North america


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North america

  1. 1. NORTH AMERICA<br />
  2. 2. Physiography:<br /> The physiography of North America can be broadly classified into the following divisions:<br /><ul><li>Canadian Shield
  3. 3. Eastern Mountains
  4. 4. Western Mountains
  5. 5. Interior Lowlands & Great Plain
  6. 6. Coastal Plains
  7. 7. Deserts</li></li></ul><li>
  8. 8. Canadian Shield:<br />Also known as Laurentian Plateau, or Bouclier canadien in French. It is basically a basement rock covered by very thin soil. There are several bare rock outcrops dotted with numerous glacial lakes. <br />The shield has been glaciated many times and the sediment has been carried into the interior lowlands. <br />
  9. 9. The soils in the states of Ohio, Indiana, Iowa, and Illinois are the transported materials from the Canadian shield. <br />The shield is primarily made up of metamorphic rocks. The shield was originally a region of very large mountains and some volcanic activity, but over the millennia the area was eroded. <br />The glacial activity over here is quite pronounced and presently this area is covered by coniferous trees. <br />
  10. 10. The height of the shield ranges from 305m to 610m.<br />There are a number of mountain ranges within the shield: the Adirondack (northeastern New York state), Superior Highlands (northern Minnesota, Wisconsin & Michigan states), Torngat and Laurentian.<br />The shield is a rich source of metallic minerals such as iron, nickel, copper, zinc, uranium, gold, silver, platinum and molybdenum.<br />
  11. 11. This is the highest point of the Canadian Shield Mount Caubvick (1652 m). It is situated in New Foundland.<br />
  12. 12. The Eastern Mountains<br />The eastern mountain complex consist of the Appalachian Mountains. The Appalachians, are about 1,500 miles in length, and 480 km wide extending from central Alabama in the U.S. up through the New England states and the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Quebec. <br />
  13. 13. Significant Appalachian ranges include:<br /><ul><li> The Cumberland Mts. in Tennessee
  14. 14. The Blue Ridge Mts. in Virginia
  15. 15. The Alleghenies in Pennsylvania
  16. 16. The Catskills Mts. in New York
  17. 17. The Green Mts. in Vermont
  18. 18. The White Mts. of New Hampshire</li></ul>The highest point is Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 ft (2,037 m) <br />
  19. 19. The Appalachians are the product tectonic collision. During the middle Ordovician Period (about 496-440 million years ago), a change in plate motions set the stage for the first Paleozoic mountain building event . There were four such tectonic movements which is believed to be responsible for the formation of Appalachian Mountains.<br />At one time the mountains may have been 20,000 feet high. However, today the average height of the Appalachian mountains is 3000ft.<br />Because of dense forests and rugged steep slopes it acted as a barrier for the first 150 years of European settlement.<br />
  20. 20. The western mountains<br />The western mountain complex consists of mountains, plateaus & valleys.<br />The whole complex can be divided into:<br /><ul><li>The Rockies
  21. 21. Intermountain Plateaus
  22. 22. Pacific Mountains and valleys.</li></li></ul><li>Rockies<br />The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 3,000 miles(4,800 kilometers) from northernmost British Columbia, in Canada, to New Mexico, in the United States. <br />The highest peak is Mount Elbert, in Colorado, which is 14,440 feet (4,401 meters) above sea level. <br />
  23. 23. Topographically, the Rockies are usually divided into five sections: <br /><ul><li>The Southern Rockies,
  24. 24. The Middle Rockies,
  25. 25. The Northern Rockies (all in the United States),
  26. 26. The Rocky Mountain of Canada (Canadian Rockies)</li></ul>The highest point of Canadian Rockies is Mount Robson, 3954m.<br /><ul><li> The Brooks Range in Alaska. * (Mt. Chamberlin 2749m)</li></ul>*(Many do not consider the Brooks Range to be part of the Rockies)<br />The Wyoming Basin, the system's principal topographic break, is sometimes considered a sixth section. <br />
  27. 27. The plateaus of Western mountain<br /><ul><li> The Colorado Plateau ranges from 5000 to 7000 feet in elevation. It covers 130,000 square miles.
  28. 28. The Colorado Rivers drains the 90% of the plateau that carved the beautiful Grand Canyon.</li></li></ul><li>The Grand Canyon:<br /><ul><li>Length: 446 km
  29. 29. Width: 29 km
  30. 30. Average Depth: 1600 m
  31. 31. State: Arizona</li></li></ul><li>Columbia Plateau<br />It covers portions of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Nevada, & a small piece of NE California. <br /><ul><li>Area Covered : 175,000 square miles.
  32. 32. Thickness: 5000m approx
  33. 33. Deposited in the Miocene as a continuous basalt flow.</li></li></ul><li>The Columbian Plateau<br />
  34. 34. Apart from these, there are several other plateaus and basins included within this physiographic region. They are:<br /><ul><li> Thompson plateau
  35. 35. Okanagan plateau
  36. 36. Shuswap Highland
  37. 37. Quesnel Highland
  38. 38. Fraser Plateau
  39. 39. Nechako Plateau</li></li></ul><li>The Great Basin<br />The highest point is Mt. Whitney, 4421 m<br />The lowest point is in the Death Valley national park, called Badwater Basin (-83m).<br />Two important cities in this area are Reno and Salt Lake City.<br />
  40. 40. The Pacific Coast Range<br />It is a series of mountain range stretching from Alaska to Central Mexico. The Canadian Section of this coast range is called the Canadian Cordilleras.<br />
  41. 41. The important ranges of the pacific coast are:<br /><ul><li> St. Elias mountain (Mt. Logan, 5959m)
  42. 42. Coast range (Mount Waddington, 4019)
  43. 43. Insular Mountain , Vancouver (Golden Hinde, 2196m)
  44. 44. Olympic Mountain, (Mt. Olympus, 2427m)
  45. 45. Cascade Range (Mt. Rainier, 4392m)
  46. 46. Oregon Coast range (Mary’s Peak, 1250m)
  47. 47. California Coast Range
  48. 48. Sierra Nevada (Mt. Whitney, 4421m)</li></li></ul><li>The Interior lowlands & plains<br />
  49. 49. Great Plains<br />It lies in the eastern side of the Rockies, stretching from Texas to Arctic region of Canada. Some considers it beyond the Rio Grande river in Mexico. It is around 3200 km long and 800 km wide. <br />The Canadian section is often known as Prairies.<br />One of the important rivers of this area is Missouri. <br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52. The Gulf Coastal Plains<br />The included states are Texas, Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida. <br />There are 15 metropolitan areas within the gulf coast region.<br />
  53. 53. The Atlantic Coastal Plains consisting off Georgia, North and South Carolina , Virginia up to Boston.<br />
  54. 54. Deserts<br />Great Basin Desert<br />Mojave Desert<br />Chihuahuan desert<br />Sonoran Desert (largest)<br />