Geography of europe1
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16 March 2011 Geography Lecture Notes

16 March 2011 Geography Lecture Notes

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Geography of europe1 Presentation Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2. Physiography of Europe :
    • 1. Western Upland 2. Alpine System
    • 3. European Lowland 3. Central Upland
  • 3. Western Upland
    • Geologically the Western Upland is made up of ancient rock.
    • Most of the landform it this area is carved by glacier action.
    • The included region within this particular physiography region are Scandinavia, Scotland, Iceland, Ireland Brittany and Portugal.
    • Fjords are one of the important characteristics of this region.
    • Fjords are the coastal submerged glacial valleys, commonly found in Norway and other Scandinavian countries.
  • 4. A Fjord:
  • 5.
    • The highest point of Scandinavian mountain is Gatdhopiggen (2469m).
    • The Highest point of Kjolen Mountain is Kebnekaise (2120m)
    • Meseta Central is also a part of the western upland. It comprises of the central part of Spain.
    • The highest peak of Meseta Central is Pico Almanzor (2592m)
    • The highest point the Scotland/Ireland part of the upland is Ben Nevis (1347m)
  • 6. European Lowland:
    • The European lowland is one of the most extensive and prominent physiographic division of Europe.
    • It includes Germany, Poland, The Netherlands, Denmark, France, Belgium and the Baltic States.
    • The European lowlands are very rich is natural resources like coal, natural gas, potash. Iron ore, salt etc.
    • This regions is the most densely populated area of the Continent.
    • It is the largest cultivated region of the continent.
    • The region is again subdivided into:
      • The North European plain
      • The East European Plain
  • 7. The North European Plain
    • The terrain is once glaciated during Pleistocene period.
    • The elevation of this plain ranges from 0 – 200m above MSL.
    • Consists of Belgium, Netherland, Denmark, Poland and a part of Czech Republic.
    • The elevation of the plain is lowest in Belgium & Netherland and therefore they are known as Low Countries .
    • Some major rivers of the continent drains this plain. Such as Vistula, Oder, Rhine, Elbe etc.
    **Sometimes parts of eastern England is also treated as a part of NEP
  • 8. The Polder Land
    • The polder lands are the low lying areas that is once transgressed by sea and now are enclosed by embankments known as Dikes.
    • This is very common in Netherland. It is also found in Belgium, France & Germany.
  • 9. A Dike in Netherland
  • 10. The Eastern European Plain
  • 11.
    • It is the largest plain segment of the continent.
    • The average elevation of the pain is 170m.
    • It includes the countries of Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, Moldova and European part of Kazakhstan.
    • Some major physical features can be seen within the plain. They are Timan Ridge, Valdai Hills, Baltic uplands, Central Russian Upland, Volga Upland etc.
    • The major river draining this plains are Volga, Dnieper, Don, Ural , Pechora, Oka, Vistula and Kama.
    • The highest point of this plain is Valdai Hills. (347m)
  • 12. The Central Upland
    • The Central Upland region of the Europe is less rugged than the mountainous regions.
    • Geologically, it is one of the oldest physiographic regions of Europe.
    • The region contains the majority of the Europe’s Coalfield and therefore economically very important to the continent.
    • Countries covered by the upland are France, Germany, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Belgium and Parts of Poland & Austria.
    • The region played and important role in Europe’s industrial Revolution as well a Agrarian revolution.
  • 13. Alpine System
    • It is the largest mountain system in the continent.
    • This mountain is very recent in their origin and were formed during the Tertiary period.
    • Alps was formed because of the collision between the African & European plates.
    • Cover most of Switzerland, Austria, & parts of Italy and France.
    • The Alps are classified into two important parts:
      • The Western Alps
      • The Eastern Alps
  • 14. Alps Mts. Pyrennes Mts. Apennines Mts. Dinaric Alps Carpathian Mts. Caucasus Mts. Ural Mts. Mt. Etna ^ Mt. Vesuvius ^ Mt. Olympus ^
  • 15.
    • The highest peak of the Alps is Mont Blanc (4807m)
    • The longest glacier of the Alps is the Aletsch Glacier (23.6km), in Switzerland.
    • The Alps are very high mountains with rugged plateaus characterized by steep slopes.
    • The Alps, Pyrenees, Apennines, Dinaric Alps and the Carpathians are the part of the great European Alpine system.
    • There are many active volcanoes in this regions (Southern Europe) like Mt. Etna, Mt. Vesuvius etc.
  • 16. Regions of Europe
  • 17. Northern Peninsulas Jutland Peninsula Scandinavian Peninsula
  • 18. Southern Peninsulas Iberian Peninsula Italian Peninsula Balkan Peninsula AnatoleanPeninsula Crimean Peninsula
  • 19. Mediterranean Sea North Sea Atlantic Ocean Baltic Sea Black Sea AegeanSea Adriatic Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Bay of Biscay Strait of Gibraltar Dardanelles Strait Arctic Ocean English Channel Caspian Sea Water Bodies
  • 20. The Ural Mountains
    • The highest point of the Ural Mountains is Mt. Narodnaya (1895m).
    • It is approximately 2500 km long.
    • The Central part of the Urals Mountain is very low, where the highest peak measures 994m.
    • Karst Topography can be seen in the western flank of the Ural mountains.
    • It is rich in various kinds of minerals Gold, Platinum, Magnetite, Chalcopyrite etc.
    • Semi precious stones like Amethyst, Emerald, Diamond etc. are also found in this region.
  • 21. Carpathians:
    • It is approximately 1500km long.
    • More than half of this mountains in in Romania and the rest of it lies in Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine, Hungary & Serbia.
    • Cities of Bratislova, Zilina, Kosice, Brasov etc are located in this region.
    • It is separated from the Dinaric Alps by the Great Hungarian Plain, which is also known as Pannonian Plain.
  • 22. Pyrenees
    • Highest point of this mountain is Pico de Aneto (3404 m).
    • It is made up of Granite, Gneiss & Limestone.
    • It forms a natural border between France & Spain, thus separating the Iberian peninsula from the main continental Europe.