Sesi 03 km models
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Sesi 03 km models

on

  • 605 views

Knowledge Management Series

Knowledge Management Series

Statistics

Views

Total Views
605
Slideshare-icon Views on SlideShare
605
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
45
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Sesi 03 km models Sesi 03 km models Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 3 Kimiz Dalkir 2005 KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODELS
    • BASIC PARADIGMS  Knowledge is subjective, complex, and dynamic  It need a holistic KM approach  Need a measurement tools to assess the implementation progress  Knowledge should drive innovation on product, service, & systems 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 2
    • BASIC PARADIGMS DATA INFORMATION KNOWLEDGE 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 3
    • BASIC PARADIGMS 3 types of content to managed ;  Combination of experience, value, contextual information, & expert point of view, as an evaluation foundation to produce new experience and information - knowledge  Message in the form of document and audio visual information  A collection of objectives fact on an event - data 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 4
    • BASIC PARADIGMS  Davenport & Prusak, 1998  knowledge creation take place between & within human  Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995  knowledge is a dynamic human process of justifying personal belief toward the truth  Polanyi, 1966  tacit is a personal way of knowledge construction, affected by emotions  80/20 rules (80% tacit & 20% explicit)  Most of our knowledge reside in the mind of the knowers 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 5
    • BASIC PARADIGMS EXPLICIT Knowledge  Codified (arrange in a systematic code)  Formally expressed  Easy to be acquired, shared, stored, distributed  Book, audio video, graph, images, database  Stated using words and algorithm (set of rules to follow)  Contain a little/small knowledge 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 6
    • BASIC PARADIGMS TACIT Knowledge  Difficult to understand  Difficult to communicate  Difficult to translate or abstract  Personally  Root of all knowledge 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 7
    • BASIC PARADIGMS TACIT 15 September 2013 EXPLICIT KM 2013 - TELKOM University TACIT 8
    • KM MODELS  KM Models are the approaches which used by the organisation to collect, store, analyze, and use knowledge to build the advantages over their competitors. 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 9
    • KM MODELS Choo – Sense making model (1998) Von Krogh & Roos – Organizational Epistemology model (1995) • Epistemology  investigation of what distinguish justified belief from opinion Nonaka & Takeuchi - Knowledge spiral model (1995) Wiig – Build & Use Knowledge (1993) Boisot – I-Space model (1998) 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 10
    • KM MODELS – The Reason Represent a holistic approach to knowledge management (comprehensive and take into consideration people, process, organization, & technology dimensions). Reviewed, critiqued, and discussed extensively in the KM literature, by practitioners, academics, and researchers. Implemented and field tested with respect to reliability & validity 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 11
    • Von KROGH & ROOS  Model of Organizational Epistemology  Membedakan antara pengetahuan individu dan sosial  odel yang mempelajari pengetahuan dari asal, dasar, sifat & jenis pengetahuan  No knowledge without knower  Ada hubungan antara objek pengetahuan dengan orang yang memiliki pengetahuan (experts, experience user)  Cognitive perspective indicate that a cognitive system (human brain or computer) creates representation (model) of reality, & learning occurs when it manipulated 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 12
    • Van KROGH & ROOS  The cognitive epistemology approach     View organizational knowledge as self-organizing system Human transparent from outside information The brain is a machine based on logic and deduction Organization pick up or search information from environment 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 13
    • Van KROGH & ROOS  The connectionist approach  Knowledge is wholeness (brain is not sequentially process)  Information generated from environment & internally (thru familiarity/practice)  Knowledge reside in the mind of individual & in the connection between the individuals  Unbreakable bond between knowledge & those who absorb & make use of them 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 14
    • Van KROGH & ROOS Factor that prevent the successful KM ; (p.51)  Mind-set of individual  Communication in organization  Organizational structure  Relationship between member  Management of human resources (knowers) Knowledge Enabling  Organization activities that positively acknowledge the knowledge creation 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 15
    • Van KROGH & ROOS  The Illustration 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 16
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI  Knowledge Spiral Model  Knowledge forms, sharing, diffusion of knowledge needed to create or produce innovation  Study of japanese company key success in innovation base on tacit approach  One-ness of humanity, nature, mind, body, self, other  Individual involvement with object thru self-involvement & commitment to create knowledge 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 17
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI Knowledge creation process  Begin with individual, personnal, & private knowledge (researcher, manager, worker)  Translate into valuable, public, organizational knowledge  Continuously and occurs at all level in organization  In many cases, happen in unexpected & unplanned way 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 18
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI The creation of knowledge consist of social process between individual in which knowledge transformation is not simply unidirectional, but interactive & spiral Tacit, complex knowledge, developed and internalized by the knower over a long period of time, • Almost impossible to reproduce in a document or a database. • Terdiri dari rangkuman, paduan, dan koleksi pengetahuan yang melekat pada diri individu (Davenport & Prusack, 1998) 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 19
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI Tacit  tacit ; process of socialization Explicit  Tacit ; internalization 15 September 2013 Tacit  Explicit ; externalization Explicit  Explicit ; combination KM 2013 - TELKOM University 20
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 21
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI Socialization  Sharing knowledge thru social interaction  Discussion, exchange of thought, mentoring  Informal way (in a coffee shop, paking lot)  Rarely capture or written formally (remain tacit)  Easy & effective but limited way to create & share knowledge  Example ; knowledge day, brainstorming activitiy READ THE EXAMPLE IN THE TEXTBOOK – PAGES 54 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 22
    • Externalization  Convert tacit to explicit (visible form of tacit)  Need an intermediary to transform knowledge  Taped, recorded, written, drawn, made tangible  Need someone (something) that can interprete, extract, synthesize the idea into a concrete way (format, length, detail)  Once the knowledge materialize, the scope increased  Tangible  Wider audience can use, understand, & apply it  Easily share & leveraged  Example ; journalist 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University READ THE EXAMPLE IN THE TEXTBOOK – PAGES 55 NONAKA & TAKEUCHI 23
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI Combination  Combine pieces of explicit knowlegde into new form  Trend analysis, executive summary, review, new database  No new knowledge, just combining, complement  Concept are sorted & systematized  Example : preparing lecture material READ THE EXAMPLE IN THE TEXTBOOK – PAGES 55 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 24
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI Internalization  Diffusing & embedding newly acquired behaviour  Learning by doing  Convert or integrate shared or individual experiences into other individual mental model  Broaden, extend, reframe within their tacit base  Understand & learn from experiences, best practise  People, then do the job differently  Example : pool of customer complain & how to handling it READ THE EXAMPLE IN THE TEXTBOOK – PAGES 56 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 25
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI Knowledge Spiral  Knowledge creation is a dynamic & continous interaction between tacit & explicit  Show how organization articulate, organize, & systematize individual tacit knowledge  Continuous activity of knowledge flow, sharing, & conversion by individual, community, & organization  Using metaphore, model, & analogy in converting tacit  explicit  tacit its strengths is in its simplicity—both in terms of understanding the basic tenets of the model and in terms of being able to quickly internalize and apply the KM model 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 26
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 27
    • NONAKA & TAKEUCHI Enabling condition for organizational knowledge creation 15 September 2013 • Intention: an organization‘s aspiration to its goals • Autonomy: individuals act autonomously and involved in cross-functional self-organized teams. • Fluctuation & Creative Chaos: condition that stimulates the interaction between the organization & the external environment • Redundancy: existence of information that goes beyond the immediate operational requirements of organizational members; • Requisite Variety: internal diversity to match the variety and complexity of the environment, and to provide everyone in the organization with the fastest access to the broadest variety of necessary information KM 2013 - TELKOM University 28
    • CHOO MODEL  Sense Making Model  Stress on the importance of sense–making, knowledge creation, & decision making  Focus on how information elements are selected and subsequently fed into organizational actions 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 29
    • CHOO MODEL 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 30
    • CHOO MODEL Sense Making  Identify priorities & filter the information  Construct interpretations by exchange & negotiate information (within oneself)  Combine with previous experience 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 31
    • CHOO MODEL  Sense making consist of 4 integrated process (Weick, 2001) Ecological change (environtment) Enactment (construct, rearrange, clarify, single out) Selection (interpret & rationale changes) Retention (provide the organization with new experiences) 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 32
    • CHOO MODEL  Knowledge creating Viewed as the transformation of personal knowledge between individuals through dialogue, discourse, sharing, & storytelling. Directed by a knowledge vision of ―as is‖ (current situation) & ―to be‖ (future, desired state). Widens the spectrum of potential choices in decision making by providing new knowledge & new competencies. Feeds the decision-making process with innovative strategies that extend the organization‘s capability to make informed, rational decisions. 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 33
    • CHOO MODEL  Decision making Situated in rational decision-making models that are used to identify and evaluate alternatives by processing the information and knowledge collected to date. Bounded rationality  characterized by individual use of limited information analysis, evaluation and processing, shortcuts and rules of thumb (sometimes called heuristics), and ―satisficing‖ behavior, which means it may not be fully optimized but it is good enough. The strength of Choo KM model is the holistic treatment of key KM cycle processes extending to organizational decision making, which is often lacking in other theoretical KM approaches. This makes the Choo model one of the more ―realistic‖ or feasible models of KM, for the model represents organizational actions with ―high fidelity 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 34
    • AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION  Think for a while  Pick one of many important experiences in Ur life which require your decision making skills  What did you do  How did you think it over  What is the reason for Ur decision  How that decision affect Ur life afterward  Is it the right or wrong decision?  What you learned from the situation  Do U think it‘s worth to share as an valuable experience 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 35
    • WIIG MODEL  In order to be useful & valuable, knowledge must be organized, depending on what will the knowledge use for  Dimensions in Wiig model  Completeness - knowledge sources relevance & existance  Connectedness – relations between different knowledge object  Congruency – consistency between knowledge object (no inconsistency, no misunderstanding), facts, concepts, perspectives, values, judgments  Perspective & purpose – know something using dual dimension (purpose & perspective) to organize knowledge  Using semantic network to represent different perspective of the same knowledge content 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 36
    • WIIG MODEL 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 37
    • WIIG MODEL  Three level of knowledge  Public – explicit (book, cd, public information)  Shared expertise – held by knower & share at work  Personal – tacit, most complete from, unconciously use in daily life  Four types of knowledge     Factual – data, measurement Conceptual – concept & perspective Expectational – hypothesis, judgement Methodological - reasoning, strategies, dec. making 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 38
    • WIIG MODEL 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 39
    • WIIG MODEL 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 40
    • WIIG MODEL 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 41
    • BOISOT I-SPACE MODEL  Information Space Model  Knowledge concept of an ‗information good‘  What an observer extract from data, based on their expectation or prior knowledge  Effective knowledge sharing require sender & receiver to share context & coding scheme  Propose 2 key points More easily data can be structured & converted into information, more diffusible Less data that has been so structured requires a shared context for its diffusion, the more diffusible it becomes 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 42
    • BOISOT I-SPACE MODEL I-Space Model  Data is structured & understood thru codification & abstraction  Codification      Arrange into a systematic code Creation of content categories More categories, less abstract Needs a shared context for its interpretation & implies face-toface interaction and spatial proximity (socialization) 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 43
    • BOISOT I-SPACE MODEL I-Space Model  Visualized in 3 dimensions  Codified – uncodified • Link to categorization & classification  Abstract – concrete • Link to knowledge creation thru analysis & understanding  Diffused – undiffused • Link to information access & transfer 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 44
    • 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 45
    • BOISOT I-SPACE MODEL Social Learning Cycle  Scanning  Problem solving  Abstraction  Diffusion  Absorption  Impacting Jelaskan pengertian dari masing2 siklus pembelajaran sosial tersebut. 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 46
    • COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM  Viable System Model  View the organization as an intelligence complex adaptive system  A system which can adapt intelligently  Consist of many independent agents that interact with one another  Their combined behaviour gives rises to complex adaptive phenomena  Self-organize, no overall authority that direct how the independent agent act 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 47
    • COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM  Organization that  Composed of a large number of self-organizing component,  Seeks to maximize its own specific goals  Operate according to the rule & contect of relationships with other component & external world  Take from environment, transform it into higher value outputs 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 48
    • COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM  Key process in ICAS model      Understanding Creating new ideas Solving problems Making decisions Take action to achieve desired results  Emphasize on individual knowledge worker with their competency, capacity, & learning  Leverage thru multiple networks 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 49
    • COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM 8 emergent characteristic 1. Organizational intelligent 2. Shared purpose 3. Selectivity 4. Optimum complexity 5. Permeable boundaries 6. Knowledge centricity 7. Flow 8. Multidimensionality 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 50
    • COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM The emergent characteristic  Result of nonlinear interactions, synergitic interaction, & self-organizing system  Serve to endow the organizations with internal capability to deal with the future unanticipated environment yet to be encountered 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 51
    • 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 52
    • CONCLUSION  KM encompass data, information, & knowledge (tacit & explicit)  Model Krogh & Roos used organizational epistemology approach & emphasize that knowledge resides in the mind of individual and in relation with others  Nonaka & Takeuchi focus on knowledge spiral that explain the transformation of tacit into explicit, then back again to tacit as the basis of innovation & learning  Choo & Weick‘s sense making approach focus on how information element fed into organization thru sense making, knowledge creating, & decision making 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 53
    • CONCLUSION  Wiig model based on principle in order to be useful & valuable, knowledge must organize thru semantic network, that is connected, congruent, & complete, and that has perspective & purpose  ICAS view organization as a living entity concern with independent existence & survival 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 54
    • SUMBER INFORMASI  http://www.eknowledgecenter.com/articles/1010/1010.htm  http://www.ahg.com/absolutely%20knowledge%20management%20s ystem.htm  http://www.prescientdigital.com/articles/content-management/contentmanagement-in-a-knowledge-management-context/  http://www.lc-stars.com/knowledge.html  http://peterpaulperez.wordpress.com/2011/04/18/knowledgemanagement-in-the-call-center-industry/  http://www.ugc.edu.hk/tlqpr01/site/abstracts/098_hui.htm  http://www.ilo.org/public/english/employment/mifacility/activities/knowl edge.htm 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 55
    •  http://www.hcklab.org/research/knowledgemanagement/tacit-explicitknowledge.htm  http://www.cognitivedesignsolutions.com/KM/ExplicitTacit.htm  http://serbaserbikm.blogspot.com/2010/07/2-macam-tipe-knowledgeyaitu.html  http://www.systems-thinking.org/kmbh/kmbh.htm  http://www.kmnetwork.com/WhatIsKM.html 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 56
    • DRESSED 4 SUCCESS  Conduct a brief review after every class.  Complete the assigment on time.  Prepare and conduct the presentation seriously  Pay full attention about what the class discussed  Make notes to help understand the lecture.  Read & understand the main references/books  Look for the other lecture materials from other class  Keep 100% attendance 15 September 2013 KM 2013 - TELKOM University 57