executive Director --- Muhamad Noor Yacob   APEC Chair – Japan Head Quarters –Singapore
  10. 22. All 35 independent nations of America are members of the OAS. Upon foundation on 5 May 1948 there were 21 members: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican, Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, United States, Uruguay, Venezuela The later expansion of the OAS included : Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago , Jamaica, Grenada, Suriname,  Dominica, Saint Lucia, Antigua and Barbuda,  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Bahamas, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Canada, Belize, Guyana
  11. 25. José Miguel Insulza is a Chilean politician and statesman and he is currently (since May 26, 2005) the Secretary General of the Organization of American States . Headquarters: Washington, D.C.