Sesi 04 km capture & codify

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Sesi 04 km capture & codify

  1. 1. KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE & CODIFICATION CHAPTER 4 Kimiz Dalkir 2005 The material used in producing this presentation derived from the book. Several examples added to enrich the student’s understanding Please acknowledge the Authors KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE & CODIFICATION
  2. 2. THE OBJECTIVE Mengenal istilah dan konsep yang digunakan dalam mempelajari & mengkodifikasi pengetahuan Menjelaskan teknik yang digunakan untuk mempelajari pegetahuan tacit dari sumber utama. Menetapkan peran dan tanggung jawab selama proses pembelajaran dan kodifikasi Menjelaskan pendekatan taksonomi yang digunakan untuk mengkalsifikasikan pengetahuan 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 2
  3. 3. PREFACE  Pembahasan mengenai cara menangkap pengetahuan dan menyusunnya dengan rapi akan menggunakan siklus KM terintegrasi  Knowledge capture/creating  Knowledge sharing & dissemination  Knowledge acquisition & application  Kita menangkap pengetahuan tacit, kemudian disusun menjadi pengetahuan explicit  Differences between capture (of existing knowledge) and create knowledge (new knowledge)  Capturing is not only about technology 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 3
  4. 4. PREFACE 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 4
  5. 5. PREFACE 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 5
  6. 6. PREFACE Perwujudan dari sumber pengetahuan organisasi (organization memory) adalah: Pengetahuan adalah harta intelektual yang akan berkurang nilainya & kurang berharga jika tidak dipelajari dengan tepat Knowledge is the only sustainable competitive advantage 09 Nopember 2013 • Employee experiences • Tangible data • Knowledge stores inside the company • It has to be spent/used, in order to be valued • It had to be protected, cultivated, shared • The key is to transform the individual knowledge to organization knowledge then to disseminate KM Teaching - TELKOM University 6
  7. 7. PREFACE  To compete effectively, your organization should be like these 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 7
  8. 8. PREFACE  Do not bring a knife in a gun fight 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 8
  9. 9. PREFACE  Organization need to possess any knowledge which has value to them in order to increase its agility & ability, and not just the necessary knowledge for current use but also for the future development  It must possess ;  Learning ability  Skills to apply  Willingness and courage to learn and to apply 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 9
  10. 10. TACIT KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE  Individual inside the firms play critical role in acquiring firms knowledge  The firms also play significant role for individual knowledge  New knowledge – exploration  Existing knowledge - exploitation  Capturing technique using experts system,  Gathering know-how from experts so it can perform like one  Using questionnaire, interview, surveys, observations, talk aloud 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 10
  11. 11. TACIT KNOWLEDGE CAPTURE 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 11
  12. 12. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group  Transformation of valuable expertise from knower (expert/document) to knowledge repository  Reducing a vast volume of content from diverse domains/sourcdes into a precise, easily useable sets of facts & rules (ex: Reporter, journalist, writer)  Expert system (Knowledge Based System):  Knowledge engineer interview the experts  Produce conceptual model of the critical knowledge  Translate the model into computer-executable  The goal is to extract & render explicit procedural knowledge that comprise know-how 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 12
  13. 13. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group  Procedural knowledge, comprise special know-how     How to do things How the diagnose How to make decision How to prescribe  Declarative knowledge, knowing ‘what’  The major task of knowledge engineer ;  Analyzing information & knowledge flow  Working with expert to optain information  Design & implement expert system 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 13
  14. 14. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group  The experts responsibiliy ;  Explain critical knowledge & know-how  Introspective & patient  Effective communication skills  3 approaches to knowledge acquisition which have to use simultaneously (Parsaye, 1998) ;     Interviewing experts Learning by being told Learning by observation Learning by doing (extra) 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 14
  15. 15. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Interviewing experts  Structure interview  Interviewer must have strong communication & conceptual skills, and also know the subject  Using open (encourage free response) & close questions (limited) 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 15
  16. 16. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Interviewing experts  4 techniques in structure interview Paraphrasing, restating of the perceived meaning of the speaker’s message using own words • The goal is to check the accuracy with which the message was conveyed and understood Clarifying, lets the expert know that the message was not immediately understandable • The goal is the expert clarify the original message so that the interviewer gets a better idea of the intended message 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 16
  17. 17. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Interviewing experts Summarizing, helps the interviewer compile discrete pieces of information and form a knowledge acquisition session into a meaningful whole • The goal is to confirm that the expert’s message was heard and understood correctly. Reflecting feelings, mirrors back to the speaker the feelings that seem to have been communicated. • The goal is to clear the air of some emotional reaction or negative impact of the message 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 17
  18. 18. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Interviewing experts  Stories Telling of a happening or a connected series of happenings, whether true or fictitious (Denning, 2001) An organizational story can be defined as a detailed narrative of past management actions, employee interactions, or other key events that have occurred and that have been communicated informally knowledge-sharing stories need to be authentic, believable, and compelling Read the storytelling of IBM on page 87-88, handwritten translation and submit next week 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 18
  19. 19. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Learning by being Told  Interviewees express & refine their knowledge  Knowledge engineer clarifiy & validate  Tools ;  Task analysis (job sepcifications & descriptions)  Process & protocol analysis (the way knower apply their knowledge)  Simulation (model, software, maps, practices)  09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 19
  20. 20. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Learning by observations  Two expertise  Motor-based (operating, conducting)  Cognitive expertise (conceptual, analysis)  Present the problem, scenario, case to be solved by the experts  Knowledge can’t be observed, behaviour & expertise can  Using tools such audio & video could increase the successfulness of the process  Screen capture, props 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 20
  21. 21. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Other methods ;  Ad hoc sessions.  Road maps.  Learning histories, consists of (1) planning, (2) reflective interviews, (3) distillation, (4) writing, (5) validation, (6) dissemination 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 21
  22. 22. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Other methods ;  Action learning.  E-learning.  Conference  Guest speakers  Learning from others through business guest speakers and benchmarking against best practices. 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 22
  23. 23. TACIT CAPTURE in Individu/Group Hermawan Kartajaya Marketing horizontal Arif Partono Laporan Tugas Perkuliahan 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 23
  24. 24. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION PHASE 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 24
  25. 25. KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION PHASE Identification • Process of characterizing key problem aspects such as participants, resources, goals, and existing reference materials. Conceptualization • Specifying the key concepts and the key relationships among them in the form of a concept or knowledge map. Codification • Renders the validated content into an explicit form which then be more readily disseminated throughout the organization 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 25
  26. 26. TACIT CAPTURE in Organization 4 Major organizational knowledge acquisition (Malhotra, 2000)  Grafting  Migrations of knowledge between firms (merger, acquisition, alliances)  Vicarious learning  One firm observing other firm’s demonstration of techniques & procedures 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 26
  27. 27. TACIT CAPTURE in Organization 4 Major organizational knowledge acquisition (Malhotra, 2000)  Experential learning  Knowledge acquisition within the firm by doing & practising it, based on repetition of experiences  Refinement & improvement the process (single loop)  Inferential process  Learning within the firm thru interpretation of event, states, changes, outcomes  Deductive & experimental learning, establish causal links between actions & outcomes  Double loop  changing assumptions & frameworks 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 27
  28. 28. EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE CODIFICATION  Proses mengubah pengetahuan ke dalam bentuk tangible/eksplisit (dokumen/arsip) agar dapat disebarkan dgn lebih mudah & murah  Masalah terkait kualitas hasil kodifikasi ;      Keakuratan - Accuracy Understandability - pemahaman Accessibility - akses Currency – arti penting pengetahuan Credibility - kredibilitas  Mengapa harus dikodifikasi?  Easily understood, maintained, improved 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 28
  29. 29. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES Cognitive maps Decision tree Knowledge taxonomies Task analysis 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 29
  30. 30. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES Cognitive maps  Representation of the ‘mental model’ of a person knowledge  Provide good form of codified knowledge  Proses berpikir seseorang untuk mengartikan lingkungan mereka yang kompleks  Allow expert to construct knowledge mode 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 30
  31. 31. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES  Mental Model:  Beliefs, ideas, images, and verbal descriptions that we consciously or unconsciously form from our experiences and which (when formed) guide our thoughts and actions within narrow channels.  These perceived reality explain cause and effect to us, and lead us to expect certain results, give meaning to events, and predispose us to behave in certain ways.  Although mental models provide internal stability in a world of continuous change, they also blind us to facts and ideas that challenge or defy our deeply held beliefs.  They are, by their very nature, fuzzy and incomplete.  Everyone has different models (differ in detail from everyone else's) of the same concept or subject, no matter how common or simple. http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/mental-models.html 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 31
  32. 32. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES  Jay Wright Forrester defined mental models as:  The image of the world around us, which we carry in our head, is just a model. Nobody in his head imagines all the world, government or country. He has only selected concepts, and relationships between them, and uses those to represent the real system. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_model 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 32
  33. 33. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 33
  34. 34. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 34
  35. 35. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES Decision tree Ussualy in form of flowchart, 09 Nopember 2013 Compact & efficient KM Teaching - TELKOM University Support with alternate paths indicating the impact of different decision 35
  36. 36. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 36
  37. 37. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 37
  38. 38. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES Knowledge taxonomies  Konsep, dipandang sebagai satu kesatuan dari pengetahuan dan keahlian  Mengidentifikasi konsep utama  Menggambarkan pengaturan konsep pada suatu bidang ilmu tertentu  Menjelaskan saling ketergantungan pada satu konsep hirarkis  Semakin tinggi letak suatu konsep, semakin umum 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 38
  39. 39. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 39
  40. 40. CODIFICATION TECHNIQUES Knowledge taxonomies  Sorting techniques ;  Manual, automated  Sorting card, cluster analysis (method of producing classification from data that initially unclassified 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 40
  41. 41. CONCLUSION  Capturing knowledge is process of adding value to the original content (restructuring, rewritting)  Analysizing & reworking help clarify what organization know & what it need to know 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 41
  42. 42. CREDITS & INFORMATION  http://www.eknowledgecenter.com/articles/1010/1010.htm  http://www.ahg.com/absolutely%20knowledge%20management%20s ystem.htm  http://www.prescientdigital.com/articles/content-management/contentmanagement-in-a-knowledge-management-context/  http://www.lc-stars.com/knowledge.html  http://peterpaulperez.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/knowledgemanagement-in-the-call-center-industry/  http://www.ugc.edu.hk/tlqpr01/site/abstracts/098_hui.htm  http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/mifacility/activities/knowl edge.htm 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 42
  43. 43.  http://www.hcklab.org/research/knowledgemanagement/tacit-explicitknowledge.htm  http://www.cognitivedesignsolutions.com/KM/ExplicitTacit.htm  http://serbaserbikm.blogspot.com/2010/07/2-macam-tipe-knowledgeyaitu.html  http://www.systems-thinking.org/kmbh/kmbh.htm  http://www.kmnetwork.com/WhatIsKM.html  All figure are from Kimiz Dalkir, 2005, KM Theory & Practices 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 43
  44. 44. DRESSED 4 SUCCESS  Conduct a brief review after every class.  Complete the assigment on time.  Prepare and conduct the presentation seriously  Pay full attention about what the class discussed  Make notes to help understand the lecture.  Read & understand the main references/books  Look for the other lecture materials from other class  Keep 100% attendance 09 Nopember 2013 KM Teaching - TELKOM University 44

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