Global terrorism

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  • 1. Global Terrorism: Genesis, Issues and Dimension Presented By Dr Amiya K. Samanta
  • 2. Historical Roots of Terrorism Murder as a legitimate method of ending tyranny and misrule. Seneca: No sacrifice is as pleasing to the Gods as the blood of tyrants. Secret killings are not terrorism by themselves but they are unavoidable part of terrorism.
  • 3. SICARI : JEWISH SECRET KILLERS AGAINST THE ROMAN CONQUERERS OF PALESTINE. ASSASINS OF PERSIA :HASSIS EATERS OF THE 10 TH AND 11 TH CENTURY JOINED CRUSADE TO KILL. THUGEES OF INDIA : NOT TERRORISTS THOUGH THEY CREATED WIDESPREAD TERROR.
  • 4. MODERN TERRORISM BORN IN THE WAKE OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT AND THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. BIRTH OF INDIVIDUAL AND THE SPIRIT OF LIBERTY, EQUALITY AND FRATERNITY. SANS-CULLATS AND THEIR “REGIME DE LA TERREUR” IN 1793. M. ROBESPIORRIE: TERROR IS NOTHING OTHER THAN JUSTICE PROMPT,SEVERE AND INFLEXIBLE”
  • 5. BURK DESCRIBED JACOBIN RULE AS ‘REIGN OF TERROR’ AND TERRORISM POPULAR IN HIS BOOK. NAPOLEON’S EMPIRE EVOKED SPIRIT OF RESISTENCE. UNDERGROUND ORGANISATIONS FORMED. ITALY: CARBONARI (1810) GERMANY: TUGENBUND OR LEAGUE OF VIRTUE. FRANCE:SOCIETIES DE FAMILIES ALL UNDERGROUND ORGANISATIONS.
  • 6. ANARCHISM: PIERRE J. PROUDHON (1809-1865): ABOLITION OF PRIVATE PROPERTY AND CENTRALISED STATE. MICHAEL BAKUNIN (1814-1876):THE PASSION FOR DESTRUCTION IS ALSO A CREATIVE PASSION.BAKUNIN and S. NECHEV FOUNDED NARODNAYA VOLLYA . (People’s will). MAIN TARGET: HIGH OFFICIALS. CZAR ALEXANDER KILLED IN 1881 FOLLOWED BY MANY .
  • 7. Nationalists adopted Anarchist ideology and method in liberation movement. Anarchists became part of the Russian revolutionary movement—Lenin used it for fighting counter revolution, and Trotsky wrote that terrorism should be used for overthrowing bourgeois governments. Gradually terrorism became a part of the socialist revolutionary movement. Mao ze dong added the technique of guerrilla war---later on modified by Fidel Castro and Che Guevara.Carlos Marighella added the idea of ‘urban guerrilla’
  • 8. Indians experience: Terrorism from the preIndependence period-revolutionaryterrorists. After independence Left terrorism in Telengana and Bengal. From the mid-sixties ethnic terrorism in the North East: the Nagas and the Mizos armed revolt for independence. Gradually Manipur, Assam, Tripura were engulfed by separatist violence. Mizo issue settled in 1986. Problems in other states in spite of interim settlements are still simmering.
  • 9. North Eastern terrorism had received support and shelter from China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, etc. yet they had targeted the Government of India and fought against its agencies. They are ethnic-nationalist in character and have no international dimension.
  • 10. Latin American terrorism aimed at national liberation and as such confined within the national frontiers though they used to take help from abroad. Che-Guevara in the late 1960’s left Cuba to become an international revolutionary and died in Bolivia where he tried to wage a guerrilla war. The concept of World revolution is ingrained in Marxist ideology, though Marxist abhors terrorism. In the 1960’s groups like ‘Red Brigade’ in Italy “Red Army” group in Japan were Marxist terrorist groups attacking mostly national targets abroad. Even small groups like Baader Meinhoff group in Germany used to operate beyond the national frontier.
  • 11. In the 1960’s groups like ‘Red Brigade’ in Italy “Red Army” group in Japan were Marxist terrorist groups attacking mostly national targets abroad. Even small groups like Baader Meinhoff group in Germany used to operate beyond the national frontier.
  • 12. Contending Religions : Terrorism became international when Cuba’s relations with USA, after the missile crisis in 1962, worsened. Hijacking of airliners started in 1967, and it was soon taken up by other Middle East countries. Palestinian terrorism grew out of the Palestinian resistance movement against Israel. Starting with PLO, other more aggressive terrorist groups came up in the Middle East. But their immediate target was Israel and their objective and character were secular.
  • 13. CHRISATINITY: The most popular religion in the world (33%) and the one with historical record of violence, much of it in-fighting and aggression. A person becomes Christian by being born again (Conservatives), baptized (Protestants and Catholics), reciting the Apostles’ creed (Catholics), or having a personal relationship with Jesus (Liberals). Eastern Orthodoxy rejects the Apostles’ creed. The strongest bond involves interpretation of the New Testament, although Fundamentalists believe the Bible is inerrant and not subject to modern interpretation.
  • 14. ISLAM: The worlds’ second largest (20%) and fastest growing religions. The word “Islam”, is derived from “salam” meaning peace or submission. HINDUISM: The worlds third largest (13%) religion and oldest organized one. BUDDHISM: The worlds’ forth largest (6%) religion founded by Buddha. The term Buddha means enlightened. In Buddhism there is no God, Savior, heaven or hell, only a state of “Nirvana”. JUDAISM: Not one of the worlds’ largest (0.2%) religions but one of the most influential because of money and derivative political patronage.
  • 15. SIKHISM : Sikhism is a synthesis between Islam and Hinduism that rejects elitism and cherishes ceremonial weapons they constitute about 2% of Indian Population. Source: Prof. Huntington’s book (1996), Clash of Civilization.
  • 16. Shift to Terrorism 1. Israel's continued aggression and Western countries’ patronage to Israel was construed as Jew-Christian conspiracy to dominate the Islamic heartland, and weaken the Muslims. 2. American intervention in Afghanistan after its occupation by the Soviet Russia, primarily to checkmate the Soviets and to protect American’s economic interest.
  • 17. 3. CIA’s plan of guerrilla operations in Afghanistan using Pakistan as a base. Money and material (weapons) were supplied by CIA aplenty, along with training expertise. Appeal was sent all Islamic countries for volunteers who could fight to safeguard the religious against a non-religious demonic foe, i.e., communists. Muzahidin’s of the Islamic World in Asia and Africa.
  • 18. 3. CIA’s plan of guerrilla operations in Afghanistan using Pakistan as a base. Money and material (weapons) were supplied by CIA aplenty, along with training expertise. Appeal was sent all Islamic countries for volunteers who could fight to safeguard the religious against a non-religious demonic foe, i.e., communists. Muzahidin’s of the Islamic World in Asia and Africa.
  • 19. 4. Thus it was as a part of American strategy to fight Soviet Russia in Afghanistan that a non-religious struggle was turned into a struggle of the religious fanatics against a so-called atheist regime with a view to safeguarding Islam
  • 20. There are four signs of a dangerous religious group: (1) apocalyptic thinking, or eschatology: the world is coming to an end, true believers will enjoy unique rewards at end time; (2) charismatic leadership: leader dominates the follower spiritually, emotionally, and sexually; (3) paranoia and demonisation of outsiders, accompanied by intentional isolation within a cloistered community; (4) preparations of a defensive nature, usually indicated by a build up of guns, poisons, and/or weapons of mass destruction.
  • 21. T here are 57 separate nation-states with Islam as the official religion or a substantial population of Muslims. These nations formed a group: Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC) which has declared ‘there’s no such thing as separation of church and state’. There is even no such thing as a secular religion, like the official Church of England religion in Great Britain. There appears to be three schools of Muslim thought on the subject.
  • 22. 1.The majority group believes that it is the sacred mission of Islam to rule the world by use of the sword if necessary. 2.Another group accepts cohabitation with other religions as long as Islam is the world’s pre-eminent religion. 3.A third group, the moderates, advocates co-existence primarily because of the economic benefits it brings.
  • 23. Difference between political/ethnic and religious terrorists 1. World is a political culture 1, Separated into good and evil 2.Killing is sad necessity 2. A sacramental act 3.Violence limited by values 3. Indiscriminate 4.Speak for Group 4. For God 5. Influence wider people 5.None 6.Gretest good for greatest number 6.Greatest good for self 7 Enemies degraded 7. Enemies demonized
  • 24. The area known as Palestine is an ancient land which has always been populated by Arab Muslims, Arab Christians, and Arab Jews. In 1917, the British promised to help create a Jewish “national home” in Palestine. Arab protests began in 1920. In 1919 there were 568,000 Muslims, 74,000 Christians, and 58,000 Jews in Palestine. Fifteen thousand Jews a year immigrated during Hitler’s rise to power, and some 100,000 death camp survivors came later. Today, there are 1,091,000 Muslims, 614,000 Jews, and 146,000 Christians in Palestine. Wars have been fought in 1948-49, 1956, 1967 (The Six day war), 1973-74(The Yom Kippur War), and 1982 between Israel and the Arab states.
  • 25. The current conflict centres on two Israeli – controlled territories. The West Bank has the largest percentage of Arab Muslims, and the conflict there revolves around the status of Jerusalem (the center of three great religions). The Gaza Strip is another Muslim area where the intifadah (grass roots uprising) began, and refugee camp conditions are worse than in the West Bank.
  • 26. The religious backdrop to the situation is heavily mixed with anti – U.S. sentiment, where the U.S. is seen as supporting Israel because of American Oil Interests. Further, the U.S. is seen as being responsible for militarising the region (the middle east is the most militarised region in the world) and propping up corrupt Arab governments
  • 27. Afghanistan and Pakistan region :another epicenter of terrorism. 1. Taliban-strong base in Afghanistan 2. Growing Talibanaisation pf Pakistan 3. Pak effort to keep off India from Afghan, 4. American withdrawl from Afghanistan, 5. Presence of Osama and Al Queda
  • 28. STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION OF GLOBAL TERRORISM 1. Predominantly religiously motivated, but there are ethno-nationalist groups with transnational operation areas. From 1990onwards the influence become more and more religious. Groups like Hamas, Hezbulla assumed pan-Islamic religious character. 2. Islamic terrorist outfits,sidelining their ethno-nationalist objective become global on pan-Islamic sentiment. But networking is a difficult task. Al-Qaida did it in cooperation with national – religious groups like GIA in Algeria, Jemaah Islamya in Indonesia, Abn-Sayayaf in Philippines, Lasker-e-Toiba in Pakistan etc. there are reports of adhoc cooperation with influential individuals too.
  • 29. 3. Lack of a central authority, and clear hierarchy is another characteristic. No military style leadership only a loose political, ideological framework. A campaign against America and Israel and their supporters, revitalization of religious values, establishment of an Islamic Empire, a Taliban-Style caliphate-state in response to Western effort to impose their democratic frame work, thus they mobilize support of parts of the population of certain countries.
  • 30. 4. So there is no need to focus to on limited targets. The victims are not targets. The Eleven September incident, at a cost of 19 suicide attackers and approx. $ 5 lakhs killed 3000 civilians, and material damaged of $ 40 billions. Economic damage is incalculable. One percent decrease in world economic growth. The Bali bombing has reduced income from tourism by 50%. Increasing shift to soft targets. The victims are not targets. They are more a part communication strategy to convey: i. The Government is not capable of giving security. ii. Tourists, foreign investors should avoid the country. iii. War against terrorism is a wild goose chase as they can select from large number of targets.
  • 31. GLOBAL GROUPS 1 Al Queda 2. Hizbul Mijahidin 3. Harkat ul Ansar 4. Laskar-e Taiba 5.Hizbolla 6. Hamas INDIAN GROUPS 1. Huji, 2. SIMI 3. Indian Mujahidin 4.. Avinaba Bharat etc
  • 32. Indian Terrorist Groups 1. Ethnic Terrorists: Assam, Manipur, Nagalamnd, Tripura, Mizoram 2. Religious Terrorists: Sikh Terrorism, Islamic Terrorism, Hindu Terrorism 3. Socio-economic revolutionary terrorism: CPI- Maoist etc
  • 33. THANK YOU